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AS+NCGT/COAL
« on: January 29, 2017, 07:20:50 pm »
World Coal Deposits
http://www.goldendragonca...-Map-of-Coal-Deposits.png

Coal beds and Noah’s Flood
http://creation.com/coal-beds-and-noahs-flood

by Andrew Snelling

Water sprayed on an exposed seam settles dust and prevents a fire hazard with explosive coal dust.

Coal beds formed from plant debris catastrophically buried by Noah’s Flood about 4,500 years ago? Evolutionists believe that the material in coal beds accumulated over millions of years in quiet swamp environments like the Everglades of Florida. Evolutionary geologists often object to the creationists’ explanation of coal bed formation, so what are their arguments and what answers do we give to them?

Some geologists have claimed that even if all the vegetation on earth was suddenly converted to coal this would make a coal deposit only 1-3% of the known coal reserves on earth. Hence at least 33 Noah’s Floods are needed, staggered in time, to generate our known coal beds. Therefore a single Noah’s Flood cannot be the cause of coal formation.

This argument is based on valid estimates of the volume of vegetation currently on today’s land surfaces. But it assumes that at least 12 metres of vegetation are needed to produce one metre of coal (eg. Holmes, 1965). Modern research shows that less than two metres of vegetation are needed to make one metre of coal. Some observations made by coal geologists working in mines (e.g. the compaction of coal around clay ‘balls’ included in some coal beds) suggest that the compaction ratio is probably much less than 2:1 and more likely very close to 1:1. These observations destroy this objection to coal bed formation during Noah’s Flood, since instead of today’s vegetation volume only compacting down to 1-3% of known coal reserves, today’s vegetation volume would compact down to at least 30% of the known coal reserves. But where did the remainder come from?

Two other factors are very relevant here. The evolutionists’ argument based on the volume of vegetation on today’s land surface ignores the fact that 60% of today’s land surface is covered by deserts or only sparse vegetation. In addition, there are the vast icy wastes of Antarctica beneath which are rock layers containing thick coal beds. So if all of today’s land surface was covered with the lush vegetation suggested by Antarctica’s coal beds, then the volume of such vegetation on today’s land surface would be sufficient to produce at least another 50% of the known coal reserves. So what about the remaining 10%?
But this all assumes that the area of land surface available for vegetation growth has always been the same.

But this all assumes that the area of land surface available for vegetation growth has always been the same. This assumption simply is not correct. In Genesis 1:9-10 we are told of God’s work at the outset of the third day of Creation Week, when He gathered the waters (which initially covered the entire globe) into one place so as to let the dry land appear. God called the waters ‘seas’ (plural), but they were gathered together in one place. This implies that, instead of land masses surrounded by seas (today’s world), in the pre-Flood world there was one sea surrounded by one large land mass. The language used in Scripture also implies that there was probably more land area then on the face of the globe than ‘seas’ (see Taylor, 1982). This being the case therefore, it is likely that there was at least twice as much land area available for vegetation growth in the pre-Flood world compared with today’s world (i.e. at least 60% land versus 40% sea in the pre-Flood world compared with today’s roughly 30% land versus 70% oceans). If then this vast land area was under lush vegetation, then we can account for 100% of the known coal reserves.
A better way

But there is another way of comparing vegetation growth and volume with the known coal beds, a way that is probably far more reliable, and that is by comparing the stored energy in vegetation with that in coal. International authority on solar energy, Mary Archer, has stated that the amount of solar energy falling on the earth’s surface in 14 days is equal to the known energy of the world’s supply of fossil fuels. She also said that only . 03 % of the solar energy arriving at the earth’s surface is stored as chemical energy in vegetation through photosynthetic processes. (Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 5, 1975, p. 17) From this information we can estimate how many years of today’s plant growth would be required to produce the stored energy equivalent in today’s known coal reserves:

    Divide 14 days by .03%
    i.e. (14 x 100)/.03 days equals 46,667 days or 128 years of solar input via photosynthesis.

So we can conclude that only 128 years of plant growth at today’s rate and volume is all that is required to provide the energy equivalent stored in today’s known coal beds! There was, of course, ample time between Creation and Noah’s Flood for such plant growth to occur—1600 years, in fact.
Conclusion

Either way, whether by comparison of energy stored in vegetation growth and in coal (i.e. the time factor), or by vegetation growth, climate, geography, land area and compaction ratio (i.e. the volume factor), we can show conclusively that the evolutionist’s objection is totally invalid. There was ample time, space and vegetation growth for one Noah’s Flood to produce all of today’s known coal beds.
References

Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Nelson, London.
Taylor, C., 1982. ‘Linguistics, Genesis and Evolution, Part Three: the Seas’, Creation 4(4):49–50, 1982; creation.com/linguistics-and-genesis.

-----

New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 4, December 2016. www.ncgt.org 615

Late Permian coal formation under Boreal conditions along the shores of the Mongol-Transbaikalian seaway
Per Michaelsen
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development,
Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam per.michaelsen@tdt.edu.vn

In general the Late Permian sediments strike NNE-SSW and dips towards the ESE at c. 35-40° (higher in places around faults). Structural deformation appears to be relatively limited along the subdued sandstone strike ridges (Figure 2).
The study area is characterized by close spaced epeirogenic jointing, resulting in poor, very fragmented and sporadic outcrops. In this context this contribution is primarily based on sub-surface data.
Table 2. Overview of drillhole database with location, hole type, total depth and net coal thickness. Projection: UTM Zone 49, Northern Hemisphere (WGS 84).
...................Total
Hole# UTM ... UTM  Depth Hole TotalNet RL
.(Northing)(Easting)(m)..Type Coal(m)..(m)
DH01 299255 5229880 114. Core 0.1.... 1406
DH02 299189 5230915 300. Core 14.7... 1428
DH03 298895 5227435 103. Core 0...... 1462
DH04 297102 5228183 164.5Core 6.67... 1442
DH05 299313 5231721 39.. Core 2.2.... 1416
DH06 299310 5231740 40.. Core 1.8.... 1439
DH07 298739 5229489 57.2 Core 0...... 1438
DH08 296690 5228137 46.. Core 0.24... 1458
DH09 297053 5227705 40.. Core 12..... 1418
DH10 296821 5227648 54.5 Core 0.57... 1413
DH09R297069 5227712 56.. Core 19.45.. 1421
DH11 298461 5230197 32.5 Core 7...... 1455
DH12 297818 5227876 42.5 Core 0...... 1424
DH13 298295 5228056 8... Core 0...... 1416
DH13R298311 5228076 46.. Core 6.4.... 1413
DH14 296697 5227802 44.. Core 12.8... 1418
DH15 297650 5229100 35.. Core 2.5.... 1435
DH16 297147 5228384 30.. Core 2...... 1455
DH6R 299263 5231545 50.. Core 7.1.... 1405
DH17 298877 5230651 50.. Core 7.5.... 1419
DH18 297016 5228007 62.. Open(PCD)2.7 1431
DH19 297205 5228718 38.. Open(PCD)4.3 1439
DH20 298135 5229116 26.. Open(PCD)2.8 1450
DH21 298336 5227995 23.. Open(PCD)0.3 1416
DH22 298695 5228305 17.. Open(PCD)2.. 1441
DH23 298719 5228564 28.. Open(PCD)1.6 1430
DH24 297395 5227726 44.. Open(PCD)3.63 1430
DH25 297092 5227711 100. Core 21.98.. 1422
DH26 297089 5228013 150. Core 18.55.. 1427
DH27 296984 5227569 160. Core 18.34.. 1410
DH28 296735 5228000 110. Core 5.77... 1429
DH29 297720 5231800 150. Open(PCD)0.. 1510
DH30 299238 5231939 50.. Open(PCD)6.1 1426
DH31 299324 5231787 50.. Open(PCD)14.5 1420
DH32 299081 5231623 58.. Open(PCD)7.6 1404
DH33 299246 5231313 50.. Open(PCD)7.2 1410
DH34 297520 5228525 200. Open(PCD)8.4 1432
DH35 299326 5231790 35.. Open(PCD)5.6 1420

by Andrew Snelling

Water sprayed on an exposed seam settles dust and prevents a fire hazard with explosive coal dust.

Coal beds formed from plant debris catastrophically buried by Noah’s Flood about 4,500 years ago? Evolutionists believe that the material in coal beds accumulated over millions of years in quiet swamp environments like the Everglades of Florida. Evolutionary geologists often object to the creationists’ explanation of coal bed formation, so what are their arguments and what answers do we give to them?

Some geologists have claimed that even if all the vegetation on earth was suddenly converted to coal this would make a coal deposit only 1-3% of the known coal reserves on earth. Hence at least 33 Noah’s Floods are needed, staggered in time, to generate our known coal beds. Therefore a single Noah’s Flood cannot be the cause of coal formation.

This argument is based on valid estimates of the volume of vegetation currently on today’s land surfaces. But it assumes that at least 12 metres of vegetation are needed to produce one metre of coal (eg. Holmes, 1965). Modern research shows that less than two metres of vegetation are needed to make one metre of coal. Some observations made by coal geologists working in mines (e.g. the compaction of coal around clay ‘balls’ included in some coal beds) suggest that the compaction ratio is probably much less than 2:1 and more likely very close to 1:1. These observations destroy this objection to coal bed formation during Noah’s Flood, since instead of today’s vegetation volume only compacting down to 1-3% of known coal reserves, today’s vegetation volume would compact down to at least 30% of the known coal reserves. But where did the remainder come from?

Two other factors are very relevant here. The evolutionists’ argument based on the volume of vegetation on today’s land surface ignores the fact that 60% of today’s land surface is covered by deserts or only sparse vegetation. In addition, there are the vast icy wastes of Antarctica beneath which are rock layers containing thick coal beds. So if all of today’s land surface was covered with the lush vegetation suggested by Antarctica’s coal beds, then the volume of such vegetation on today’s land surface would be sufficient to produce at least another 50% of the known coal reserves. So what about the remaining 10%?
But this all assumes that the area of land surface available for vegetation growth has always been the same.

But this all assumes that the area of land surface available for vegetation growth has always been the same. This assumption simply is not correct. In Genesis 1:9-10 we are told of God’s work at the outset of the third day of Creation Week, when He gathered the waters (which initially covered the entire globe) into one place so as to let the dry land appear. God called the waters ‘seas’ (plural), but they were gathered together in one place. This implies that, instead of land masses surrounded by seas (today’s world), in the pre-Flood world there was one sea surrounded by one large land mass. The language used in Scripture also implies that there was probably more land area then on the face of the globe than ‘seas’ (see Taylor, 1982). This being the case therefore, it is likely that there was at least twice as much land area available for vegetation growth in the pre-Flood world compared with today’s world (i.e. at least 60% land versus 40% sea in the pre-Flood world compared with today’s roughly 30% land versus 70% oceans). If then this vast land area was under lush vegetation, then we can account for 100% of the known coal reserves.
A better way

But there is another way of comparing vegetation growth and volume with the known coal beds, a way that is probably far more reliable, and that is by comparing the stored energy in vegetation with that in coal. International authority on solar energy, Mary Archer, has stated that the amount of solar energy falling on the earth’s surface in 14 days is equal to the known energy of the world’s supply of fossil fuels. She also said that only . 03 % of the solar energy arriving at the earth’s surface is stored as chemical energy in vegetation through photosynthetic processes. (Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 5, 1975, p. 17) From this information we can estimate how many years of today’s plant growth would be required to produce the stored energy equivalent in today’s known coal reserves:

    Divide 14 days by .03%
    i.e. (14 x 100)/.03 days equals 46,667 days or 128 years of solar input via photosynthesis.

So we can conclude that only 128 years of plant growth at today’s rate and volume is all that is required to provide the energy equivalent stored in today’s known coal beds! There was, of course, ample time between Creation and Noah’s Flood for such plant growth to occur—1600 years, in fact.
Conclusion

Either way, whether by comparison of energy stored in vegetation growth and in coal (i.e. the time factor), or by vegetation growth, climate, geography, land area and compaction ratio (i.e. the volume factor), we can show conclusively that the evolutionist’s objection is totally invalid. There was ample time, space and vegetation growth for one Noah’s Flood to produce all of today’s known coal beds.
References

Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Nelson, London.
Taylor, C., 1982. ‘Linguistics, Genesis and Evolution, Part Three: the Seas’, Creation 4(4):49–50, 1982; creation.com/linguistics-and-genesis.

-----

New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 4, December 2016. www.ncgt.org 615

Late Permian coal formation under Boreal conditions along the shores of the Mongol-Transbaikalian seaway
Per Michaelsen
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development,
Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam per.michaelsen@tdt.edu.vn

In general the Late Permian sediments strike NNE-SSW and dips towards the ESE at c. 35-40° (higher in places around faults). Structural deformation appears to be relatively limited along the subdued sandstone strike ridges (Figure 2).
The study area is characterized by close spaced epeirogenic jointing, resulting in poor, very fragmented and sporadic outcrops. In this context this contribution is primarily based on sub-surface data.
Table 2. Overview of drillhole database with location, hole type, total depth and net coal thickness. Projection: UTM Zone 49, Northern Hemisphere (WGS 84).
...................Total
Hole# UTM ... UTM  Depth Hole TotalNet RL
.(Northing)(Easting)(m)..Type Coal(m)..(m)
DH01 299255 5229880 114. Core 0.1.... 1406
DH02 299189 5230915 300. Core 14.7... 1428
DH03 298895 5227435 103. Core 0...... 1462
DH04 297102 5228183 164.5Core 6.67... 1442
DH05 299313 5231721 39.. Core 2.2.... 1416
DH06 299310 5231740 40.. Core 1.8.... 1439
DH07 298739 5229489 57.2 Core 0...... 1438
DH08 296690 5228137 46.. Core 0.24... 1458
DH09 297053 5227705 40.. Core 12..... 1418
DH10 296821 5227648 54.5 Core 0.57... 1413
DH09R297069 5227712 56.. Core 19.45.. 1421
DH11 298461 5230197 32.5 Core 7...... 1455
DH12 297818 5227876 42.5 Core 0...... 1424
DH13 298295 5228056 8... Core 0...... 1416
DH13R298311 5228076 46.. Core 6.4.... 1413
DH14 296697 5227802 44.. Core 12.8... 1418
DH15 297650 5229100 35.. Core 2.5.... 1435
DH16 297147 5228384 30.. Core 2...... 1455
DH6R 299263 5231545 50.. Core 7.1.... 1405
DH17 298877 5230651 50.. Core 7.5.... 1419
DH18 297016 5228007 62.. Open(PCD)2.7 1431
DH19 297205 5228718 38.. Open(PCD)4.3 1439
DH20 298135 5229116 26.. Open(PCD)2.8 1450
DH21 298336 5227995 23.. Open(PCD)0.3 1416
DH22 298695 5228305 17.. Open(PCD)2.. 1441
DH23 298719 5228564 28.. Open(PCD)1.6 1430
DH24 297395 5227726 44.. Open(PCD)3.63 1430
DH25 297092 5227711 100. Core 21.98.. 1422
DH26 297089 5228013 150. Core 18.55.. 1427
DH27 296984 5227569 160. Core 18.34.. 1410
DH28 296735 5228000 110. Core 5.77... 1429
DH29 297720 5231800 150. Open(PCD)0.. 1510
DH30 299238 5231939 50.. Open(PCD)6.1 1426
DH31 299324 5231787 50.. Open(PCD)14.5 1420
DH32 299081 5231623 58.. Open(PCD)7.6 1404
DH33 299246 5231313 50.. Open(PCD)7.2 1410
DH34 297520 5228525 200. Open(PCD)8.4 1432
DH35 299326 5231790 35.. Open(PCD)5.6 1420
« Last Edit: January 29, 2017, 09:03:21 pm by Admin »

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