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Changing Sea Levels [Journals] [Aeon]
_From: Aeon V:3 (Dec 1998) Home | Issue Contents Changing Sea Levels Gordon P. Williams
_In a previous article, Frederic Jueneman toyed with the idea concerning what would happen to Earth's oceans had Earth, at one time, ceased its rotation ... all that seawater deprived of centrifugal force will want to flow back outward to achieve a dynamic equilibrium. Hence it would flow both northward and southward ... to inundate the temperate and frigid latitudes, despite the fact that the land area would itself be slowly subsiding. More precisely, the waters would most likely try to flow in a generally northeasterly direction - southeasterly in the southern hemisphere - because of the eastward acceleration due to angular momentum." [1] He then asked: "Could this be among the reasons for Earth's global myths of floods? Could this explain in some measure why hecatombs of broken and smashed animals bones literally blanket the Arctic regions?" [2] This led Richard Smith to ponder: "... he [Jueneman] mentions the hecatombs of broken and smashed animal bones literally blanket[ing] the Arctic. ' Why isn't the same thing true of the Antarctic area?" [3] To this, Dwardu Cardona then replied with: "Rather than ask why the Antarctic area is not blanketed by hecatombs of broken and smashed animal bones, ' one should ask why the Arctic is. While Frederic Jueneman did not quite state that these hecatombs were the result of immense floods rushing northward due to a hypothetical slowing down of Earth's rotation - he only asked if such an event could explain them - he obviously meant to intimate it. Had that been the mechanism, one would expect to find something similar in the Antarctic area since, according to Jueneman, a similar flood would also have rushed southward. "I, on the other hand, would like to offer a different explanation for the conditions found in the Arctic area. Despite the supposed, and conflicting, dates of the remains in question, it is my honest opinion that the vast fields of broken bones mixed with sand, uprooted and smashed trees, and stones of various sizes, all frozen in muck, owe their occurrence to the same polar column which Jueneman himself had elsewhere described as a churning vortex of planetary proportions. [4] Although Jueneman did not mean his hypothesis to apply to the Saturnian configuration, it can easily be made to do so. And, in fact, the Saturnian axis mundi is often described in similar terms - as a twirling vortex and/or churning mountain. ' "It is, again in my opinion, this churning vortex, this planetary tornado, that was the direct cause of the massive carnage the remains of which blanket the Arctic regions. The animals that were caught in this vortex were literally churned' to pieces. Trees were uprooted and smashed, rocks were flung about, and the whole was mixed and finally frozen in situ. Thus the animal remains are not fossilized, as neither are the trees petrified. [5] "The reason why we do not find the same state of affairs in the Antarctic should then be self-evident. There was no axis mundi churning above Earth's south celestial pole." [6] Earlier, Immanuel Velikovsky had also raised the question concerning why the Yukon and Tanana Valleys of Alaska contained such a mass of broken bones and branches in a matrix of mud and fossilized trees on the islands of the Arctic Ocean. [7] I find that neither Jueneman's nor Cardona's explanation, both of whom have supplied us with very speculative scenarios, is satisfactory. It is no wonder that, while orthodox theories concerning the development of Earth in historic times are just as speculative, confusion rules the day. Geologists and the dependent sciences that have been developed on the basis provided by geologists have been set on a false path. The decision taken by Charles Lyell to pursue the path leading to uniformitarianism was a political one, taken in opposition [to] the short term of the Mosaic chronology. Any effort to interpret the movement of Earth's crust in terms of catastrophic events was effectively stifled by the Geological society's refusal to publish anything even hinting at a catastrophic or Biblical base. What follows is based on macrogeomorphology and explains how physical forces, identified by the forms created in Earth's crust, have shaped our globe. With the movement of the continents, revealed by following the predictable motion of released energy as shown by the appropriate morphology, the consequent reaction of Earth's oceans may also be reliably traced. The surging oceans responsible for the deposits in the north were not present in the southern oceans. The Antarctic continent, an integral part of Earth's crust, was, in early historical time, in a near-equatorial environment supporting the development of the flora and fauna which are now found there in fossilized form. Earth's overall shape was recast into the "Orphic Egg" of myth [8] by the action of Saturn as it drew and elevated Earth's crust in the opposite hemisphere to the Antarctic continent. The first oceans would have formed about the Antarctic continent as the crust, after first being lowered as the Samfrau [9] geosyncline [10] developed, was finally parted from the land that remained. Had the records of the Orphics not been destroyed by the events that were to follow, we might have had a much more coherent record explaining this development, instead of the fragmentary account that appears in the ancient literature. Saturn, as the "Sun of Night," [11] was the dominant body of the equatorial heavens above the elevated region of the "Orphic Egg." [12] After periodic visits by Jupiter, Saturn was finally deposed. This region now rests beneath our northern sky, it having shifted through 90-deg as Earth toppled. This sequence of events is possibly that told in the "Wars of the Titans." In the process, mass was lost from Earth's present northern hemisphere and our globe was recast in a pear-shaped form. With this change in the levels of the Earth's crust, a transfer of the oceans from about the southern continent towards the north would follow. Early sea levels would have been quite low and much less saline until such time as the continental drainage patterns, both surface and sub-surface, had fully developed and delivered the solutes they contained to the continental margins. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) "The decision taken by Lyell to pursue the path leading to uniformitarianism was a political one..." As the ocean basins were reduced in depth by isostatic recovery, sea levels would have risen. An increasing area of the continental shelf would have been covered until such time as the uplift of ocean floors had reached a state of equilibrium with the adjacent land. The degree of uplift is marked by the depth of the oceanic trenches which were formed by the restriction imposed on the uplift by the adjacent land mass. The region of greatest uplift would have been in the north polar regions where the initial adjustment to the loss of continental crust and mantle would have been initially most rapid. It would appear from what ensued, and the macrogeomorphology that was created, that the stress upon Earth's crust in the north finally reached the breaking point. The shallow Arctic Ocean broke open to expose its present depth. The macrogeomorphology created by  this rupture, as well as the complementary movement that is identified in the south-west Pacific Ocean, was explained in an earlier paper. [13] A rough calculation of the quantity of water required to fill this deepened basin would have reduced the depth of Earth's oceans by approximately 6m (20 ft). This change in ocean levels was noted by Daly. [14] It was also confirmed by Kuenen. [15] These two authors were cited by Velikovsky. [16] The rush of water into the Arctic basin would have been accentuated by the movement of North America to the south and west over the northern end of the East Pacific Rise into the Pacific Ocean. Tsunami waves generated by this movement would have been capable of carrying all the discovered debris (and possibly a lot more yet to be discovered or which has been destroyed), together with the mangled remains of animals, into the valleys of the Alaskan rivers and the Arctic Ocean. Tsunamis, generated elsewhere by the movement of the continental mass, would have overrun low coastlines and surged along the length of major river basins, destroying everything in their path and scouring out valleys on their retreat. These low-lying areas close to water were the favoured sites for settlement by civilizations who had forgotten the safety afforded by mountains. As I write this, the inhabitants of the northern coast of Papua, New Guinea, have been reminded of such events by the ruthless action of the tsunami that devastated their coast. (Since this wave was not caused by the "pull" of the Sun and/or Moon, it was not a tidal wave as frequently reported by the media.) The lands about the northern Atlantic continue to rise, as evidenced by the strand lines that have been found northwest and southeast of Hudson Bay, Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Scandinavia. Rather than having caused the depression of these lands, the Arctic ice sheet may have actually retarded the rate of their isostatic recovery. Since the levels in the north have been recovering, the displaced ocean has been raising the sea-level in other parts of the world. Coral formations about many of the South Sea islands contain evidence of polyps that grew much deeper than the present growth environment would indicate as being possible. It is probable that much of the coral sand gathered on these atolls and volcanic islands may have been derived from the dead coral which was smashed by the action of the sea, following their exposure with the lowering of sea levels by the opening of the Arctic basin. With the exception of a few land-locked seas, which, in reality are nothing but large lakes, all the seas and oceans of the world are connected. It should therefore be evident that each change of sea level has to be compensated by another modification elsewhere. And, when examined with the correct mechanism in mind, the tracking of these oceanic fluctuations is not that difficult.
[1] F. B. Jueneman, "The Terrestrial Sea: A Critical Model of Science and Myth," AEON IV:6 (May 1997), pp. 32-33.
[2] Ibid., p. 33 (emphasis added).
[3] R. M. Smith, "Some Thoughts on the Saturnian Sun and Polar Column," AEON V:1 (November 1997), p. 5 (emphasis added).
[4] F. B. Jueneman, "The Polar Column: A Physical Model of Myth," AEON I:4 (July 1988), pp. 36 ff.
[5] E. M. Benson, as reported in Pursuit (October 1969).
[6] D. Cardona, "Some Thoughts on the Saturnian Sun and Polar Column," AEON V:1 (November 1997), p. 6 (emphasis as given).
[7] I. Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval (N . Y., 1955), pp. 1 ff.
[8] But see here, D. Cardona, "The Evolution of the Cosmogonic Egg," AEON III:5 (May 1994), pp. 52 ff., & idem, "The Beginning of Time," in ibid., pp. 75-76, for a different interpretation of the Orphic egg. Ed.
[9] This term was coined from the names of the continents involved: South America, South Africa, and Australia.
[10] A. L. du Toit, Our Wandering Continents (1937).
[11] D. Cardona, "The Sun of Night," KRONOS III:1 (Fall 1977), pp. 31 ff.; idem, "Night Sun," Frontiers of Science IV:1 (March-April 1982), pp. 29 ff.
[12] D. Cardona, "Intimations of an Alien Sky," AEON II:5 (February 1992), pp. 5 ff.
[13] G. P. Williams, "Our Tilted Earth," Chronology & Catastrophism Workshop (1994) No.1 , pp. 9 ff.
[14] R. Daly, Our Mobile Earth (1926).
[15] P. H. Kuenen, Marine Geology (1950).
[16] I. Velikovsky, op. cit. (re which check index to work).

Gordon P. Williams, Changing Sea Levels
Gordon P. Williams, Our Tilted Earth
Gordon P. Williams, The Mammoths' Demise - a correct solution requires more facts

2. Eyewitness Account of the Impact that Delivered the Worldwide Flood
_Pieces of a snowball comet 2500 km in diameter produced Younger Dryas impacts, but the main body of the comet impacted between south Africa and Antarctica.
_The impact site is visible on the seafloor.
_Sea level was 3 km lower than now before the impacts, as shown by submerged riverbeds.
_The comet ice melted and produced a worldwide flood, raising sea levels rapidly.
_The ice lowered Earth air temperatures for some time afterward.
x_The civilization of Atlantis described by Plato is outlined on the seafloor.
_The event is said to have occurred almost 13,000 years ago, but best evidence indicates it was about 4,300 years ago.
_It is claimed that there was no ice sheet before the impacts, but it's more plausible that there was and ejected ice boulders from the ice sheet formed the Carolina bays etc.
_There must have been higher sea levels when the Great Flood formed the sedimentary rock strata, and cooling after the Flood caused the ice sheet to form in North America and Europe, which lowered sea levels.
_Myths are cited of a comet/dragon that produced a global Flood, but the Saturn Theory says that comet was Venus (or Mars?).
_Then, yesterday I posted about a really huge Younger Dryas impactor model from and
which suggest that a megasized 2,500 km diameter snowball comet with a small rocky core caused the YD impacts and filled the formerly nearly empty ocean basins. What impresses me most about this latest source is the suggestion that the ocean basins were nearly empty. Cardona had discussed this about ten years ago in my interview with him here, but I hadn't given that a lot of thought until now. This new source shows that there are river beds on the ocean floor in several places and those could only have been formed in open air, not under water. I've discussed ancient manmade underwater structures here a few months ago, I think, but this source shows that a huge site that seems to be the former Atlantis is about 2 miles underwater. The author shows that the oceans must have been very shallow and the seafloors largely covered with land animals and plants. So I got some more info about this below, which are quotes.
Resonance in the Submerged Atlantean Continent
_When local yachtsman Diocleciano Silva was deep-sea fishing between São Miguel and Terceira Islands in the Azores Islands in early May 2013 he noticed a perfectly geometric formation on his high-accuracy depth-finder device. Silva's video of the odd sonar data reveals a large pyramid with 4 perfectly flat faces like those of the Great Pyramid.
_Clearly, the depth-finder data displays the base of the pyramid sitting on a small level plain at 360' below sea level. The apex of the pyramid is shown at just 136' below sea level, providing for a total height of 224' (360 - 136 = 224) [=68+meters].
_(T)he Azores Pyramid is the same height as the Teotihuacan Pyramid in present-day Mexico, and also appears to closely match the height of the newly discovered Hummingbird Pyramid in La Maná, Ecuador!
_Furthermore, the Azores Pyramid is 1/3 and the Great Pyramid is 2/3 the height of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, at 220m.
_The 13.2% alignment of the Azores Pyramid directly links the site with another anomalous ocean bottom formation theorized to be the giant grid pattern of a sunken city, rediscovered by British aeronautical engineer Bernie Bamford and published in 2009.
_Figure 3 is a NOAA map, centered at 24.4°W, 31.3°N, that shows the remnants of the Atlantis canal system.
_The following article shows the image of the gridlike arrangement of seafloor canals from Google maps and it explains that those are not canals. They are artifacts of mapping the seafloor with sonor using overlapping maps. I was suspicious that such was the case when I noticed that the so-called canals cross some of the hills on the seafloor. Canals can't go over hills. I'll quote the last paragraph of the article.
_Did I find the lost underwater civilization of Atlantis?
"When you see strange grid-like formations on the seafloor while using an online mapping tool, what you are really seeing is two (or more) different maps layered on top of each other. One map may show a large, low-resolution picture of the ocean floor. This map will show little detail and will look smooth. The other map, or 'data set,' often looks like a bunch of grid-like lines overlaying the smooth, low-detail map. The path of the lines show the paths traveled by the ships that gathered these higher-resolution sonar readings of smaller patches of the ocean."
_I say that because there are numerous riverbeds on the seafloors. There are also manmade structures deep underwater. The city off the coast of Cuba is a mile or more deep as I recall. They're surely wrong about the Atlantis canals, a seafloor grid (near Portugal and Morocco). But they're likely right about the former very low sea levels and likely also right about the flooding of the Mediterranean Sea during the Younger Dryas event. The theory that a 1200 mile diameter snowball comet crashed between Antarctica and Africa and filled the ocean basins is possible at this point, but I don't know where the salt and other minerals in ocean water would have come from (maybe from evaporated or volcanic salt deposits). I need to compare that theory with Cardona's theory that the polar column removed ocean water and later returned it. Also with consideration of how much ocean water could have been frozen onto the ice sheet/s and/or ice caps.

Doggerland ... was just one of many [place]s around the world that was inundated by the rising sea levels brought about by the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. In this particular region, the sea is believed to have been 390 feet lower than at present. [The Azores pyramid is 360 feet below sea level.]

At the end of the Ice Age, sea levels rose due to the melting of glacial ice. In some areas, however, crustal rebound has been found to have exceeded sea-level rise.

_The current sea level is about 130 metres higher than the historical minimum. Historically low levels were reached during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), about 20,000 years ago. The last time the sea level was higher than today was during the Eemian, about 130,000 years ago.[2]
_Over a shorter timescale, the low level reached during the LGM rebounded in the early Holocene, between about 14,000 and 6,000 years ago, and sea levels have been comparatively stable over the past 6,000 years.

Our Tilted Earth [Journals] [SIS Workshop]
_From: SIS Chronology and Catastrophism Workshop 1994 No 1 (Jan 1994) Home | Issue Contents
_Our Tilted Earth A Geomorphic Analysis of Crustal Momvement About the Poles, North America and Australasia by Gordon P. Williams
_Preface When the subject of continental movement is introduced its association with the science of geology is almost automatic. However, the science dealing with land movement is geomorphology. The short definitions of each are: Geology - The study of the origin, structure, composition, and history of the Earth, together with the processes that have led to its present state. Geomorphology - The scientific study of the origin of land forms based on a cause and effect relationship. The particular macroscale (= large) land forms being studied are those associated with land movement in the Earth's lithosphere (the crust), and comparing them to the mesoscale (= medium) shapes made by soil movement on a hill slope [1 ]. The first geographers were in fact geomorphologists who attempted to explain the shaping of the continents and the creation of their features by movement. The analysis of a catastrophe (? ) should follow a set procedure. For example, the investigation of a serious road accident should identify: 1) the movement of the vehicles etc. involved, e.g. direction of travel, 2) the forces involved, e.g . speed, weight, transitory influences such as ice, light, 3) the effect forces have had on the objects involved, their age, make, etc. In a geographical context this would entail: 1) the geomorphologist to determine the movement involved from an analysis of the forms created, 2) the geophysicist to determine the forces involved and 3) the geologist to determine the age of and effect on the minerals of the mass moved. Although one person may be qualified to investigate more than one field an orthodox procedure should be observed even if unorthodox sources and methods are employed. Study already done reveals that there were two main phases of movement, the second being more in the nature of an aftershock. The hypothesis is that in the Recent or Holocene Epoch a tilt of the Earth's axis (the second episode) caused considerable movement of the Earth's crust near the poles and in North America and Australasia. In this paper the work of the geomorphologist is undertaken. If the movement identified from the of shapes left behind is accepted as correct, the way is opened for other disciplines to continue the investigation.
_Against the opinion prevailing at the time, Heinrich Schliemann's interpretation of Homer's Iliad led to the discovery of Troy. A similar approach led to the discovery of Knossos in Crete. Could the ancient records do the same for geomorphology? Fortunately, we are able to put that to the test by identifying a pattern (or assemblage) of land forms created by the action of forces released within the Earth and determine the direction and extent of movement. Where would we begin the search for evidence of continental movement? Even though the adopted geological time scale developed by conventional geological research has precluded mythology and the ancient recordings being accepted as relevant because the source is considered too recent, they give a strong indication as to where to look. Both provide information worthy of further investigation. An Extract From Ancient Records. Thomas Burnet [2], writing in the late 1600s before the geological timetable was established to suit the Uniformitarian School, found the following observation or doctrine among the Ancients': They say, The Poles of the World did once change their situation, and were first in another posture from what they are now, till that inclination happen'd; this the ancient Philosophers often make mention of, as Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Diogenes, Leucippus, Democritus; [3] as may be seen in Laertius, and in Plutarch; and the stars, they say, at first were carried about the Earth in a more uniform manner. [4] It is unlikely that such a change occurred over an extended period of time for had it done so this would have reduced the likelihood of it being recorded. A relatively sudden change could not have been ignored and is more likely to be found in the historical record. A shift of the poles would imply a change of climate. Burnet refers to such observations on the part of the Ancients and also in the works of the Ancient Poets [5 ]. The change recorded was a transition from a perpetual spring' to a cyclic weather pattern consistent with the difference in the angle of the Earth's axis to the equatorial plane of the Sun changing throughout the year. Should the proof presented of a change of the Earth's axis of rotation be accepted, the climate is but one of several topics that would require to be re-evaluated. Foremost amongst others would be migration and changing sea levels.
_The Effect of Some Forces Involved in a Change of Axis
_The basis of the hypothesis is that the Earth is a composite body consisting, in a simplified form, of a crust, a mantle and a core, not a solid unit. A shift of the rotational axis caused by a tilt of the core would require a change in the rate of movement of every part of the Earth other than the pivot about which the Earth tilted and the composite sphere adjusted to the new axis.[6 ] In both hemispheres, as the crust near the old pole increased its speed of movement, that near the new location of the pole would have to slow down until the speed of movement at the pole itself reached zero; the crust between the two pole positions would have to reverse its direction of movement (fig. 1). While the viscosity of the interior of the Earth would allow the change to occur as a flowing movement, the crust, because of its rigidity, would be subject to stress and strain. Because any translocation of the poles would be subject to the action of inertia, Coriolis force and centrifugal force, the movement to the new position would not be direct and the effect on the Earth's crust would be found over an extensive area. A. Movement affecting the Earth's crust at North Pole after a tilt of the Earth's axis. The Coriolis Force deflects movement to the northern hemisphere. B. Movement affecting the Earth's crust at South Pole after a tilt of the Earth's crust. The Coriolis Force deflects movement to the left in the southern hemisphere.
_Figure 1. Forces activated by a shift of the Earth's axis.
_Figures 1a and 1b show diagrammatically the direction of the movement about the poles resulting from the forces involved. Given the present direction of rotation, Figure 1a refers to the northern pole and Figure 1b to the southern pole of an Earth rotating as it does today. It is probable that internally there would have been sufficient fluidity for this change to have taken place but at the Earth's surface the inflexibility of the crust would cause rupturing, especially where the need for sudden changes in speed and/or direction was greatest. Initially, change would have occurred about the axis and then been transmitted through the inner material of the Earth to the lithosphere. The high latitudes, being nearest the axis, would have been the first part of the surface to be affected and the low latitudes the last. An important effect of the movement within the Earth would have been the generation of heat beneath the continents, which would have facilitated movement of the crust as the lithosphere responded to the active forces. If we look at the physical changes likely to follow from a polar shift over a time period short enough to be readily observed, we find we have an adequate force to account for much of the continental movement that has occurred within the study area. The area of greatest change would be between the old and the new pole positions, where the linear movement at the surface within the area reversed. The action of the opposing forces would be converted to a shear force between the old and new poles before the new axis of rotation established itself within the lithosphere.
_Complementary Movement About Both Poles
_There is a similarity in the movement about both poles. If Figure 1a were to be placed over the North Pole (Figure 2), the tension and pressure zones could be appropriately related to the theoretical forces of the proposed polar shift. The stress features in those zones are the oceanic depths of the Arctic, Norwegian and Greenland Seas and the mainly pressure-formed mountains about the bend in the northern Canadian Rockies and Siberia respectively. The crust near the old North Pole, while in the process of changing its speed of movement, would tend to veer to the right (as far as crustal strength would allow) in accordance with the Coriolis Force. The land to the east of the Arctic Oceanic Basin would continue to move to the east while veering to the right (south). North America would move to the west while veering to the right (north). The combined movement would be a folded form, such as there is in the Canadian Rockies near the Alaskan border: the Alaskan Orocline. _Figure 2. The North Pole - direction of forces active at or near the pole. Recent movement caused by forces generated by a shift of the Earth's axis. The tension zone is indicated by the oceanic depths. The compression zone is indicated by the Alaskan Orocline (the bend in the northern Canadian Rockies) and the mountains to the west. The shear force may have offset the oceanic depths of the Arctic Ocean relative to the Greenland and Norwegian Seas, along the line of the Nansen Fracture Zone. The force generated by mantle movement would take longer to have an effect on massive continents such as Asia and North America than on smaller land masses such as those around the South Pole. Consequently, the shear and compression features have been displaced from about the present pole in the line of inertial movement towards the Pacific Ocean. Whilst the tension and compression zones are easily identified, the shear zone appears to have no distinguishing features. In North America the inertia of the continent would have resisted the acceleration imparted via friction by the mantle beneath it. The venturi effect of the mantle passing beneath the continent would have drawn, not pushed, the oceanic crust with its burden of sediment under the continental crust. This process differs from the conventional subduction theory that has been generally accepted. The Canadian Rockies, which are regarded as a recent formation, may have been lifted by the action described [7].
_Figure 3. The South Pole - direction of forces active at or near the pole. Recent movement caused by forces generated by a shift of the Earth's axis. Although much of the continental crust has been drawn away from the area some evidence of relevant movement may be found.
_The Transantarctic. Although much of the continental crust has been drawn away from the area some evidence of relevant movement may be found. The Transantarctic Mountains, the Ellsworth Mounts and the Pensacola Mounts indicate the action of a shear force. The easterly displacement of the islands of the S.W. Atlantic and the apparent displacement of the ridge south of Australia appear consistent with effects of inertia and the proposed forces. In the southern hemisphere (Figure 3), the shear zone at the pole is more obvious. The dominant feature of the Antarctic Continent is the Transantarctic Range complex, strong evidence of the action of a shear force in the area where hitherto little evidence of tectonic activity has been noted. Perhaps because the extensive continental coverage of the northern hemisphere is replaced by the oceanic depths which surround the Antarctic Continent, the tension and rift formations are not so easily identified. Similar movement in the south would place the rift formation in the South Pacific Ocean with the overrun being to the east and veering to the left (north) and the inertial lag in the region of southern Australasia being to the west and veering to the left (south). The v-shaped forms of the Ross Sea and the Ronne Ice Shelf, together with the Lady Bird Range, may be additional features of a shear formation, the creation of which was facilitated by the absence of a surrounding land mass. In the area of the expected overrun we find the South Sandwich Island Arc and the broken submerged Kerguelen Plateau in a morphological form which suggests movement to the northeast, as may be expected. In Australasia the same resistance to an increase in speed of movement would have applied but because there was less continental crust in the active zone there is no visible evidence of subduction'. However, it would have taken place along the Macquarie Trench to the west of the submerged Campbell Plateau south of New Zealand. To the east of the trench is the Macquarie Ridge, with Macquarie Island being the only visible feature.
_Complementary Morphology Shows the Global Extent of the Movement Within the Lithosphere
_The effect of the polar shift would have been global in extent. Crust in both the north and south high latitudes, because of its proximity to the axis, would reach its appropriate speed of movement earlier than that in the lower latitudes. The identification of similar movement in both hemispheres would help in establishing the short term duration of the change. Some movement about the poles has already been identified. If the deductions made are correct we should be able to use the known to find the unknown', i.e . to identify land forms attributable to a change of axis beyond the polar regions and by replacing slope of mesoscale movement with the inertia in the macroscale movement, account for their formation as part of the overall pattern of events. If the situation existed as we have reconstructed it, it should improve understanding of the polar regions by either serving as a framework into which further discoveries may be slotted or by suggesting a direction for further research.
_An Empirical Analysis of Other Movement About the North Pole
_Because the inertia of the lithosphere resisted a change in the rotational velocity, the mantle moved beneath it, as in the continental undertow theory' proposed by Alvarez [8 ]. Any surface debris in the northeast Pacific (e.g. continental fragments) would have been pushed against the west coast of North America. Are these the formations that are now recognized as terranes' and the pressure the driving force required by Pollitz?[9 ] The deep continental roots that Alvarez suggested in his first presentation of his theory[10] appear to be an unwanted qualification. Because of the width of North America, the direction of apparent movement caused by inertia would differ across the continent, with the angular difference between east and west being the difference in longitude, approximately 45o. The Montana-Florida Alignment, a dextral displacement extending from the northwest to the southeast, may be the physical evidence of that stress. A contributing factor may have been the deflexion of the east of the continent to the right, caused by the Coriolis Force as the land mass began to move faster as required by its new position further from the pole (Figure 4). The basin and range morphology of central western United States of America, which lies southwest of the suggested northern extension of the Montana-Florida Alignment, indicates that the base on which the continental crust rests has been stretched. A. Continental overrun through intertia to increased easterly mantle velocity B. C. Southeasterly Continental Movement affected by intertia and Coriolis force.
_Figure 4. Movement of North America. The increased speed required for North America resulted in movement being deflected to the right. The lower latitudes, being further from the axis of rotation, were the last to reach this speed. This gave an apparent clockwise rotation to the continental crust in the mid to low latitudes, where North America is located. The combined forces moved the crust to the southeast. By this movement the southern part of the continent has been forced into the western end of the West Indies Island Arc, causing crushing. Note the displacement of the Montana-Florida Alignment, overthrust forms in the midwest and the basin and range morphology of the western states. Through inertia, Alaska and Eastern Siberia continued to move. This would have been the force required by Jackson et al [11] to move Alaska to the south. As the surface movement became restricted and pressure forms developed, the western equivalent of the Queen Elizabeth Islands may have been carried by sub-crustal flow and compressed on the northern Alaskan coast to become the terranes identified by Howell et al [12]. The abyssal depths of the Arctic Ocean are the equivalent of the scar in the mesoscale movement and the mountains of eastern Siberia are the restricted front of the flow. The full extent of this movement may have reached deep into southern Siberia where it would appear that it has encroached on the morphology of a previous movement which will be explained more fully in another paper [13]. The transverse fractures of the northern sector of the North Atlantic Ridge appear to conform to the westerly movement of Northern Europe and North America. The Highlands of Scotland appear to have moved from the northeast, with the Glen Mor Shear as the dividing line. Whether Ireland and Scotland were parted by this movement is worth further investigation. The position and shape of the Hatteras Abyssal Plain (east of the Bahamas) suggests that it may have been the position of the continental margin off the southeastern states of the USA before it was moved by the rotation of the continent when North America was pushed to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico was closed. The crush zone in the West Indies is where a folding movement consistent with the clockwise rotation of North America has caused shearing stress along the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate (see Figure 4). Both Carey[14] and King[15] recognized this zone as an area of crustal stress and adjustment.
_An Empirical Analysis of Other Movement About the South Pole
_In the southern hemisphere, where the abyssal depths left by an earlier movement surround the Antarctic Continent, there was not the same restriction on continental movement. The Antarctic-Australia Discordance discussed by Alvarez[16] is part of the movement to the east, with left hand deflexion. This would be caused by Australasia being placed in an area of faster movement, where it initially lagged (because of inertia) until such time as the movement of the underlying mantle was matched by the lithospheric crust (Figure 5). This would be a further example of Alvarez's continental undertow'. The forces involved would probably be the cause of the anticlockwise rotation of Australia as noted by King[17]. A. Continental overrun through intertia to increased easterly mantle velocity B. C. Southeasterly Continental Movement affected by intertia and Coriolis force.... Continental penetration - - - - Former shear Line. Melanesian Megashear.
_Figure 5. The movement of Australasia. The increased speed of movement required in Australasia resulted in deflexion to the left in the southern hemisphere. The lower latitudes, being further from the axis of of rotation, were the last to attain their final speed. This gave an apparent anticlockwise rotation to the continental crust in the mid to low latitudes, where Australasia is located. The combined forces moved the crust to the northeast. The thrust to the north carried into the Melanesian Megashear morphology, an area vacated by S.E. Asia in its 10,000 + km shift to the west by an earlier movement of the continents. In the Australasian zone, where we should expect the Earth's crust to have lagged behind until it had accelerated sufficiently, we find that there has been apparent movement of the crust to the northeast. What movement there was would have been deflected to the left by rotation, which is consistent with the morphology of the area. Northern Australia has forced New Guinea to the north and, with inertia providing a westerly component, the combined movement has intruded into the area of the relic form of the broad flow behind the Sumatra-Sunda Island Arc front. Pressure from the southwest on southeastern Australia probably caused the northwest-southeast aligned ranges in the states of southeastern South Australia and southwestern Victoria. These are low-lying ridges in an extensive limestone formation, seldom more than a few metres high and separated by wetlands. The compressed form of the geological formations lying NNW/SSE through New South Wales to the border with Victoria at the coast are also indicative of pressure from the southwest. Further east, the submerged New Zealand Plateau (the combined Chatham Rise and Campbell Plateau) shows some morphological evidence in its shape of having been forced to the northeast. North of New Zealand there are faults already identified which are strongly concordant with the movement of New Zealand to the northeast.
_Similarity of Development and History
_Yeats and Berryman [18] noted the similarity of the development of the New Zealand fault zone between the Indian and Pacific Plates and that of the western North American fault zone between the North American and Pacific Plates. Both areas lie in zones where similar forces were present, i.e. inertial lag followed by subcrustally generated acceleration. This similarity has been shown to be far more extensive than these authors envisaged from the fault symmetry. It is to be found in the complementary features created by polar shift about both poles and even in the Caribbean and the Banda Loop of the East Indies. The big difference arises from the amount of continental crust in the active area. California is part of a large land mass and this has limited its movement. New Zealand, a fragment of continental crust in an area of similar submerged forms, lies to the south of an area greatly disturbed by a former upheaval which shifted the crust north of New Zealand some 1300km (810m) to the north-northwest, as evidenced by the displacement of New Caledonia. This has allowed New Zealand to move on a subcrustal flow into the relic morphology of that earlier episode. There are many large overthrust formations in consolidated sediments in mid-west USA that appear to have been created by movement of the crust to the south [19]. The equivalent north-sloping forms found in the south of the North Island of New Zealand are much smaller, through being created in mudstone and softer rocks more recently raised from a submerged seabed.
_Continental movement is the macroscale equivalent of blocks of material sliding downhill under the force of gravity. In the global model, where the minimal effect of gravity is limited to what is acting on the slight difference in the length of Earth's radii in the mid-north and south latitudes (the pear shape) - negligible in the short term - an alternative force is required. This is provided by the inertial reaction of the lithosphere to movement within the mantle, the cause and extent of which will not be fully known until all movement is analysed. In hill slope processes the destabilizing factor is an outside agent, e.g. artesian water, heavy rain, earthquake, etc. If the comparison between scales is maintained the factor which destabilized the Earth would also be an outside force, which may be identified by further research. With this substitution for gravity, the forms created by continental movement become similar in form to those arising from material sliding down hill slopes. In accepting this, it becomes possible to determine the direction and extent of continental movement in the macroscale with a high degree of accuracy, especially where the contours of the ocean beds may be considered as part of the movement. The general pattern of movement that created the geomorphology attributed to this recent phase is shown in Figure 6.
_Figure 6. The general pattern of movement of the Earth's crust resulting from a change of its axis of rotation.
A. General pattern of movement in the low latitudes showing the complimentary nature of the two zones (Mercator Projection).
B. Movement in the high latitudes (Polar projection).
_In this paper, I have shown how much of the evidence provided in the high latitude morphology of the lithosphere may be related to a shift of the Earth's axis of rotation and the sliding continents', two ideas presented by early geographers to explain the Ice Age or ice ages which were proposed as agents contributing to the change of the Earth's surface[20]. The argument presented in this paper attributes the end of the Ice Age in northern Europe and North America to the same forces. The reason for the ice age morphology being so widespread lies in the earlier episode of continental disruption. In times of disaster or crisis, our mind has a valuable facility, the ability to obliterate a traumatic experience[21]. However, it works to the detriment of the researcher and historian. Without the brief reference in the ancient records to a tilt of the Earth's axis being accepted at face value, the analysis of the extensive record in the shapes of the land and its features, confirming its accuracy, might not have been presented as it has been in this paper. The way is opened for a new look at many things, foremost of which is the climatic change and migration of races on a global scale from about 1500BC, which coincides with a period of high erosion activity, 1-2000 BC, (conventional dating). Out of this introductory appraisal of the empirical evidence of continental and oceanic forms it has been established that extensive continental and oceanic crust movement has taken place. It has also been established that the movement intruded upon relic morphology of an earlier phase of continental shaping. The complementary nature of the evidence presented demonstrates its global extent. Though fieldwork may modify or alter some of the deductions made, the hypothesis that the features identified have been created over a short period of violent change appears to be well supported by the evidence. Acceptance of the theory opens the way for a promising new look at the past. Further papers are being prepared examining the relic land forms noted in this paper. The conclusions reached affect many disciplines and will require an open mind in order to be accepted, for they differ radically from those provided by the uniformitarians whose teachings we have been conditioned to accept.
_Notes and References
_1. W.D . Thornbury: Principles


Our Tilted Earth by Gordon Williams [Journals] [SIS Workshop]
_From: SIS Chronology and Catastrophism Workshop 1993 No 2 (Jan 1994) Home | Issue Contents REVIEWS Our Tilted Earth by Gordon Williams (Available from the author, 11 Camellia Court, 280 Grey Street, Palmerston North, New Zealand)
_Like most scientific outsiders with unorthodox views, Gordon Williams expresses the difficulty in obtaining intelligent comments on his non-uniformitarian work from professional scientists in the field, so the reader has to judge if any or all of his views are valid and reasonable. In this case there is little doubt that this admirable illustrated booklet of 56 size A5 pages is a serious work. It is based on years of study and practical experience in New Zealand, where there is an amazing variety of striking geological features. The preface states that the copywrite (1993) 'paper was prepared, printed and presented' by the author and it has some minor flaws, such as the confusion between write and right, and a few misprints which would probably have been avoided if it had been a commercial publication. The type is very small and the page footer notes and some captions require the visually challenged to use a strong lens. Some words are very technical and a glossary would be very helpful. For instance the subtitle is An introductory geomorphic analysis of crustal movement about the poles, and the correlation between the polar zones. 'Geomorphic' is easy compared with many other terms, but they do at least indicate that Williams knows his subject. These are all minor points and now the big question. Suppose a rotating solid sphere in space is covered with a layer of plastic putty and the axis of rotation is tilted quickly by an external force which does not impinge directly on the putty. Viewed from a fixed position outside, parts of the surface would experience a rapid change of velocity (speed and direction) after the tilt. The acceleration requires a force and this should cause the layer of putty to be compressed in some places and extended in others, seen as folding, ridging and other changes in the levels of the surface. Williams believes this has happened to the Earth and he describes the evidence for past movements of the Earth's crust in both hemispheres in convincing detail. But to an observer on the surface the sphere would continue to rotate at the same angular velocity and there would be no forces on the surface caused by the new position of the axis, only those needed to tilt the axis, which would have quite different effects. Is there a definitive answer to the question which view is correct? The effect on the surface would also depend on the nature of the external force. If it does act mainly on the surface zone, causing it to slide over the relatively liquid magma below, then the force causing distortion of the surface layer would be the difference between the external imposed force and the frictional force at the interlayer, plus that due to inertia of the moving mass. Much more study of these aspects is required. Williams accepts the Velikovsky claim that an external force was caused by the close passage of a cosmic body, Venus. He does not discuss the question of the age of Venus and the possibility described in SIS literature that the erratic body might have been much smaller than Venus and collided with that planet. He rejects the idea that tectonic plate movement might be due to convective effects but does not mention another view published by SIS that the action of tides on the Earth's crust could be the driving force where slow changes are involved. Another surprising omission is that there is no reference to Peter Warlow's book The Reversing Earth [1] which describes how the axis could be tilted and what effects it could have, or had. Fossils of trees swept away by raging sea currents and powerful wind storms in world wide devastation indicate the direction and extent of the forces. It would be interesting if Williams had compared this to his analysis based on the study of the dynamics of hill slope morphology applied to the morphology of the lithosphere. Williams claims that current views of tectonic plate movements are wrong because of the types of instruments used and there is a law of physics which states that a moving object takes the path of least resistance which for sea floor movement must be up and over an obstructing land mass in spite of the fact that it is the heavier material. In the absence of further information it is hard to believe that the lighter land mass would not float on a slow moving denser sea bed plate and that the correct explanation has not been ascertained by drilling and other evidence. Right or wrong, the booklet is instructive and interesting. It has an excellent title and cover diagram representing the tilted Earth. Williams is too modest to include his name on the cover or give any personal details other than his address. Williams has more papers in preparation on Earth's Greatest Earthquake and The World Mountain, involving even more unorthodox views about Saturn. It is hoped he can persuade a publisher to produce a book with the title Our Tilted Earth containing revisions and a combination of all these views. It would be well worth having. As I happen to know he is a Clive James lookalike, I'm sure his picture on a cover jacket in colour may also help to sell a good many copies. Eric W. Crew
_Reference 1. P. Warlow, The Reversing Earth (J. M. Dent, London, 1982) Editor's Note A condensed version of Our Tilted Earth will appear in C&C Workshop 1994:1.


Drayson's hypothesis: the Earth's tilt cycle [Journals] [SIS Review]
... , though there was a more interesting and theoretically sound debate running parallel to the Drayson debate, of which Drayson appears to have been unaware [53]. In comparison with some modern proposals on the rate of movement of the Earth's rotation axis, Drayson's observed' rate lies between the very slow movements conjectured by Dauvillier [54] and Williams [55], and the very fast shifts proposed by Velikovsky [56] (see Huggett [57, 58, 59]). Drayson was undoubtedly an original and independent thinker who stuck doggedly to his beliefs. His ideas, though apparently flawed, deserve to be more widely known than they are at present. Table 1


Letters [Journals] [SIS Workshop]
Tilted Earth? Gordon Williams is to be congratulated on his attempts to relate distortions of the earth's crust to shifts of the geographical location of the pole(s ) ( 'Our Tilted Earth', C&C Workshop 1994:1 , pp. 9-15). I suggest he may still have a very long way to go before his arguments will be at all widely accepted, however. Whilst I have still only seen the abridged version of his study, it does appear that his approach may have been to accept Dr. Velikovsky's claim of a pole shift from the neighbourhood of Greenland as gospel, then try to relate actual tectonic features to this hypothesis. Sooner or later, he will probably have to deduce the true' shift of the pole from the actual tectonic features. This is obviously no easy task. I also suspect that he is starting from a false hypothesis - namely that the core of the earth is caused to tilt and that the effects of this tilt are transmitted to the crust by viscous forces in the more or less molten magma surrounding the core. I find it more probable that the core has a strong tendency to maintain a fixed direction and rate of spin. This is at least partly deducible from the Ninsianna tablet analysis. Extra-terrestrial forces could then be expected to cause the crust to roll away from its original alignment with the core, the crust afterwards being dragged back again by the spinning core once the extra-terrestrial force had passed by. Other forces would also be involved, not least those due to the equatorial bulge (which forms part of the crust and which would not be expected to deform very rapidly). It would be at least largely in the course of the dragging back process that the geographical position of the pole (on the crust) would become displaced. It is thus probable that the direction of drift of the pole will be around 180 different from the direction of roll of the crust which was its original cause. This proposed change of hypothesis probably does not materially affect Williams' styles of computation, however. Probably the only available analysis of actual rolls of the earth is that presented in my Ninsianna tablet article (C&C Review XV, pp. 2-22). This was described as a preliminary reconstruction and it can certainly be developed further yet. The only measures of earth roll to be found in it are the repeated changes in the obliquity of the ecliptic. Obliquity of the ecliptic is defined as the angle between the plane of the ecliptic and the plane through the terrestrial equator; changes in it do not materially limit the possible directions of roll, however. If the earth is not a solid entity, changes in the obliquity will indicate the extent of roll of the earth's crust (even if they do not determine its direction), which may or may not be paralleled by the (assumed) solid core. I have recently developed the equations which tie direction of roll (of the crust) to rates of change of obliquity and position of vernal equinox and, sooner or later, these will have to be reconciled with the observed changes in these parameters. Direction of roll is defined (for this purpose) as the (stellar) longitude towards which the north pole tilts. A full reconciliation can be expected to result in some modification of the detail of Figs. 1, 2 ,3 & 4 of the Ninsianna tablet analysis but it calls for lengthy re-calculations, as yet barely started. It also involves reconciliation of the direction of roll with actual gyroscopic forces, as the direction of roll will not always be the same for every possible type of extra-terrestrial force (the current indication is still that the force principally concerned at the time of these disturbances was one of electrostatic repulsion - as is consistent with orbit expansion and as was first mooted in SIS Review V:3, p. 97, 1980/81 - and it should eventually be possible to confirm this). It was stated in the Ninsianna article (p. 6) that ... changes in the obliquity of the ecliptic and position of the vernal equinox have been co-ordinated, at least to some degree ... but it is clear that a greater degree of co-ordination than this must be possible in the long run. The full reconciliation will probably take years to accomplish, however; the analysis so far published has already absorbed some 10 years of work (the 1986 C&C Workshop article having already been several years old at the time of its publication) and it could well be that another 10 years or so will be required for the next step. Meanwhile, I hope that Mr. Williams will continue his studies as they could eventually lead to something very worthwhile. There is unfortunately still a very wide range of possibilities and it will be a major task to narrow the field down until the actuals can be distinguished from the possibles with any degree of certainty. Our principal object, after all, is to discover what actually happened, not what ought to have happened or what might have happened, and the methodology must presumably be to examine as many possible solutions (or scenarios) as possible, then gradually home in on the more viable ones. To attempt to achieve a final solution in a single step, as has apparently been Mr. Williams' approach as yet, can be risky, opening the way for interminable objections on points of detail. Note also that evidence deriving from deformations of the earth's crust must usually be rated more trustworthy than evidence deriving from Babylonian astronomical records; both must be preferable to evidence deriving from interpretation of ancient myth, though this can often guide us as to what to look for in the first place. Even when one can disentangle what the ancients were actually saying, it can still turn out that their interpretation of events was misguided (e.g. their attribution of an aggressive nature to Mars seems to have become particularly deeply embedded in folk lore but a Court of Appeal would almost certainly exonerate the Martians, who could more reasonably claim that it was Earth which was displaying aggression towards them). Michael G. Reade, Checkendon, Oxfordshire

The Mammoths' Demise - a correct solution requires more facts [Journals] [SIS Review]
_From: SIS Chronology & Catastrophism Review 1999:1 (Jul 1999) Home | Issue Contents The Mammoths' Demise - a correct solution requires more facts by Gordon P. Williams
_The disappearance of the mammoths from the tundra of Northern Russia and Siberia has produced many explanations from professionals and amateurs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce new facts into the debate. The most convincing argument against Lyell's uniformitarianism, which has had a controlling influence on nearly all geological explanations, comes not from his contemporaries but from the works of the Greek Philosophers and Roman poets. This evidence was cited by Thomas Burnet in his argument in support of the Mosaic chronology [1]. They say, The Poles of the World did once change their situation, and were at first in another posture from what they are now, till that inclination happen'd; This the Ancient Philosophers often made mention of, as Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Diogenes, Leucippus, Democritus [2]; as may be seen in Laertius, and in Plutarch; and the Stars, they say, at first were carried about the Earth in a more uniform manner. This is no more than we have observ'd and told you in other words, namely that the Earth chang'd its posture at the Deluge, and thereby made these seeming changes in the Heavens; its Poles before pointed to the Ecliptik, which now point to the Poles of the Æquator, and its Axis is become parallel with that Axis; and this is the mystery and interpretation of what they say in other terms; this makes the different aspect of the Heavens, and of its Poles. And I am apt to think, that those changes in the course of the Stars, which the Ancients sometimes speak of, and especially the Ægyptains, if they do not proceed from defects in their Calender, had no other physical account than this. When the Primæval Earth was made out of Chaos, its form and posture was such as, of course, brought on all those Scenes which Antiquity hath kept the remembrance of though now in another state of Nature they seem very strange; especially being disguis'd, as some of them are, by their odd manner of representing them. That the Poles of the World stood once in another posture; That the year had no diversity of Seasons; That the Torrid Zone was uninhabitable; That the two Hemispheres had no possibility of intercourse, and such like: These all hang on the same string; or lean one upon the other as Stones in the same Building; whereof we have, by this Theory, laid the very foundation bare, that you may see what they all stand upon, and in what order'. [3 ] Burnet realised that the shift of the poles would have made possible those climatic changes noted by the Ancient Poets, a change from a perpetual spring to a year of four seasons. Virgil wrote [4 ] Non alios primâ crecentus origine mundi lluxisse dies, aliumve habuisse tenorum, Credidderim Verillud erat, Ver magnus agebat Orbis, & hybernus flatibus Euri. Such days the new-born Earth enjoy'd of old, And the calm Heavens in this same rowl'd All the great World had then one constant Spring, No cold East-winds, such as our Winters bring. On the expiry of the Golden Age, Ovid says [5 ], Jupiter antiqui contraxit tempora Veris, &c. When Jove began to reign he changed the Year, And for one Spring four Seasons made appear.' Velikovsky also referred to the quarters of the World being displaced and changes in the times and seasons [6 ]. In Earth in Upheaval [7 ] he expanded upon this subject and included sliding continents', changing orbit' and rotating crust'. None of these early authors was aware that the shift of the poles was the second and lesser of two catastrophic episodes. The geologists' insistence on the stability of the Earth has also influenced astronomers who maintain that there has been no radical deviation in the behaviour of the planets of the solar system. As the poets informed us, it was the action of Jupiter that ushered in the change of seasons. In the full analysis it is expected that a change of 90 deg. in the Earth's axis occurred with a shift of the poles from an equatorial position to near their present position. It would have been during this time that the Sun moved on the plane of the Ecliptick' [8 ]. It was Venus that succeeded Jupiter as the brightest planet at the time of the tilting of the Earth about 3,500 years later. As to Venus, tis a remarkable passage that St. Austin hath preserv'd out of Varro, he saith, That about the same time of the great Deluge there was a wonderful alteration or Catastrophe happen'd to the planet Venus, and that she change'd her colour, form, figure, and magnitude' [9 ]. To the modern geologist any suggestion that the Earth could have changed its attitude has been, and still is, unacceptable. Yet, at some time in the historical past people saw and recorded a dramatic change in the Earth's attitude to the heavens which, many years after the event, was recorded by the ancient writers. Without the knowledge of the Earth's surface that is available today they would not have had the means to recognise the signs of Earth having tilted.
_Our Tilted Earth
_The hypothesis is the Earth did undergo a change of axis within historical time. In accepting that a tilt occurred, evidence of stress on the Earth's crust should be evident. Stress and compression formations indicative of a change of Earth's axis should be visible where changes in velocity have caused stress within the Earth's crust [10, 11, 12].
_The Demise of the Dinosaurs
_This movement of the continental crust in response to the stresses about the North Pole may have been the cause of the extinction of the mammoths. In Siberia there would have been an over-run of the continental crust as friction reduced the crust's velocity at the position of the new North Pole. In northern North America, friction of the oceanic sea-bed moving beneath the American north-west coast accelerated the continental crust. These changes could not be achieved without considerable seismic activity. The area about the new North Pole had been lowered by the earlier catastrophe, which had left its mark on the morphology of the area. The depression, which had been rapidly infilled with sediment, has since been raised by isostatic uplift. This uplift has continued since this time about the northern Atlantic in N. E. Canada about Hudson Bay, Greenland, Scotland, Scandinavia and the Barents Sea as is shown by the strand lines, so that land levels are higher now than at the time of the seismic activity 3,500 years ago. The sedimentary plains about the Arctic Ocean were also further from the old site of the Pole and people lived within the present Arctic Circle in a settlement on the Kolyna River [13], as predicted by Velikovsky in Worlds in Collision. This now provides the two important and previously unknown factors affecting the demise of the mammoths - seismic activity and sudden cooling. The prolonged seismic activity associated with the inertial displacement occurring within the area would have reduced the sedimentary plains through a process of liquefaction to a vast area of quicksand'. As the liquefaction increased, the mammoths would have become further embedded in the water-weakened mass as they struggled to escape. The rapid freezing came with the shift of the North Pole more than 20-deg closer to their territory. The sketch of the Berezovka mammoth in Cardona's Kronos article [14] appears to be a posture typical of a large mammal struggling to avoid being trapped in quicksand'. The action of the earthquake would have [been] so sudden that the last mouthful of grass was still in its mouth. Numerous other mammals may be awaiting discovery as meandering streams expose an ever-increasing area. A continuation of this theme would involve a study of the oceanic surges that followed the continental displacement. These would have reached far inland over low lying lands and contributed to the quantity of ivory deposited on the Arctic islands. Waves would have caused more erosion in shallow valleys and more devastation to coastal and riverside dwellers in a brief period of encroachment and retreat than geologists would expect in a thousand or more years.
_References 1. Burnet, Bishop T, The Sacred Theory of the Earth, (Sec. Ed.), Printed by R Norton for Walter Ketilby, at Bishops-Head in S. Paul's Churchyard, 1691. Reprinted 1965. 2. Ibid, Lat Treat. lib. 2. C. 10. (Burnet's reference), Burnett, Book 2, P. 192. 3. Ibid, Book 2, P. 192-3. 4. Ibid, p. 135. 5. Ibid, p. 136. 6. Velikovsky, I, Worlds in Collision, Gollancz, 1950, Pt. 1. Ch. V. 7. Velikovsky, I, Earth in Upheaval, Gollancz, 1955. 8. Burnet, op. cit. 9. Ibid, Bk.1 , Ch.VII, p. 128. 10. Williams, GP, Our Tilted Earth, 1993 (Available from the author at 11 Camellia Court, 280 Grey Street, Palmerston North, New Zealand.) Williams, GP, Our Tilted Earth', C&CW 1994:1 , pp. 9-15. 12. Williams, GP, Macrogeomorphology its contribution to analysing the shaping of South-east Asia, Australasia and the South-west Pacific Ocean, 1997, unpublished, available from the author. 13. Ferté 1972, Pensée, Vol. 2, No. 2. 14. Cardona, D, The Problem of the Frozen Mammoths', Kronos, Vol. 1, No. 4. 1976, p. 85.


Confusion Breeds on Assumptions [Journals] [SIS Review]
_From: SIS C & C Review 2004:1 Incorporating Workshop 2004:2 (May 2004) Home | Issue Contents Confusion Breeds on Assumptions G. P. Williams
_The author proposes that there were two distinct major catastrophes – the Deluge, which ended the Paradisical Age, and the Flood, which ended the Golden Age and ushered in the Modern Age. He uses geological and mythical evidence to show that the first catastrophe was due to the destruction of a world mountain and the second was due to an axial tilt.
_My investigation into ancient records and mythology was prompted by my interest in the land-forms of the world and from the geomorphological information conveyed in their shapes. While the erosion and decay of the land-forms within a continent are the objects of geomorphology, continental land-forms in their entirety are the traditional field of the geologist. After attending university and taking papers to the third stage in geomorphology, I could not understand why the principles of geomorphology could not be applied to continental forms. To this end I accepted the record of the ancients as noted by Burnet [1 ]. The poles of the World did once change their situation, and were at first in another posture from what they are in now, till the inclination happen'd; This the ancient Philosophers often make mention of, as Anagoras, Empedocles, Orogenes, Leucippus, Democritus; as may be seen in Laertius, and in Plutarch; and the Stars, they say, at first were carried about the Earth in a more uniform manner, poles had once stood in another posture. A shift of the poles would have serious repercussions on the crust, due to the changes required in rotational velocity when moved to different latitudes. Such an event was recorded globally in myth and ancient records which told of such things as aberration in the Sun's movement, the disappearance of Atlantis, the twelve tasks of Hercules and the original Flood mythology. In fact, there is so much in the records that comparative mythologists are thoroughly confused. To discover the cause of this confusion I looked at the foundation of geological theory and in an article by George Grinell [2 ] found that it rests with Lyell, the leading geologist of the early 19th century. By his brief foray into the political arena in support of his friend Scrope, in promoting the aims of the Liberals against the ruling Conservatives, Lyell used his position as President with the London Geology Society to further Hutton's Gradualism, later to become known as Uniformitarianism, which relegated catastrophism to the background. Many articles were re-written without their catastrophic content, while others were widely ridiculed. The outcome was that stories in mythology that were worthy of investigation were denied completely because they were totally irrelevant to the accepted geological timescale. This tacit ban is still being applied, mainly by peer review reluctant to accept anything new except from a credible source – irrespective of whether it is right or wrong. Being aware of this ban on mythological and biblical evidence and having had the benefit of the work in preparing Our Tilted Earth (C&CW 1994:1, pp. 9-15), I retraced the movement of continental land-forms through their morphology, such as the island arcs of the south-west Pacific Ocean area I was familiar with from my previous work. As such forms are the result of movement down-slope, being found in the toe of a slip, or slump, I located an ancient mountain that gave rise to them and which I identified as a crustal bulge formed when Earth was under the influence of the gravity of Saturn. This was the source of the potential energy, which, when released and modified by seismic waves and the Coriolis Effect on a continental mass, was responsible for all initial continental movement. In possession of information denied by Lyell to subsequent geologists until much later, I was able to predict the probable path of the energy on its release and locate areas which confirm the predicted movement in the land-forms created. By using this methodology I could account for unexplained land-forms and find explanations for geologic and geomorphic formations that geologists could explain only by speculative theories. There is no large island or continental land–form and no sea that cannot be accounted for. Instead, as the energy path is followed through, more and more information resulting from concurrent action is revealed. Unfortunately, in following the mytho-historical record and accepting it as correct, it was not possible to make a clear distinction between past Ages because no clear line had been drawn between the Deluge and the Flood. The Book of Moses is accepted as the infallible scriptural record and Moses is regarded as living in the era of the Flood. However, in Genesis, Ch. 1, verse 14, Moses relates of the time when there were seasons before the advent of night and day – even though it was the two greater lights (Sun and Moon) that brought night and day to era 3,500 years before the Flood. Therefore, both the event of the Deluge and the event of the Flood appear to have been merged in the telling, but I consider that each of these events marked the end of one era and the beginning of the next, with the upheaval accompanying each transition providing material for a spate of sedimentary deposition – in river valleys to begin with and later in delta regions. There was also aggradation in inlets and bays as the transported material reached the sea and moved along the coast. When given their correct dating according to the historical record, on the global scale these indicated two separate dates. The best example of this is in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley which has been dated in two stages: a) c. 7,000 years ago – the area towards the confluence of the two rivers, b) 3-4,000 years ago – the area further from there through the swamplands, which are in an eutrophic state, to the coast. The absence of lateral coastal currents in the gulf has enabled the sedimentation process to proceed without the usual coastal erosion that affects most other deltas. As in the case of most earthquakes, there may be one or more small preliminary tremors followed by several after-shocks, as the the disturbed mass settles and returns to equilibrium with its environment. A preliminary quake may loosen the first material deposited, with the bulk coming from the damage caused by the main quake. While after-shocks continue, material will be loosened for transport, with the average volume of the bed-load of the rivers and streams decreasing as the material becomes depleted. A shift of the Earth's axis would have provided the material for the second phase. While the actual trigger of the event was quick, the process in its complete form would have extended over a considerable period. The story of these two events is told in its cryptic form in the mythological and historical records, but they await suitable translation. Most geologists have opposed and disregarded these accounts and substituted their own, based on a false chronological timescale relating to a period long before the date indicated by the scriptural record for the Creation. The Creation (when Earth, as a satellite of Saturn, was accumulating its smooth form) is told in the ancient literature as follows: They say the first Earth was much greater than the present, higher and more advanc'd into the Air: That it was smooth and regular in its surface, without Mountains or Valleys, but hollow within,[3 ] and was spontaneously fruitful, without ploughing or sowing [4 ]. The only true record of a timescale is the Earth itself. The formation of the Earth as a celestial body was a physical creation long before time could be measured. Although the biblical record tells of events before Creation, the biblical Creation and first catastrophe, or Deluge, which ended the Paradisical Age, begins with the break-up of the smooth form into the broken state it is today. This occurred when Saturn was banished to the netherworld, according to one of several versions, and Earth's crustal bulge, or mountain, consequently collapsed. The reflected light from Saturn was replaced by the weaker reflection of the Moon as Earth changed from being a satellite of Saturn to being a planet in its own right., in its own orbit about the Sun. With the Moon, born of Earth, as its new satellite and rotating on the Plane of the Ecliptic, Earth experienced a regular night and day for the first time and a continuous spring climate, known as the Golden Age, was enjoyed by most people in the Northern hemisphere. This Golden Age lasted until the tilting of the Earth about 3,500 years later with records until the advent of the Flood being handed down orally and only much later being written down. Some of these remain undeciphered and of those that have been deciphered it is highly likely some were influenced by prevailing contemporary conditions rather than by long past conditions described in the oral histories. But if Homer's epics were recited and sung, what was their purpose? Clearly, they were more than after-dinner entertainment. They were works of genius, designed to tell listeners where their roots lay and what made them what they were. To do so they included vast amounts of information, so much that Eric Havelock called them tribal encyclopaedias [5 and 6]. What could be more natural than for the contemporary historian to modify his story so that it is better understood and retained in his present environment? He was never aware that his record would one day have to stand up in a court of law. Where the truth is not evident assumptions are made and when assumptions cannot be refuted they tend to assume the status of facts. A similar process operates with comparative mythology. Because a difference between the Deluge and the Flood was not clearly determined, it was assumed that the Deluge and the Flood were one and the same event. However, when the available evidence is taken into account, it can be seen that they were several thousand years apart and geological erosion cycles indicate the interval as being about 3,500 years.
_Notes and references
1. Thomas Burnet. 1691, The Sacred Theory of the Earth, Book II, Ch. VIII, p. 192. (Using a reprint published in 1965). See also Knowledge Computing's CD-Rom Catastrophism: Man, Myth and Mayhem in Ancient History and the Sciences'.
2. George Grinell, The Origins of Modern Geological Theory', Kronos, Volume I:4 , Winter 1976.
3. The term hollow within' would be a state similar to that of Moses' Tohem Rabbah, which would be an apt description of limestone caverns containing a vast store of water. A surviving form of this type would be the Nullarbor Plains of Southern Australia.
4. Fransisco Patricio. 1562. Cited by Thomas Burnet in The Sacred Theory of the Earth (1699 edition).
5. John Man. 2000. Alpha Beta, How Our Alphabet Shaped the Western World.
6. Eric Havelock. The Muse Learns to Write, New Haven, London 1986.


New Zealand Maoris Myths [Journals] [SIS Internet Digest]
... From: SIS Internet Digest 2000:2 (Dec 2000) Home | Issue Contents New Zealand Maoris Myths Gordon Williams, Sat, 22 Jul 2000
_This is a short comment on "The Day the Sun Stood Still". One of the better known myths of the New Zealand Maoris, a branch of the Polynesian family tells this story. The Maoris were becoming increasingly dissatisfied by the short length of the days. Maui, the most powerful god decided to rectify this. With his brothers he paddled towards the sunrise and waited for the Sun to appear. When it did they cast the net wide to trap the Sun. The struggling of the Sun shook the earth but was eventually beaten into submission when it was ready to promise Maui that it would move more slowly through the heavens. The anger of the Mooris was appeased. About 90 deg of longitude to the east of New Zealand the Polynesians of Hawaii tell a similar story. They intended trapping the Sun for the same reason but because of their position they waited for the Sun to arrive. Each time it put a tentacle over the horizon the Hawaians securely tethered it. Eventually all tentacles were securely tethered and they were able to extract the same promise from the sun who was released to go on his way. Without knowing the background, or wanting to know, the background [of] these stories have been regarded as pure myth. The third story comes from the Greek mythology. It is told in the NLEM. p. 142. (N.B. Any discrepancy between this story may be taken [as] an illustration of how myths become changed.) In a rash moment Helios promised his son, Phaeton, that one day he would let him drive the sun chariot through the heavens. Almost immediately Helios realised what a foolish promise he had made. However, Phaeton was not going to be put off and pleaded with his father to allow him to take the reins. Helios finally relented because as a god he was obliged to honour his promise. The day when Phaeton was to take the reins and Helios, reluctant as he was, handed over control. Pheaton set off but it was soon apparent from the erratic course followed by the team that Phaeton was not in control. Eventually the escape was resolved when Zeus shot a thunderbolt at the sun chariot and it fell into the sea of Aridanus. The prime reason for this myth being consigned to the realm of fantasy is the movement of the chariot. The chariot is the sun and its position and orbit remains unchanged. But hold on a moment. How many of you have had a flight in a small plane as it performed even simple manoeuvres. Although your position is fixed relative to the aircraft, the horizon is moving each and every way. However, you are wise enough to realise that it is your viewing platform [that] is unstable. And so it is with the Helios/Phaethon myth, it is your platform Earth that is unstable. And so it was with the three stories told above. We realise that each is describing the same event, the efects of the tilting of the Earth at the time. (See "Our Tilted Earth", SIS Workshop, 1994/1) The tasks of Hercules accounted for some changes that took place, e.g. opening the Pillars of Gibraltar. Perhaps Jason rode with the flood through the Bosphorus as the Black Sea filled up. To understand a myth look for the base upon which it is founded. Many are global in extent. E.J. (Ted) Bond, Wed, 26 Jul 2000 I forgot to add that this is perfectly compatible with Velikovsky's account of the day the sun stood still. TedB.


Letters [Journals] [SIS Review]
... after a 6th century AD monk, St. Brynach, experienced visions there. He claimed to have spoken with the angels. There is also evidence of very early human activity at Carn Ingli, suggesting that it was venerated for thousands of years. The strange effects are caused by a fossilised geomagnetic field contained in the iron content of the peak. Strange light phenomena, even in the form of rainbows gleaming over the peak at night, have been recorded in fairly recent years. The author claims to have discovered similar magnetic anomalies in America, at holy sites of native Americans. Radioactivity is another feature common to holy places. Uranium deposits have been found at American and Australian Aborigine sites. It is claimed that even in France the distribution of megaliths corresponds very well with known uranium deposits. This would be especially pertinent where those same megalithic sites were found to be also located near or on fault lines. Even small tremors may have generated a radioactive response, or some kind of phenomenon associated with the gods. Radiation locked inside rocks has been found at Long Meg in Cumbria and Moel ty Uchef in Wales and in the Cornish dolmen of Chun Quoit. At the Rollright Stones in Oxfordshire there was little radiation in the stones, but monitoring revealed an area outside the site that gave high readings. It is not known why. The King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid is clad with granite brought from Aswan. It has high natural radioactivity. The author suggests that this was a purposeful element of the design. No doubt arguments could be made contrary to this position ... but what if he is right? What does it mean? A Belgian researcher, Pierre Mereaux, found magnetic anomalies around the Carnac Stone rows. John Michel, author of the 1960's bestseller, The View Over Atlantis, was the first person to suggest a direct link between standing stones and fault lines. Many years later, this novel idea was given scientific credibility during a study of stone circles. This found that many of those looked at were situated within a mile of a surface fault or tectonic intrusion. However, this does not apply to henge monuments and standing stones are too numerous to have been examined and catalogued in detail. Mereaux also noted the Carnac Stones were hemmed in by fault lines. What might any of this have to do with Wal Thornhill's Electrified Universe I wonder? It is worth noting that during catastrophic incidents, fault lines, uranium deposits and geomagnetic anomalies may have exhibited weird and wonderful aspects, incredible light phenomena that could have impressed the people of the time. This means they may not have the kind of astronomical origins we, and others, have been looking for. Mereaux has a pet theory too, a link with balls of gas or energy that he claims are released along fault lines during earth tremors, even very small ones. This can be seen as a possible explanation of the UFO lights that were very popular in the 1950's and 1960's, during the formative periods of Devereux and Michel as prolific authors. UFO's affected both of them but neither were into little green men from Mars. Michel is an extremely eloquent speaker and writes with broad brush strokes on a subject that has very often been seen as the fringe of science. However, as the years tick by, the fog seems to lift and Michel can be seen as innovative in many respects. It is known that many ancient sites were built on fault lines. Delphi in Greece, for example, the Althing in Iceland, the Serpent Mound in Ohio and Machu Picchu in the Andes. Light phenomena, or gas balls, are occasionally a feature of fault lines. During catastrophic incidents this must have increased considerably. Mountains on fault lines exhibit, even nowadays, great sheets of light, like blankets floating in the sky, gushing forth in many colours. It is, perhaps, simplistic just to think in terms of comets and meteoric firework displays. Catastrophic too. These factors seem to be wholly relevant to the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD. The folklore attached to St. Columba and several other early saints of the Celtic Church is explicable in terms of enhanced sun activity, increased electro-magnetism at the poles and auroral phenomena. Sacred sites may have earned a reputation due to light and other phenomena at particular moments in history. Holy wells are an example of the process, as their roots may lie in a sudden appearance of water out of the ground during tectonic disturbances. Christian holy wells seem to very often have origins in the 5th and 6th centuries AD. They were venerated for many generations after these signs of wonder and astonishment. Holy mountains are very often associated with light phenomena, or dragons – in the Americas, China, India, etc. Pendle Hill in Lancashire is a British example, having connections with witches and things that go bump in the night. It was also associated with visions and the beginnings of the Quaker movement and, in more recent years, with UFO's. This might add a further dimension to the Moses story and the Mountain of God. Could it have been a light phenomenon associated with tectonic activity in the bowels of the mountain that Moses experienced, possibly even an element of radiation? The alternative might be an electrical event of some kind [see Emmet Sweeney's Horeb: The Mountain of God' in this issue]. Comments by other readers would be interesting. I take on board the significance to be attached to the fact that Moses was thought to have actually encountered God. Might this have been his likeness, I wonder – an extremely bright light? Phillip Clapham, High Wycombe, Bucks. Dear Reader Re: Derek Allan's article in C&C Review 2004:1 (incorporating C&C Workshop 2004:2 ), I support the summation of the situation as he sees it with respect to the Ice Age. Personally, I do not believe there was an Ice Age. What is seen is evidence of the extent of the normal polar ice sheet at its greatest in the latter part of the Golden Age; when Earth rotated on the plane of the ecliptic and when the poles were in the North Atlantic and south of western South Australia. With the shift of the poles the ice became centred on the poles in their present position and the extent of the ice has been steadily reduced by the annual migration of the Sun from Cancer to Capricorn and back. In this annual variation of the Sun there is a much more efficient contributor to global warming than air pollution that has been working away since the Flood and Exodus 3,500 YPB. Gordon Williams, Palmerston North, New Zealand


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