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LK2 Fossils & Dating / UPDATE/C14
« on: May 27, 2019, 12:42:25 pm »
1. SIS/STONEHENGE; 2. ENYART/C14; 3. APPLICATIONS

1. SIS
C14 plateau affects Stonehenge dating
http://www.sis-group.org.uk/news/c14-plateau-affects-stonehenge-dating.htm
Archaeology
14 Dec 2012
Mike Parker-Pearson, on page 344 of his 2012 book, Stonehenge, says that when all sorts of things were going on, between 2470 and 2280BC, we are unable to precisely date the sequence of events as the calibration curve flattens out at this point in time. It is more or less impossible to get a single date any more precise than the broad 190 year plateau. We cannot be certain of the order in which things happened. Right on the button, somewhere within this plateau, is the low growth tree ring event Mike Baillie dates to 2345BC - central in the thrust of the series of SIS articles we have published by the late Moe Mandelkehr.
However, two events are associated elsewhere with the end of the Early Bronze Age in Sumeria, Egypt and the Levant, separated by around 150 to 200 years. In i) Sumeria = end of Early Dynastic III and end of Akkad, and ii) in Egypt end of dynasty 5 and dynasty 6, and iii) in the Levant end of Early Bronze III and IV. In Britain the C14 plateau is marked by the end of the Neolithic era, followed by the so called Copper Age, and again, followed by the Early Bronze Age (until around 1600BC). Now, looking at Stonehenge we might ask ourselves - is the plateau in C14 levels (an increase or a double increase episodes) as a result of two events. Why do plateaus in C14 appear to congregate near anomalous events such as narrow growth tree ring clusters? This is especially noticeable at i) the Younger Dryas boundary event, 13,000 years ago, the end of the Ice Age, anywhere between 18,000 and 15,000 years ago, and iii) the mass die off event somewhere between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago. This plateau is so big nothing prior to it can be dated by the C14 methodology. It would actually be useful to have a catalogue of C14 plateaus as they persisted right through the Holocene period. For instance, around 800BC, and C14 dates in the Late Roman period have thrown up several archaeological inconsistencies etc.

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2. ENYART (from File: EnyartDat)

Sifted

.2/19/16) 10:22AM)
Bob Enyart Live

(First part here is duplicate of BE/RAPID FORMATION)
RSR's List of Not So Old Things
http://kgov.com/list-of-not-so-old-things
Date: Jan 24, 2014 Length: 28:20

Real Science Radio hosts Bob Enyart and Fred Williams observe their annual tradition by updating their growing list of scientific observations that challenge those who claim that the earth is millions of years old. Many of these scientific finds demand a re-evaluation of supposed billion-year ages.
- Man's Genetic Diversity in 200 Generations,
- Opals Form in Months, 
- C-14 Everywhere
See also Dr. Jonathan Sarfati's great article, How Old is the Earth? and RSR's very own youngearth.com!

_1. RAPID FORMATION: ROCK
* Wet Sand Hardens into Stone in Hours: Rather than taking geologic ages, here are three methods of rapidly turning sediments rock hard:
- water and common soil bacteria, in a couple hours, turn "soft sand" into "something resembling marble more than sandstone", according to scientists at Murdoch University who have gone from lab experiments to the marketplace where they spray bacteria-laden water onto sand for landowners who want to prevent erosion. See RSR's Oops show, Science Alert, and Creation magazine's Speedy Stone article.
- vibration, forcing the water out of mud and causing the grains to settle into an extremely rock-hard material
- plain water, sprayed on soft limestone (as miners do in Australia) to turn it into hard rock.
If you are aware of documentation for these last two methods of forming rapid rocks, which were related to RSR by our listeners, please email any documentation to us. Thanks!

_1. RAPID FORMATION: SHALE
mudstone deposit* One Half of the Earth's Sedimentary Layers Given the Green Light to Speed: A paper in the journal Science has documented experimental (and common sense) evidence that refutes a fundamental uniformitarian claim that had persisted for many decades. Mudstone, secular geologists believed, had to be deposited slowly over long ages because particles of mud cannot settle, they claimed, out of fast running water but, they believed, required long ages to precipitate out of still waters. That claim, evidently false on its face but uncritically accepted because it appeared to falsify the Bible's chronology, has now been refuted as published in one of the world's most prestigious journals.

_1. RAPID FORMATION: HEART MOUNTAIN
The Heart Mountain Detachment: in Wyoming just east of Yellowstone, this mountain did not break apart slowly by uniformitarian processes but in only about half-an-hour as widely reported including in the evolutionist LiveScience.com, "Land Speed Record: Mountain Moves 62 Miles in 30 Minutes." The evidence indicates that this mountain of rock covering 425 square miles rapidly broke into 50 pieces and slid apart over an area of more than 1,300 square miles in a biblical, not a "geological," timeframe.

_1. RAPID FORMATION OF OPALS
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/398099/QN136.pdf
Opals Can Form in "A Few Months" And Don't Need 100,000 Years: A leading authority on opals, Allan W. Eckert, observed that, "scientific papers and textbooks have told that the process of opal formation requires tens of thousands of years, perhaps hundreds of thousands... Not true." A 2011 peer-reviewed paper in a geology journal from Australia, where almost all the world's opal is found, reported on the "new timetable for opal formation involving weeks to a few months and not the hundreds of thousands of years envisaged by the conventional weathering model." More knowledgeable scientists resist the uncritical, group-think insistence on false super-slow formation rates.... Regarding opals, Darwinian bias led geologists to long ignore possible quick action, as from microbes, as a possible explanation for these mineraloids. For both in nature and in the lab, opals form rapidly, not even in 10,000 years, but in weeks.
(What also form rapidly are: manganese nodules, gold veins, stone, petroleum, canyons and gullies, and even gut fossils, all below)

_1. RAPID FORMATION: GOLD
Gold Precipitates in Veins in Less than a Second: After geologists submitted for decades to the assumption that each layer of gold would deposit at the alleged super slow rates of geologic process, the journal Nature Geoscience reports that each layer of deposition can occur within a few tenths of a second. Meanwhile, at the Lihir gold deposit in Papua New Guinea, evolutionists assumed the more than 20 million ounces of gold in the Lihir reserve took millions of years to deposit, but as reported in the journal Science, geologists can now demonstrate that the deposit could have formed in thousands of years, or far more quickly!

_1. RAPID FORMATION: CANYON
Box Canyon, Idaho: Geologists now think Box Canyon in Idaho, USA, was carved by a catastrophic flood and not slowly over millions of years with 1) huge plunge pools formed by waterfalls; 2) the almost complete removal of large basalt boulders from the canyon; 3) an eroded notch on the plateau at the top of the canyon; and 4) water scour marks on the basalt plateau leading to the canyon. Scientists calculate that the flood was so large that it could have eroded the whole canyon in as little as 35 days. See the journal Science, Formation of Box Canyon, Idaho, by Megaflood.

_1. RAPID FORMATION: MANGANESE NODULES
Source of beer can claim: World Almanac documentary* Manganese Nodules Rapid Formation: Allegedly, as claimed at the Wikipedia entry from 2005 through 2014: "Nodule growth is one of the slowest of all geological phenomena – in the order of a centimeter over several million years." Wow, that would be slow! And a Texas A&M Marine Sciences technical slide presentation says, “They grow very slowly (mm/million years) and can be tens of millions of years old.” But according to a World Almanac documentary they have formed "around beer cans," said marine geologist Dr. John Yates in the 1997 video Universe Beneath the Sea: The Next Frontier. There are also reports of manganese nodules forming around ships sunk in the First World War. See more at at youngearth.com, at TOL, in the print edition of the Journal of Creation, and in this typical forum discussion with atheists (at the Chicago Cubs forum no less :).

--- (Above is duplicate of BE/RAPID FORMATION)
--- (The rest below is not duplicate)

2a. - Diamonds from Botswana carbon-14 dated at 55,000 years old mined from rock dated 2 billion years old
2a. - Mount St. Helens rock that should date as solidifying 30 years ago but dating 350,000 to 2.8 million years old
2a. - Geologists say Uganda lava is just thousands of years ago but it's radioactively dated at 773 million years old
And separately, as microbial action forms opals rapidly, is there a similar function with cell membrane chemistry [a]ffecting the formation of Dolomite.

2a. RADIOACTIVE DECAY: C14 DATING
Accelerator Mass Spectrometer* Carbon-14 Found Everywhere It's Not Supposed To Be: Carbon-14, C14, decays in only thousands of years and therefore cannot last for millions. Thus evolutionists did not expect to find C-14 EVERYWHERE it shouldn't be if the earth were old (Answers 2011). Carbon-14 is found in petrified wood, coal, oil, limestone, graphite, natural gas, marble, deep ground water, dinosaur fossils, and even in supposedly billion-year-old diamonds! A secondary assumption by old-earth scientists proposes that the C-14 in diamonds (coal, etc.) must have come from C-13 and neutron capture. However, first, radio activity is concentrated in continental rock (see RSR Prediction below), and secondly, relatively speaking, radioactivity is relatively scar[c]e even in the continental crust, at least as documented by this U.S.G.S. report for enormous swatches of land. Thirdly, a geologist with a degree from Colorado's School of Mines who has a background in nuclear physics (who also spent years bombarding various elements with neutrons to make isotopes for industry), explained to RSR that Carbon does not easily absorb neutrons because it is the heavier elements beginning with Sodium that readily capture neutrons. Further, while it is possible but extremely unlikely that a Carbon atom will capture a free neutron, industrial processes use Carbon to slow down neutrons, whereas they use heavier elements, typically starting with Silicon, which is almost double the atomic weight of Carbon, for neutron capture. Consider also, as Dr. Paul Giem writes, that "since nitrogen-14 captures neutrons 110,000 times more easily than does carbon-13," samples with even tiny amounts of nitrogen would dramatically increase carbon dates, such that, "If neutron capture is a significant source of carbon-14 in a given sample, radiocarbon dates should vary wildly with the nitrogen content of the sample." Giem adds, "I know of no such data." And recognizing that U.S.G.S report of scarce crustal radioactivity for coal, basalt, shales, granite, fly ash, etc., Dr. Jonathan Sarfati builds upon Dr. Giem's research arguing that neutron capture could account for less than one 10,000th of the C-14 in diamonds (see these peer-reviewed calculations). See more at rsr.org/Carbon-14.

2a. RADIOACTIVE DECAY: HELIUM
* Helium Found Everywhere It's Not Supposed to Be: By the evolutionary time frame, zircon crystals should not have loads of helium in them, but they do. The periodic table shows helium to be an ultralight element. As even birthday balloons suggest, because its atom is so tiny helium easily escapes from virtually any enclosures, especially natural ones, including from crystals! The crystal lattice is large compared to the size of the tiny helium atom and any movement from natural molecular vibrations, especially as increased by temperature variations, will result in helium escaping any confinement. Empirical laboratory experiments confirm this obvious physical reality. Continental crust contains uranium, and uranium has a super slow half-life and its decay chain produces helium. The above facts enable us to test a huge assumption made by old-earth geologists, namely, That zircons, which also contain radioactive uranium, are a billion years old. :) If Real Science Radio on the periodic tablezircons were that old, and if uranium always decayed slowly over hundreds of millions of years, then zircons should have almost no helium in them becuase it would have diffused out relatively quickly. However,  a Ph.D. geophysicist from Los Alamos Nat'l Labs and other physicists and scientists published a prediction of the rate of helium diffusion from zircons at various temperatures. A high-precision laboratory then measured actual diffusion rates which dramatically matched their predictions, which were based on a 6,000 year age of the zircons. Meanwhile, a prediction based on billion-year ages would be off by a factor of about 10,000. more...

2a. DATING METHODS INACCURACIES
Accelerator Mass Spectrometer* Even Faster Rocks: As listed in Dec, 2010 Creation Matters, radiometric dating by Rubidium-Strontium gives a 1.3 billion year age for lava atop the Grand Canyon which would be 300 million years older than the Precambrian basalt at the bottom of the canyon, as reported by Steven Austin, Ph.D. Also, the Potassium-Argon dating method incorrectly indicates that certain minerals hardened into stone 350,000 years ago, when in reality they solidified just recently, in 1986, from lava that flowed six years after the enormous 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. And some of the mineral within the then ten-year old rock was wrongly dated as having solidified two million years earlier.

DATING
MORE: From Creation magazine as discussed on RSR:
2b. - Fossil wood from England dated at 25,000 years by carbon-14 embedded in allegedly 183-million year old limestone
2b. - Mammal hair found in supposedly 100 million year old amber looks surprisingly "similar" to... modern hair

2b. SHORT EVOLUTION: HONEY BEES
European and Asian Honey Bee Can Still "Talk" to Each Other. A researcher decided to put the two together to see what would happen. They are still able to communicate, putting into doubt the evolutionary claim that they were separated for 7 million years. See the Public Library of Science.

2b. FOSSILS: STANDING NAUTILOIDS
In the Grand Canyon there is a limestone layer averaging seven feet thick that runs the 277 miles of the canyon (and beyond) that covers hundreds of square miles and contains an average of one nautiloid fossil per square meter. Along with many other dead creatures in this one particular layer, 15% of these nautiloids were killed and then fossilized standing on their heads. Yes, vertically. They were caught in such an intense and rapid catastrophic flow that gravity was not able to cause all of their dead carcasses to fall over on their sides. Famed Mount St. Helens geologist Steve Austin is also the world's leading expert on nautiloid fossils and has worked in the canyon and presented his findings to the park's rangers at the invitation of National Park Service officials. Austin points out, as is true of many of the world's mass fossil graveyards, that this enormous nautiloid deposition provides indisputable proof of the extremely rapid formation of a significant layer of limestone near the bottom of the canyon, a layer like the others we've been told about, that allegedly formed at the bottom of a calm and placid sea with slow and gradual sedimentation. But a million nautiloids, standing on their heads, literally, would beg to differ. At our sister stie, RSR provides the relevant Geologic Society of America abstract, links, and video.

2b. FROZEN LEAVES
*  Now It's Allegedly Two Million Year-Old Leaves: "When we started pulling leaves out of the soil, that was surreal, to know that it's millions of years old..." sur-re-al: adjective: a bizarre mix of fact and fantasy. In this case, the leaves are the facts. Earth scientists from Ohio State and the University of Minnesota say that wood and leaves they found in the Canadian Arctic are at least two million years old, and perhaps more than ten million years old, even though the leaves are just dry and crumbly and the wood still burns!

2b. DINOSAUR SOFT TISSUES + DNA
Check out these images among a dozen journal papers confirming dinosaur soft tissue* After the Soft Tissue Discoveries, NOW Dino DNA: Back in 2007 a North Carolina State University paleontologist took the Tyrannosaurus Rex photos to the right of original biological material. Now, in 2013, the dinosaur soft tissue discoveries include DNA, blood vessels, collagen, osteocytes, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and various proteins, as published in many leading scientific journals, including Nature, Science, PNAS, PLoS One, Bone, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, which have published peer-reviewed papers confirming the discovery of original biological material and even of dinosaur soft tissue  from many dinosaurs and dinosaur-layer creatures including from T. Rex., hadrosaur, titanosaur, triceratops, Lufengosaur, mosasaur, and Archaeopteryx.
- See the web's most complete listing of these journal papers, with links and excerpts, at RSR's DinosaurSoftTissue.com #research.

2b. SOFT TISSUE FOSSILS: SQUID INK
"150 Million" year-old Squid Ink Not Decomposed: This still-writable ink had dehydrated but had not decomposed! The British Geological Survey's Dr. Phil Wilby, who excavated the fossil, said, "It is difficult to imagine how you can have something as soft and sloppy as an ink sac fossilised in three dimensions, still black, and inside a rock that is 150 million years old." And the Daily Mail states that, "the black ink was of exactly the same structure as that of today’s version", just desiccated. And Wilby added, "Normally you would find only the hard parts like the shell and bones fossilised but... these creatures... can be dissected as if they are living animals, you can see the muscle fibres and cells. It is difficult to imagine... The structure is similar to ink from a modern squid so we can write with it..." Why is this difficult for evolutionists to imagine? Because as Dr. Carl Wieland writes, "Chemical structures 'fall apart' all by themselves over time due to the randomizing effects of molecular motion."

2b. SOFT TISSUE FOSSILS: CUTTLEFISH INK
* "160 Million" year-old Cuttlefish "ink sacs somehow escaped decomposition": Yes. Somehow. In their May 2012 National Geographic article, Fossil Ink Sacs Yield Jurassic Pigment--A First, the NG editors report that the ink is "'strikingly' similar to that of modern cuttlefish". [But as RSR says, read this as "identical" to modern cuttlefish, similar to the multitude of examples documented by creation Dr. Carl Werner in his fabulous Living Fossils DVD.] RSR appreciates evolutionary scientist and ink study co-author, University of Virginia Prof. John D. Simon, for acknowledging that, "As far as we can tell by everything we've thrown at it, the [ancient] ink is indistinguishable from modern ink." Hopefully though, Dr. Simon will reconsider the mountain of evidence for a young earth. For only  then can he help his students understand how it is possible, as Nat'l Geographic reports, that "the Jurassic ink sacs somehow escaped decomposition, providing scientists with 'exceptional' soft tissue specimens." Exceptional. Yes!

2b. SOFT TISSUE & POLYSTRATE FOSSILS
Removed Yellowstone Petrified Tree Sign:
Rare School of Jellyfish Fossilized: Previously, seven sedimentary layers had been described as taking a million years to form. And because jellyfish have no skeleton, it is rare to find them among fossils. But now, reported in the journal Geology, a school of jellyfish fossils have been found throughout those same seven layers in central Wisconsin, showing that they were not deposited over a million years, but during a single event and quickly enough to trap a school of jellyfish. This fossil school, therefore, taken as a unit forms a polystrate fossil.
- Examples are everywhere that falsify the claims of strata deposition over millions of years and even though they rarely fossilize, there's another locale with jellyfish fossils in multiple layers, in the Brockman Iron Formation in northwestern Australia. (Evolution's Big Squeeze: Like galaxies evolving just too quickly, and galaxy clusters no less, jellyfish too have gotten into the act squeezing the evolution timeline, here by 200 million years when they were found in strata allegedly a half-a-billion years old, and other examples, ironically referred to as Medusoid Problematica, are even found in pre-Cambrian strata!)
- Likewise, see the 171 tadpoles, and the whale, separately, all fossilized in a polystrate way in diatom deposits. And then, remember all those whales buried in the desert in Chile? According to Dr. Nick Pyenson, "What's really interesting is that this didn't just happen once. It happened four times," said this Smithsonian Institution evolutionist. Why's that? Because "the fossil site has at least four layers", to which Real Science Radio's Bob Enyart replies: "Ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha", with RSR co-host Fred Williams thoughtfully adding, "Ha ha!"

2b. RAPID FORMATION: POLYSTRATE FOSSILS
Polystrate Fossils: In a thousand locations including the Fossil Cliffs of Joggins, Nova Scotia, polystrate fossils such as trees span many strata. Not only should such fossils, generally, not exist, but polystrate trees, jellyfish, and whales, etc., typically show no evidence of erosion increasing with height. All of this powerfully disproves the claim that the layers were deposited slowly over millions of years.

2b. PETRIFIED TREES: FLOOD DEPOSITION
Removed Yellowstone Petrified Tree Sign* Yellowstone Petrified Tree Sign Removed: The National Park Service removed their incorrect sign (see left). The NPS had claimed that in dozens of different strata over a 40-square mile area, many petrified trees were still standing where they had grown. The NPS eventually removed the sign partly because those petrified trees had no root systems at their bases, which they would have had if they had grown there. Instead, the trees of this "fossil forest" have roots that are abruptly broken off within two or three feet of the base of the tree trunks. If these mature trees actually had been remnants of sequential forests that had grown up in strata layer on top of strata layer, 27 times on Specimen Ridge (and 50 times at Specimen Creek), such a natural history may imply passage of more time than permitted by biblical chronology. No root systems on Yellowstone petrified trees shows they did NOT grow in place...Long before we adopted the Real Science Radio name, Bob Enyart broadcast a geology program about the catastrophic destruction of forests and the hydraulic transportation and upright deposition of trees. The chief ranger from Haleakala National Park on Hawaii's island of Maui, Mark Tanaka-Sanders, whom Bob had the honor of meeting (over dinner in Mark's home) corresponded with his colleagues at Yellowstone urging them to remove the sign, which they did. (See also AIG, CMI, and all the original Yellowstone exhibit photos.) Groundbreaking research conducted by creation geologist Dr. Steve Austin in Spirit Lake after the eruption of Mount St. Helens provided a modern-day analog to the formation of Yellowstone fossil forest. A steam blast from that volcano blew over tens of thousands of trees leaving them without attached roots. Many thousands of those trees were floating upright in Spirit Lake, and began sinking at varying rates into rapidly and sporadically deposited sediments. Once Yellowstone's successive forest interpretation was falsified (though like with junk DNA, it's too big to fail, so many atheists and others still cling to it), the erroneous sign was removed.

2b. RAPID FORMATION: ISLAND ECOSYSTEM
Surtsey Island, Iceland: Of the volcanic island that formed in 1963, New Scientist reported in 2007 about Surtsey that "geographers... marvel that canyons, gullies and other land features that typically take tens of thousands or millions of years to form were created in less than a decade." Yes. And Iceland's official geologist wrote in the months after Surtsey formed, "that the time scale," he had been trained "to attach to geological developments is misleading." For what is said to "take thousands of years... the same development may take a few weeks or even days here," including to form "a landscape... so varied and mature that it was almost beyond belief" with "wide sandy beaches and precipitous crags... gravel banks and lagoons, impressive cliffs… hollows, glens and soft undulating land... fractures and faultscarps, channels and screes… confounded by what met your eye... boulders worn by the surf, some of which were almost round..."

2b. SHORT EVOLUTION: GENOMES
Genome "History" Contradicts Alleged Tree of Life: the chimpanzee Y chromosome and the genomes of  kangaroos, worms, and sponges [are also recent].

2b. FOSSIL REEF CATASTROPHISM
Fossil "Reefs":  As we report in our Real Science Radio program on modern reefs and alleged fossil "reefs" (rsr.org/reefs), PhD geologist Andrew Snelling did a great job presenting the widespread secular, peer-reviewed journal conclusions that fossil reefs are not reefs at all, that they lack the reef framework of layers upon layers of skeletons, and that they cannot be explained by comparison to modern reefs. Rather, "fossil reefs" are typically jumbled and broken flood deposits which often lack widespread remains of the very creatures that form reefs. Likewise Dr. Tas Walker undermined the old-earth argument for paleosols (alleged ancient soil horizons which are actually pseudosols), which typically lack multiple diagnostic features including lacking evidence of roots, lacking expected layer horizons, and where relevant, lack the burned organic matter that would have been expected from overlying lava flows). And Dr. John Woodmorappe likewise undermined the old-earth argument regarding alleged paleokarsts (geologic column strata supposedly shaped by long exposure to surface erosion, a.k.a. pseudokarsts).

2b. RAPID FORMATION: OIL
* Algae to Petroleum in Less than One Hour: Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have discovered a way of turning algae into crude oil. They begin with "algae and water, and have remarkably turned the mixture into a kind of crude oil in less than an hour. The crude oil is suitable to be turned into burnable gases like jet fuel, gasoline or diesel." See this in the must-read Creation magazine, and you may enjoy CMI's Oil Not Always a Fossil Fuel!

2b. FOSSIL PROTEIN
* Fossils with Protein, DNA and Bacteria: For years evolutionists ridiculed the greatest paleontological discovery in history, dinosaur soft tissue, in deference to their old-earth evolutionary assumptions. Now that original dinosaur tissue and even T. rex DNA has been found, the existence of biological material and even living bacteria in allegedly million-year-old specimens should be acknowledge[d] and re-assessed. As listed by Dr. Walt Brown…

2b. FOSSIL DNA & BACTERIA
- allegedly 17 million  year old magnolia leaf contains DNA (Scientific American 1993)
- allegedly 80 million year old hadrosaur and T. rex DNA (the Journal Bone, 2013)
- allegedly 120 million  year old insect fossil contains DNA  (Nature 1993)
- allegedly 200 million  year old fish fossil contains DNA (Science. News 1992)
- allegedly 30 million  year old bee fossil contains LIVING bacteria (Science 1995)
- allegedly 600 million  year old rock contains LIVING bacillus (Nature 2000).

2b. DATING: AMINO ACIDS
* Initial Tests Show Mostly Left-Handed Amino Acids in Amber, Shale, Titanosaur & T. rex Eggshells, and Chert! Like hands and hockey sticks, some molecules are right or left handed. Life uses 100% left-handed amino acids to build proteins (and purely right-handed sugars to build DNA). The laws of chemistry demonstrate that after death, amino acids racemize back to a 50-50 mixture of right- and left-handed acids. England's Royal Society published a time range for this physical process which, "produces totally racemized amino acids in 10(5)-10(6) [100,000 to 1,000,000] years in most environments on the Earth." (So researchers have even begun dating whale carcasses by the spherical growth patterns in the eye by measuring the percent of left-handed acids in each lens layer.) Yet allegedly far older insects in amber yield mostly left-handed amino acids such that researchers shockingly suggest a half-life of a billion years for racemization in amber! See more at rsr.org/dinos#amino-acids.

2b. RAPID EVOLUTION: LIZARDS
Lizard "evovles" new gut in 37 years! :)* Lizard "Evolves" New Gut in 37 Years! A change in habitat forced a vegetarian diet upon Podarcis sicula lizards. The leafy diet in turn activated pre-existing genetic instructions that modified the digestive system in the offspring of seven lizards that had been transported to a nearby island in 1971. When existing genetic information suddently expresses itself, biased scientists, like the Darwin marketing reps at National Geographic, will attempt to trick folks who are not paying close attention into believing that mutation and natural selection created some new biological information. The NG headline reads, "Lizards Rapidly Evolve After Introduction to Island" and the article wrongly claims that, "They evolved an expanded gut [with cecal valves] to allow them to process these leaves... This was a brand-new structure." Once again the pop science press misrepresented the actual findings of a scientific paper. For other populations of related species, and of the exact same species, have the same structure! "These valves are similar in overall appearance and structure to those found in herbivorous lacertid, agamid, and iguanid lizards and are not found in other populations of P. sicula or in P. melisellensis."

2c. HUMANS: 6,000 YEARS
"6,000 year-old" Mitochondrial Eve: As the Bible calls "Eve... the mother of all living" (Gen. 3:20), genetic researchers have named the one woman from whom all humans have descended "Mitochondrial Eve." But in a scientific attempt to date her existence, they openly admit that they included chimpanzee DNA in their analysis in order to get what they viewed as a reasonably old date of 200,000 years ago (which is still surprisingly recent from their perspective, but old enough not to strain Darwinian theory too much). But then as widely reported including by Science magazine, when they dropped the chimp data and used only actual human mutation rates, that process determined that Eve lived only six thousand years ago! In Ann Gibbon's Science article, "Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock," rather than again using circular reasoning by assuming their conclusion (that humans evolved from ape-like creatures), they performed their calculations using actual measured mutation rates. This peer-reviewed journal then reported that if these rates have been constant, "mitochondrial Eve… would be a mere 6000 years old." See also the journal Nature and creation.com's "A shrinking date for Eve," and Walt Brown's assessment. Expectedly though, evolutionists have found a way to reject their own unbiased finding (the conclusion contrary to their self-interest) by returning to their original method of using circular reasoning, as reported in the American Journal of Human Genetics, "calibrating against recent evidence for the divergence time of humans and chimpanzees,"  to reset their mitochondrial clock back to 200,000 years.

2c. HUMANS: 200 GENERATIONS
Most Human Mutations Arose in 200 Generations: From Adam until Real Science Radio, in only 200 generations! The journal Nature reports The Recent Origin of Most Human Protein-coding Variants. As summarized by geneticist co-author Joshua Akey, "Most of the mutations that we found arose in the last 200 generations or so" (the same number previously published by biblical creationists). Another 2012 paper, in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (Eugenie Scott's own field) on High mitochondrial mutation rates, shows that one mitochondrial DNA mutation occurs every other generation, which, as creationists point out, indicates that mtEve would have lived about 200 generations ago. That's not so old!

2c. HUMANS: Under 6,000 YEARS
Even Younger Y-Chromosomal Adam: (Although he should be called, "Y-Chromosomal Noah.") While we inherit our mtDNA only from our mothers, only men have a Y chromosome. Based on documented mutation rates on and the extraordinary lack of mutational differences in this specifically male DNA, the Y-chromosomal Adam would have lived only a few thousand years ago! (He's significantly younger than mtEve because of the genetic bottleneck of the global flood.) Yet while the Darwinian camp wrongly claimed for decades that humans were 98% genetically similar to chimps, secular scientists today, using the same type of calculation only more accurately, have unintentionally documented that chimps are about as far genetically from what makes a human being a male, as mankind itself is from sponges! Geneticists have found now that sponges are 70% the same as humans genetically, and separately, that human and chimp Y chromosomes are  "horrendously" 30% different. (See also Why Was Canaan Cursed?)

2c. DATING: NEANDERTHALS
* A Not So Old Tooth: This "Neanderthal tooth" was initially dated by the inaccurate "rock layer method" to tens of thousands of years old. Now, secular scientists have now used reliable scientific methods to date the tooth. Turns out that it belonged to someone who lived less than 5,000 years ago. (And of course, Neanderthal's were people too! It's just that "cavemen" didn't live all that long ago :)

2c. EARTH CHANGES
* Calendars: Aside from the worldwide evidence that ancient cultures used a 360-day year (which fact itself points to the reality of the global flood), realize also that the great cultures of the world have calendars that begin not tens of thousands of years ago, but only a few thousand years ago, agreeing roughly speaking with the chronology of Genesis. For example:
- the Mayan calendar begins at 3114 B.C.
- the Jewish calendar begins 3761 B.C.
- the Chinese calendar begins with the (mythical?) Yellow Emperor at 2697 B.C.
- the Christian calendar that resets with the birth of Christ
- the reckoning of creation, by the chronologies of Isaac Newton, Johann Kepler, and Bishop Ussher, at ~4000 B.C.
- the Catholic reckoning of creation, in Pope Gregory's Roman Catholic Martyrology, of 5199 B.C.
- the biblical reckoning of creation, per the Septuagint (and by cometary reckoning) at about 5000 B.C.

3. DATING: DIAMONDS
* Tiny Diamonds that Seemingly Formed Almost Instantaneously: While their short-lived carbon-14 indicates that diamonds are not a billion years old, a University of Tennessee geologist presented findings at an annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union on a rock filled with tiny diamonds, stating, "It's like they formed instantaneously." Diamonds are also known to form virtually instantaneously in impact craters. The high pressure required to form diamonds has misled secularists to assume that most are formed in the Earth's mant[le] about 100 miles below the surface, and then transported over millions of years to the surface. In reality though, many diamonds were formed in the enormous pressures produced in the Earth's crust during the compression phase of the global flood. 

E. RAPID FORMATION: WA SCABLANDS
Scablands formed rapidly; case study reveals bias...* The Scablands: The primary surface features of the Scablands, which cover thousands of square miles of eastern Washington, were long believed to have formed gradually. Yet, against the determined claims of uniformitarian geologists, there is now overwhelming evidence as presented even in a NOVA TV program that the primary features of the Scablands formed rapidly from a catastrophic breach of Lake Missoula causing a massive regional flood. Of course evolutionary geologists still argue that the landscape was formed over tens of thousands of years, now by claiming there must have been a hundred Missoula floods. However, the evidence that there was Only One Lake Missoula Flood has been powerfully reinforced by a University of Colorado Ph.D. thesis. So the Scablands itself is no longer available to old-earthers as de facto evidence for the passage of millions of years.

E. YOUNG UNIVERSE: GALAXIES
UGC 12158 spiral galaxy* Spiral Galaxies: after their alleged billions of years the spiral arms of “pinwheel” galaxies should now be deformed, since as has been known for decades, the speed of the arms does not align with the galaxy centers, so there is “missing billions of years” of deformation in spiral galaxies. Atheistic astronomers have great difficulty even explaining where our own Moon came from, let alone our entire solar system and the entire universe. And just like Darwin's "Origin of Species" begins with species, the standard models of star formation begin with the explosion of preexisting stars or with star formation already underway. Astrophysicists even admit they can’t figure out which formed first, stars or galaxies, showing that their Big Bang hypothesis does not merit the absolute trust that millions put in it. Thus far from being able to explain how the universe could form apart from God, they are groping in the dark. See RSR 7-25-08 at KGOV.

E. TRANSIENT EVENTS: SOLAR SYSTEM
* Transient Solar System Events: The many unexpected transient elements in our solar system including changes on the Moon's surface, changes in Saturn's rings (see below), and the lifespan of our short-period comets which last only thousands, and not millions, of years because of the significant percent of their mass burning off each time their orbit approaches perihelion, when they are nearest to the Sun.

E. TRANSIENT EVENTS: QUASAR
* Transient Galactic Events: There are also transient galactic elements such as the extreme variability from 1987 till 1991 in one of the brightest objects in the gamma-ray sky, quasar 3C 279, which then faded from gamma-ray view!

E. YOUNG UNIVERSE: SNRs
NASA Supernova photo & story: "just a few thousand years ago" * Supernova Remnants: an explosion appeared in the night sky in 1054 A.D. as a supernova remnant (SNR) forming the Crab Nebula. Evolutionary scientists have measured and calculated the expected rate that stars would explode. However, if the universe is billions of years old, the vast majority of SNRs (like the Crab Nebula) that should exist, are missing! Instead, the number of SNRs corresponds well to the expected number if the universe is less than 10,000 years old, especially considering that astronomers have not found a single SNR at Stage 3 (a great diameter)! Of course, the lack of Stage 3 SNRs is consistent with the young universe. Listen to this Real Science Radio program at KGOV.com!

E. YOUNG UNIVERSE: NO BIG BANG SHADOW
* The Missing Big Bang Shadow: The missing "shadow" of the Big Bang from behind nearby galaxies is a prediction of biblical creationism. Yet the Astrophysical Journal reported that no shadow was detected after averaging measurements from NASA data for 31 galaxy clusters. As a Huntsville, Alabama scientist Dr. Richard Lieu stated, "Either... the Big Bang is blown away or ... there is something else going on'." Other evidence consistent with a not-so-old universe includes connected galaxies, galaxy clusters, the missing gas and dust of intracluster medium (ICM) in globular clusters of hundreds of thousands of stars purportedly emitting matter from solar winds for billions of years, and nearby blue stars!

E. YOUNG UNIVERSE: SATURN'S RINGS
* Saturn’s Rings: Not evincing the stability suggested by their presumed 50 to 100 million year-old age, instead of showing their predicted stability, Saturn's rings have changed significantly since man’s first mappings, including the startling (to evolutionists) rapid approach of the inner-most ring toward the planet. See RSR 4-10-06 at KGOV.

E. YOUNG UNIVERSE: STAR CLUSTERS
* "Surprisingly Orderly" Star Clusters in Spiral Galaxies: The Big Bang model predicted that the bulge of stars in the center of spiral galaxies resulted from millions of years of collisions. But about the perfect orderliness of those stars, as reported in the New Scientist article, Galaxies too good to be true, Princeton University cosmologist Jim Peebles admitted that, "It's really an embarrassment." And cosmologist John Kormendy says that the pristine bulges "were something of a shock" and "look rather too perfect." To which RSR says :) and about which Spike Psarris created the greatest astronomy DVDs ever made, and thanks to Creation magazine for alerting RSR to this! Those who believe in naturalist origins are forever dismayed, shocked, and even call the latest discoveries "horrendous" because scientific observations typically contradict the fundamental predictions of atheistic origins. (One small example: Most animals reproduce sexually, yet Darwinism would never predict sexual reproduction.)

E. YOUNG UNIVERSE: GALAXIES
* 9 Billion Years of Missing Metal in Spiral Galaxies: Some people don't like heavy metal, but who would have chucked nine billion years worth? Fifteen entire galaxies studied contradict the standard model of star and galaxy formation which claims that as billions of years pass during star evolution, they're supposed to create way more heavier metals than these trillion or so stars possess. See this at Space.com.

E. YOUNG UNIVERSE: EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
* Earth's Magnetic Field Rapid Decay: As summarized by University of Maryland geophysicist Daniel Lathrop, “In particular, over the last 150 years or so, the Earth’s magnetic field has declined in strength about ten percent, and continues to decline in strength [as is evident] every time people go and make new measurements.” Creationists point out that this rapid decay is not expected in such a brief snapshot in time if our planet were 4.6 billion years old. On the other hand, these careful, long-term, and worldwide measurements that document the rapidly decreasing strength of Earth's magnetic field are consistent with a young Earth. Lathrop, not surprisingly, is an old-earth geophysicist who nonetheless acknowledged this data. Creationist physicist Russell Humphreys of Sandia National Labs has updated his previous work by publishing Earth's Magnetic Field Is Decaying Steadily, which includes global data through 2010. Humphreys observes that, "in 1968 the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) began more systematically measuring, gathering, and analyzing geomagnetic data from all over the world. ... Every five years starting in 1970, they have published both dipole and non-dipole components of the field. Using older data, the IAGA also extended the model..." backward in time. See more at our RSR site, youngearth.com/magnetic-field.

E. RAPID FORMATION: EARTH'S MAGNETIC REVERSALS
Earth's Rapid Magnetic Reversals: Do not confuse the field's decay with its reversals. Dr. Walt Brown, with a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from MIT, lists here and here the published research opposing any notion that magnetic "reversals" must occur over long periods. For example:
- Evidence Suggesting Extremely Rapid Field Variations During a Geomagnetic Reversal, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1989.
- Earth's Field Flipping Fast, New Scientist, 1992.
- New Evidence for Extraordinarily Rapid Change of the Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal, Nature 1995.
In his book In the Beginning, Dr. Brown points out that, "At one time the orientation of the earth's magnetic field changed rapidly by up to 6 degrees per day for several days." Update: In 2014, an old-earth scientist disclaimed his own research, retracting his support for rapid reversals based, not on the large reliable magnetic grains that are difficult to reorient, but on the smaller, less reliable grains which move far more easily. Click for the references and for Dr. Russell Humphrey's answer to the question: Why has one author retracted?

E. RAPID FORMATION: RIVER GORGE
* The Palouse River Gorge: In the southeast of Washington State, the Palouse River Gorge is one of many features formed rapidly by 500 cubic miles of water catastrophically released with the breaching of a natural dam in the Lake Missoula Flood (which gouged out the Scablands as described above). So, hard rock can be breached and eroded rapidly.

E. RAPID FORMATION: GRAND CANYON
Missing strata from the geologic column in the grand canyon* Grand Canyon's Millions of Missing Years: According to evolutionary geologists, there are MORE THAN 100 MILLION YEARS MISSING in the extraordinarily regular and straight layers of the Grand Canyon. The supposed geological layers entirely missing from the beautifully formed Grand Canyon strata, according to the National Park Service, include the Ordovician and the Silurian. The flat boundaries between strata provide hard evidence proving that millions of years of erosion DID NOT OCCUR, and that therefore, those millions of years DID NOT PASS, neither in the canyon nor anywhere on Earth. Also, the enormous side canyons, many of which would be major tourist attractions if they had formed elsewhere on Earth, have no river, Colorado or otherwise, to explain their existence, for they were formed by the rapid drainage of groundwater in the weeks after the flood catastrophically formed after the breach of a natural dam. The Grand Canyon formed rapidly.

E. RAPID FORMATION: CAVERN
* Carlsbad Cavern Formation: The National Park Service repeatedly changed the sign at the cave entrance which at first claimed that formation took "260 million years", then "8 million years", then "2 million years", and then they took the sign down altogether. See YoungEarth.com for the documentation. On Bob Enyart's family vacation in 2005 they heard onsite the official Carlsbad audio tour which now accurately states that the, "rate of formation depends on the amount of available water." (Previously, you could enjoy listening to that audio tour online but apparently it has now been removed from the web. In 2016 RSR will try to make that available again.)

E. DATING: VOLCANO
* Death Valley Volcano Erupts AFTER Formation of Earth: According to the USGS, "The understanding of the timing of eruptions [in Death Valley] and the timing of the building up to eruptions is changing." Anti-biblical bias frequently leads scientists to a knee-jerk claim of events occurring tens of thousands or millions of years ago, which if true would falsify the Bible account of the creation week and the literal interpretation of Genesis presented by Jesus Christ Himself. According to USA Today, in this particular instance, the old claim that a Death Valley eruption occurred 10,000 years ago, which as Isaac Newton himself would have pointed out, would awkwardly have been prior to God's creation of the universe, actually occurred only 800 years ago, according to more careful scientific observations, as per the trend evident on this list-of-not-so-old-things!

-----

3. APPLICATIONS
Applications of radiocarbon dating [TO DO: Add Links]
http://www.c14dating.com/applic.html
The development of this page will be gradual and contributions are invited. There are many, many interesting applications of radiocarbon dating in a variety of different fields. If you would like to set up information regarding a project in which radiocarbon dating illuminated or solved a problem or in which C14 played a central role, please contact f.petchey@waikato.ac.nz

ARCHAEOLOGY
The Dead Sea scrolls Page describing the Dead Sea scrolls at the Library of Congress, Washington.
Dead Sea Scrolls Short press release concerning the recent radiocarbon dating of some of the scrolls.
Kennewick Man Newspaper reports concerning the 9,200-year-old bones found recently along the banks of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington.
Debert, a palaeoIndian site in Nova Scotia Extensive radiocarbon dating from the Debert site, Nova Scotia indicates occupation between 10,600 and 10,700 BP.
Archaeometry and Stonehenge Presentation of results of excavations and dating of the Stonehenge 20th century excavations project.
Dating Stonehenge 52 radiocarbon dates have been measured in the reexcavation of parts of this famous archaeological site.
The Cave of Chauvet-Pont-D'Arc Radiocarbon dates from the caves are the earliest currently known for rock art in the region.
Archaeological research at Oslonki, Poland The site of Oslonki is dated by 24 radiocarbon dates, which when calibrated to calendar years point to a dating of between 4300 and 4000 B.C.
Dombate passage tomb, Spain WWW page about the megalithic monument of Dombate (La Corunha, Galicia, NW Spain) with several C14 dates for different moments of the life of the monument (in Spanish).
The Origins of Angkor Archaeological Project From the University of Otago (New Zealand) and the Fine Arts Department of Thailand, the project is concerned with investigating archaeology of pre-formative Angkorean society of South East Asia. Radiocarbon dating underpins the chronological aspects of the investigation.
Radiocarbon dating of the Angel site and phase in regional perspective. Sherri Hilgeman and Mark Schurr of the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology.
Radiocarbon chronology from the prehistoric Caborn site, Indiana. by Cheryl Ann Munson (Indiana University) and Marjorie Melvin Jones (University of Southern Indiana).
Excavations at Pinarbasi, near Catal Huyuk, Turkey. Radiocarbon data.
Database of radiocarbon dates for British & Irish archaeology.
Archaeometry (University of Oxford) Past datelists.
Absolute Chronology for Early Civilisations in Austria and Central Europe using 14C Dating with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database.
Mapping Ancient History A Java based map of Canada, showing the location and spread of dated sites based on the radiocarbon dates held in the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon database
Scientific American article, "Artful Dating" - dating geoglyphs, found on the desert floor of the southwestern U.S.

OCEANOGRAPHY
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE); at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's NOSAMS Facility. Measuring carbon in the Pacific and Indian Ocean to understand better the processes of ocean circulation.
Ocean sediment C-14 data The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University has compiled 974 C-14 dates from 309 ocean sediments cores, covering the period from 40,000 years BP to the present worldwide.

PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
 The America's Project A palaeovegetational reconstruction of the North and South Americam continents using a radiocarbon dated timeframe from 15-9 ky BP.
Wrangel Island Mammoths Abstract of the Radiocarbon article of the fascinating discovery that mamoths were still alive on this subarctic island at 2000 BC.
TephraBase Radiocarbon Search Search the Tephrabase directory for radiocarbon dated volcanic tephras.
Dating of Bear Lake, Western USA. The USGS Bear Lake Project aims to create records of past climate change for the Bear Lake region,including changes in precipitation patterns during the last 10,000 years and how the size of Bear Lake has varied in the past, to assess the possibility of future flooding and drought.
Radiocarbon dating the inundation of the Bering Land Bridge New Evidence on the Timing of Inundation of the Bering Land Bridge, Based on Radiocarbon Ages of Macrofossils.
CALIBRATION AND DENDROCHRONOLOGY
Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona.
Ancient Bristlecone Pine homepage.
Aegean Dendrochronology Project at Cornell University.
The International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)maintained by the NOAA Paleoclimatology Program and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology.
The Sheffield Dendrochronology Laboratory, Sheffield, England.
The Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, England.
PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY
Current research in palaeoclimates and solar variation using tree ring dated C14 chronologies at the University of Arizona.
Palaeoclimates from Arctic Lakes and Estuaries (PALE) Home Page, including palaeoclimate databases from around the world.
Various Paleoclimatology links, University of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center.

METEOROLOGY
The Mars Meteorite. Investigation of the "terrestrial age"of Martian Meteorites using radiocarbon.


2
Family & Friends / Home
« on: May 13, 2019, 10:37:25 pm »
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3
CutFog / Re: Phoenicians
« on: April 16, 2019, 01:07:41 pm »
Britons too? See:
Stonehenge Builders Revealed? Early Britons Came from Turkey | Ancient Architects
youtube.com/watch?v=bGpIrCDVl9Q

It says the Britons who built Stone Henge had DNA that originated in Anatolia (modern Turkey etc.). Since the Phoenicians apparently originated in the same area, maybe the Britons were also Phoenician. Maybe they built Gobekli Tepi in Anatolia too.

4
CutFog / Custer's Insurance
« on: April 16, 2019, 12:55:42 pm »
The Custer Hoax.
http://mileswmathis.com/custer.pdf
PAPER UPDATE, added 4/10/19, The Custer Hoax. A reader pointed out to me that some big information was buried in one of the Dances with Spooks footnotes. Custer and his officers had big life insurance policies, which were paid in full. See last addendum.
Custer Bought Life Insurance Policy Before Battle of Little BigHorn
https://www.insurancejournal.com/news/midwest/2006/08/21/71551.htm
- A copy of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s life insurance policy is on display at Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park in North Dakota.
The replica of the $5,000 New York Life Insurance policy was taken out on June 4, 1874, about two years before he died at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
- Custer’s wife, Libbie, was the beneficiary of his policy.
- The policy would be worth about $500,000 today.
- Potter said several of Custer’s officers had life insurance policies ranging from $5,000 to $10,000.
- The insurance company “paid out a lot of money,” he said.

5
CutFog / Phoenicians
« on: April 16, 2019, 12:22:49 pm »
Comments for "Ancient Spooks: Part I" at http://mileswmathis.com/phoen.pdf

A video called "history of the entire world, i guess" at youtube.com/watch?v=xuCn8ux2gbs&t=622s said after the Phoenicians, someone conquered most of India, except the southernmost part ruled by the Tamil Kings who controlled the spice trade somewhat. I'm wondering if the Tamils were related to the Phoenicians. So I searched online and found the following.

There's an article called:
Tamils and Sumerians Among the FIRST to Reach Australia and Antarctica? PART I
https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-australia-oceania/tamils-and-sumerians-among-first-reach-australia-and-antarctica-021743
History’s Lost Transoceanic Voyages: Tamils and Sumerians Among the FIRST to Reach Australia and Antarctica?— PART II
https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-s-lost-transoceanic-voyages-tamils-and-sumerians-among-first-reach-australia-and-antarctica-021744

Another article is called:
Dravidians-Indians (Tamils) the parents of Mexico and Meso-America? Who Brought The Mayans To Mexico? or Were the ancient Turks, Akkads (Sumerians) and Dravidians (Tamils-) the parents of Mexico and Meso-America?
http://archbhoo-india.blogspot.com/2012/04/dravidians-indians-tamils-parents-of.html
The time is about 1,500 BC. A fleet of Tamil ships in some harbor of the Konkan or Kankon, ... Western India, ... goal is to sail to Patala or what is now Mexico and Meso-America, leaving emigrant settlers there. ...  The ancient Tamils were international traders and colonizers. Wherever they went in the world, they left an unmistakable imprint of their presence, such as place names, foods, games, and temple buildings.
... ABOUT WHO THE PHOENICIANS REALLY WERE. Before continuing with this article, I must clarify who the Phoenicians really were.  I first learned about these people ...  from the 19th century British Orientalist George Rawlinson'­s book, Phoenicia. ... But even he was off base. ... the Phoenicians and Aryans were the same people. ...  the famed Piri Reis 6000 years old map of the world was made from older Turkish maps. ... even the Akkad or Sumerians were Turkish. The Akkads (Sumerians) were Phoenicians. known also as Kads, Khatti, etc. ... [After] the Great Flood, ...  the survivors had to build their civilization all over again. ...  the Asura empire governed the Indus Valley ... even the Phoenicians were Asuras. ... Many scholars agree that Asura was Assyria ... The ancient Phoenicians claimed that they originally came from the lands alongside the "Erythean Sea" [off] the western coast of India. ... The stone heads of Easter Island ... [wear] Tamil turbans? ...  Votan was never a single person. He was really a "nation of sailors". This ancient nation of sailors and adventurers is still with us: The Dravidian Tamils!

The Phoenicians in East Africa
https://phoenicia.org/phoeEastAfrica.html
Between 1200-1100 B.C., great events were happening. ... The Persians blamed the Phoenicians for starting tit-for-tat kidnappings that would eventually lead to Paris of Troy (& son of the King of the Trojans) abducting Helen (wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta). [Another recent article showed that the Greek and Trojan conflict very likely occurred around the Baltic Sea when the climate there was much warmer. Many of them later migrated to the Mediterranean as the northern climate cooled. See "Homer in the Baltic: Summary" https://www.centrostudilaruna.it/homer-in-the-baltic-summary.html ] Herodotus apparently regarded the Phoenicians as the fount of all subsequent Euro/Asian disputes ... The alliance of Hiram of Tyre and Solomon of Israel led to the Aqaba/Elath/Eilat region of Israel being “Phoenicia beyond Israel” as Phoenicians from the city-state of Tyre built ships for Solomonic Israel of what has been called the Tarshish type. ... My reference to the various Semitic groups are intended to to demonstrate that the Phoenicians are not non-Semitic in their taking to the sea but are one of several such groups. They may be exceptional in the lengths to which they took this but then the circumstance of the homeland in the Lebanon plus the strong I/E presence they apparently absorbed may partly explain this. Certainly, easily the thing for which they are most famous is their maritme expertise. ...

6
Updates / Re: UPDATES
« on: March 23, 2019, 07:43:56 pm »
FLOOD & FOSSIL RECORD

Can Flood Geology Explain the Fossil Record?
https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j10_1/j10_1_032-069.pdf
GEOLOGICAL COLUMN
1. Precambrian: Pre-Flood
2. Cambrian: Heavy rain ...; Erosion, deposition of ocean sediments; formation of Precam/Cam. unconformity
3. Ordovician: Rising water; coarse to fine grading of sediments
4. Silurian: High water; deposition of thick shale & limestone
5. Devonian: Tidal & wave action; cyclothems; rhythmic deposition
6. MS-PA: Water covers all land; formation of coal; lowland forest burial
7. Permian: Rain stops, wind blows; cross-bedded sandstones
8. Triassic: Mountains rise; moving continents
9. Jurassic: Waters start to recede; Mountain-building
10. Cretaceous: Major erosion of new mountains; guyots
11. Paleocene: Fossilization of reptiles; coal formation; upland forest burial
12. Eocene-Oligocene: Water continues to recede; fossilization of mammals; continental margin sediment; less dense strata
13. Miocene: Major volcanism
14. Pliocene: Localized sediments & valley fills
15. Pleistocene: Post-Flood erosion; glaciation
16. Recent:
_THE PALAEOZOIC
_... the Palaeozoic cannot represent submarine deposition and the Permo-Mesozoic the transgression of pre-Flood seas over the land because the Palaeozoic itself represents that transgression — the marine deposits of that era lie over continental deposits, not Precambrian ocean floors.
_ The Lower Cambrian quartzite above the unconformity also shows evidence of rapid deposition.60 In Scotland there are two unconformities below the Cambrian. The earlier separates the Lewisian gneiss from the overlying Stoer and Torridon Groups; the later unconformity comes between these and the Cambrian quartzite. In Arizona, similarly, there is an unconformity between the Vishnu Schist and the overlying Unkar and Chuar Groups (consisting of limestone, shale, sandstone and conglomerate) and a second between these and the Tapeats Sandstone ('The Great Unconformity').61 The two regions bear close comparison. The Torridonian Sandstone testifies, in its 'fluid evulsion structures', to sediment dumping on a massive scale, just as do similar features in the Unkar Group. These deposits above the metamorphosed rocks of the Precambrian — regularly thousands of metres thick — constitute the rocks which were eroded when the fountains of the deep broke open. The horizontal surface of trans-gression at the later unconformity marks the violent incoming of the sea some weeks later. Ager remarks that an unfossiliferous quartzite lying conformably below fossiliferous Lower Cambrian and unconformably above a great variety of Precambrian rocks — exactly the situation in Scotland — occurs 'very commonly around the world'. Indeed, 'It is not only the quartzite, but the whole deepening succession that tends to turn up almost everywhere, i.e. a basal conglomerate, followed by the orthoquartzite, followed by glauconitic sandstones, followed by marine shales and thin limestones. '62 The lateral persistence of this succession is striking enough. What is yet more striking is that it represents an overall grading of particle sizes, from very coarse at the bottom to very fine at the top. This is the sort of 'upward-fining' pattern which one often finds in a series of beds, such as a cyclothem. In other words, the whole succession has the unity characteristic of a single episode of erosion and deposition, during which material is eroded by fast-moving currents, held in suspension, and then water-sorted as current velocity wanes — as a result, for example, of the water becoming deeper. Commonly a coarse lithology prevails at the bottom of the Cambrian succession (conglomerates and sandstones), a fine lithology at the top (limestone and dolomite), while shales, silts and mudstones occur in-between.63  Widespread carbonate deposition continues until the end of the Lower Ordovician, after which a surface of erosion marks an unconformity over much of North America.64 Marking the end of one continuous sequence, this would seem to represent, so far as North America is concerned, the virtual completion of transgression over the continent, followed by a steep increase in bioturbation as current strength and sedimentation rates decreased.65 
_Except over the Transcontinental Arch, Cambrian rocks are found throughout the North American interior. Those regions where they are absent were either source areas for deposition elsewhere or eroded subsequently; there is no evidence of any pristine topography. By the Upper Ordovician the process was complete: the sea had spread eastwards and westwards across most, probably all,74 of the continent — after the entire Precambrian land surface had been broken up, inundated and redeposited. If we adopt Austin's own estimate of the speed of transgression, upwards of two metres per second, 500 miles would have been covered in 4-5 days. If we halve this rate in order to take account of higher elevations inland, the whole continent could have been transgressed within four weeks. Cambrian rocks, often with an unconformity at their base, are of worldwide occurrence, making it possible that by the Upper Ordovician every part of the earth was deluged. 
_ ...  there is no trace of a vegetated terrestrial surface at that time anywhere. The spores and woody plant material recovered from Cambrian strata76"79 occur in sedimentary deposits and are not therefore in their original locations. ...  it seems clear that the Upper Precambrian to Lower Ordovician transgression must be placed within the first 150 days of the Genesis record. Accordingly, all Cambrian deposits must be Flood deposits, and wherever they are found, the land must be already under water. At that point the possibility of pristine land surfaces comes to an end, until a new surface emerges out of the Flood. ... In reality, although extensive regions may once have been underwater shelves, in general the continents of today are undoubtedly fragments of the supercontinent before the Flood. It follows, therefore, that the Lower Palaeozoic marine animals fossilised in, say, Iowa, hundreds of miles inland from the pre-Flood shore, must have been transported enormous distances (Figure 5). Because the whole Earth was under water well before the end of the Lower Palaeozoic, it is impossible to explain assemblages after the Lower Palaeozoic — including terrestrial assemblages — as originating from nearby provinces which had not yet been inundated.
_Did Animals Escape to Higher Ground? ... The Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian deposits exposed on the Earth today are marine and igneous deposits overlying a Precambrian basement, and that basement is the scoured remains of the primeval supercontinent. Strata at the pre-Flood boundary do not represent the surfaces of pre-Flood sea bottoms, while none of today's ocean floors are older than Mesozoic. The Atlantic Ocean, for instance, originated in the Jurassic, when 'Pangaea' rifted apart and new seafloor spread out from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.94 ... Terrestrial animals are totally absent from strata of the Lower Palaeozoic because they were obliterated: 'In seven days I will send rain upon the earth . . . and every living thing that I have made I will blot out from the face of the ground.' (Genesis 7:4)
_Again, it is important to keep in mind the violence of events during the first six weeks of the Flood. In still waters the corpses of most terrestrial animals will float on the surface, and a few will sink to the bottom. In turbulent waters bodies which are heavier than water take longer to sink, and in the meantime are subject to processes which rapidly reduce them to nothing: physical dismemberment through continual buffeting, consumption by scavengers and predators (sharks, marine reptiles, carnivorous fish), abrasion and pulverisation in churning sediments, chemical and bacterial decomposition. In the conditions of the first 40 days — beginning with the stripping of the original land surface to depths of thousands of metres — it is difficult to imagine that any remains of land animals could have survived in recognizable form. With its widespread volcanism and metamorphism, the Upper Precambrian record suggests that land animals were annihilated almost instantly, by processes other than drowning and decay.
_ The advantage of the fishes, which also would have been borne along by the currents, was that they could swim away once the currents slackened and their sediment loads began to settle. It is this circumstance which explains why they scarcely ever appear in Cambrian strata. Fish that were already dead when the currents slackened would tend to have been buried higher up than the invertebrates because of their greater buoyancy. The mass burials of fish which, in the Palaeozoic, occur in Devonian strata were mostly the result of shoals being overwhelmed by epicontinental landslides while they were still alive. Since the conditions most favourable for such burials were shallow waters near emerging land, they are evidence that by the early Devonian the Flood was already waning.98
_...  temporary surfaces were being colonised during the Flood itself, sometimes by creatures that had come into existence during the Flood. It is unlikely to be the case that a broken brachiopod in some Silurian deposit was spawned on a preFlood seafloor and then transported hundreds of miles to its burial place; it might have been spawned on an Ordovician surface which was several months later eroded away, by the same powerful currents that broke its shell.
_There were in fact earlier orogenies, notably the stupendous Caledonian and Variscan orogenies of the Palaeozoic, and these were followed by a period of relative stability during the Triassic, Jurassic and much of the Cretaceous. In the Mesozoic there is no juncture where the whole Earth could be said to have been thenceforth under water. That juncture is to be found only in the Ordovician, whereas as we shall consider presently, dry-land structures occur all through the Mesozoic: subaerially deposited basalts, aeolian red beds, root beds, bird and animal tracks, dinosaur nests and so on. Nor is there a juncture still higher in the Mesozoic where it is possible to claim that the first surfaces began to emerge from the water. That juncture is to be found much earlier at the end of the Silurian.
_The Coal Measures Coal does not occur in the geological column until the Upper Devonian. On northern continents it is most abundant in the Upper Carboniferous, on southern continents (the original Gondwana) it abounds in the Permian, and in both cases the deposits are nearly all located on the then continental margins. A second concentration of coal deposits begins in the Cretaceous and climaxes in the Tertiary (see Figure 3). Since this pattern of distribution is worldwide and can hardly be fortuitous, it requires an explanation.
_The answer, so far as the Permo-Carboniferous is concerned, must be that the measures represent forests of aquatic vegetation — thick platforms of interlocking roots and entangled debris, covering thousands of squares of miles —which were grounded as the waters continued to drain off the land after the Flood year. Successive currents washed the vegetation (including flotsam) into deepening offshore basins, while prograding sediments from the land spread out under the water and thereby anchored the forests.120 ... Soon after a raft of vegetation became anchored in shallow-water sediments, the progressive sinking of the sediments pulled the vegetation below water level in advance of the next prograding cycle. Such processes clearly require time. Within the 800 m thick succession of Pennsylvanian deposits in the Eastern Interior Basin of Illinois and Indiana no less than 51 separate delta advances have been distinguished.121 Together with other evidences of time in the Upper Carboniferous, the cyclothems cannot be satisfactorily explained as the deposits of a few months.
_It is noteworthy that in many places Devonian strata constitute the uppermost rocks of the Appalachian Plateau.125 Elsewhere the record ends with the Lower or Upper Carboniferous, for example in Virginia, Indiana and Tennessee. Far from showing increasing inundation, the Devonian was the time when the Appalachian Mountains began to be uplifted — a process which continued into the Triassic. Drainage off the emergent slopes resulted in the formation of coarse-grained meander-belts below, above and at the same level as the coalfields immediately west of the Appalachians, until the conditions for sedimentary deposition in the area ceased.126 Similar drainage channels have been reported from the British coalfields.127

7
Updates / Re: UPDATES
« on: March 23, 2019, 04:09:43 pm »
Large cratonic basins likely of impact origin
https://creation.com/large-cratonic-basins
… Phase change problem. The mechanism of phase change seems to be the only viable uniformitarian mechanism for basin subsidence. For instance, if basalt or gabbro subside, the lithostatic pressure increases and the rock can change to eclogite, which is 15% denser with 15% less volume. The required pressure is that of the lower crust and upper mantle. So if basalt and gabbro can subside to about 40–60 km depth, this phase transformation can potentially occur and the basin will subside more. This is a reasonable idea, except where does the initial subsidence come from? Furthermore, the phase transformation from gabbro to eclogite requires water,18 and there is rarely any significant water at the depth of the lower crust and upper mantle.
_Properties of basins. … Thick sedimentary rocks
Basins are almost always filled with sedimentary rocks, which are sometimes extremely thick. Some depths will be given in the examples of basins below, but other basins not mentioned are the East Barents Basin in the Barents Sea, north of Norway, that has about 20 km of sedimentary rocks; the West Siberian Basin with about 8 km of sedimentary rocks; the Tarim Basin of central Asia with 15 km of sedimentary rocks; and the Paranà Basin in South America with about 7 km of sedimentary rocks.21
_Little deformation during sedimentation. An examination of those rocks reveals that the sediments underwent little deformation when deposited in the basin.13,22 Figure 1 shows sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup, which are typically undeformed within the bedding planes and formations, but the whole supergroup is deformed as a single unit, suggesting that deformation occurred after the whole supergroup was deposited.
_The crust is commonly thinned in basins. It has been discovered by seismic and gravity anomaly methods that the crust below a basin is commonly thinned. Artyushkov states: “Considerable thinning of the crystalline crust occurs under most deep basins located on continents.”15 Along with a thinned crust, the Moho, the boundary between the crust and mantle, is commonly raised (see figure 2).
_Some basins uplifted and deformed. Another significant observation on basins applies to sedimentary basins in which the sedimentary rocks are uplifted and folded by compression and differential vertical tectonics.22 Practically all uplift occurs after the sediments have been deposited and turned to sedimentary rock. During uplift, the sedimentary rocks are folded and faulted with the top eroded. Such uplifted sedimentary rocks form many of the mountain ranges of the world today and would not impress anyone that they were once in a deep basin.
_In the case of an impact origin, no subsidence is needed to form the basin; an instant circular ‘hole’ in the ground is blasted out. Subsidence or uplift may occur after the basin is filled with sediments.
_... the Flood impact submodel postulates thousands of impacts occurred early in the Flood. One major effect of such a large amount of impacts is to blast a huge amount of debris up into the air in the form of ejecta. All this sediment would end up in the floodwater and would eventually be deposited. A second major effect of so many impacts is that powerful currents would develop, sometimes interfering with each other. So, the combination of powerful currents and a huge amount of sediment would be rapid sedimentation in deep basins where currents are expected to be weaker and allow sedimentation. So, early Flood impact craters are expected to rapidly fill with sediments, since the crater acts like a sediment trap (see figure 8a). Sedimentation was likely so rapid that the sediments were little deformed by subsequent movements of the crater bottom and walls.
_Large basins of North America
There are five large basins on the stable craton of North America that I will briefly discuss. These basins are the Belt, Williston, Illinois, Michigan, and Hudson Bay Basins.
_Two basins of note on other continents. … The South Caspian Basin. … The Congo Basin.
_The two largest recognized Precambrian impact features, the Vredefort and Sudbury impact structures, have been eroded anywhere from 5 to 10 km.70 In a Flood setting, with thousands of impacts in a short time, turbulent currents would be expected to create significant erosion that also would destroy shatter cones, PDFs, and other impact features.
_Discussion. ... There are hundreds of cratonic basins that could be discussed, some of which have been discussed elsewhere.74 ... Tectonics, erosion, and sedimentation during the Genesis Flood are expected to destroy much of the evidence for impact craters. But, cratonic basins would be one of the most obvious evidences of large, modified impact craters.


8
Updates / Re: UPDATES
« on: March 23, 2019, 03:28:13 pm »
IMPACTS DURING FLOOD
What do impacts accomplish in the first hour?
https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j27_1/j27_1_90-98.pdf
p.92.
Larger impact craters on Earth, although almost destroyed, might however have thinned the crust and raised the Moho. The amount of crustal thinning and the height of the Moho above the average are the main factors that determine the type and size of the gravity anomaly. …  The final crater shape is usually set within about 400 to 800 seconds.21
p.93.
Planetary-scale properties can be changed. …  Moreover, the rebound is now thought to overshoot the original ground surface and reach many kilometres higher (figure 7).26 During the rebound, the rock acts like a fluid, but it is unknown how this happens, although there are a number of mechanisms attempting to explain this phenomenon.30 Based on the standard ratio of impact depth to diameter, the large and very large impacts on the moon should have blasted well down into the moon’s mantle. However, mantle rocks exposed from impacts on the moon’s surface are extremely rare.31 The conundrum of the missing mantle rocks implies that the transient crater depth was much shallower than expected. Basins on Mars between 275 and 1,000 km in diameter are also shallower with less crustal thinning than expected.32 The puzzle is especially evident in an analysis of possibly the largest impact basin in the solar system, the South PoleAitken Basin on the moon. The diameter is 2,500 km, but there are no mantle rocks. None of the mantle was tapped during such a huge impact,33 and very little basalt flowed into this crater.
p.94.
_Impacts in water. Impacts in water of course are different from those that strike land. If the impact is small compared to the depth of water, there will be little cratering on the bottom.41 For asteroids with diameters about the depth of the water or greater, the water will have little or no effect on the cratering process. The rebound of the centre of the crater immediately after impact would mostly be a pulse of water shooting high into the air.
_The most significant effect of impacts striking water is that a fair amount of water will be blasted up into the air42 and large tsunamis will result. In the excavation of an oceanic crater, a thin layer of water is ejected from the rim almost straight up, which soon collapses and plunges onto the water surface (figure 8 ). So impacts cause water to shoot high into the atmosphere at both the rim and the centre of the impact. Could this be what is described in the Bible as “on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open” (Genesis 7:11b)?  Much water is also vaporized during transport to the upper atmosphere: “Another important difference between continental and oceanic impacts is the vaporization of water expanding as a vapor cloud in the upper atmosphere. Earth’s climate and atmospheric circulation may be severely perturbed by the injection of a large amount of vapor … .”43 The above statement was made assuming one impact. However, with multiple impacts occurring simultaneously during the very early Flood, a huge amount of water vapor, and probably also liquid water, would be injected into the atmosphere and above.44 The liquid and vapor would be spread all around the earth by the upper winds and general circulation of the earth, whatever that was before the Flood, and fall as torrential worldwide rain early in the Flood. Such a rainfall would tend to slow up as the number of impacts decreased early in the Flood. But, it would still take many days before all the water fell out of the atmosphere by gravity. Such an impact mechanism can easily explain the 40 days and night[ s] of heavy rain over the earth.
_Impacts in water cause tsunamis. The size of the tsunami wave is related to the projectile diameter, but it will be different than a tsunami resulting from a large earthquake. Tsunamis would move at hundreds of m/sec away from the impact, and as they move through deep water they are large swells that may not even be detected on board a ship. It is only in shallow water that a tsunami builds up to a giant wave. Impacts cause two groups of tsunamis: one from the pushing outward of water at the rim and the other from the collapse of the central uplift, which will follow the rim wave (figure 8 ). Impact tsunamis decay much faster than earthquake-­induced waves. There are two reasons for this weaker tsunami for the same amount of energy. First, a resurge flow returning water back into the crater would diminish the strength of the tsunami waves and also help fill up the crater with debris.45 Second, since impact tsunamis are much larger, the breaking of the wave in shallow water starts on the edge of the continental shelf and not near the beach.46 Breaking so far from shore dissipates much of its energy, and the roll up on land would be much less than expected.
p.95.
non­random distribution of large impacts on the moon ... would suggest that the largest impacts hit the near side before the moon barely rotated one quarter of its axis. ... the straightforward interpretation of the observations indicates that the very large impacts struck the moon quickly before it could rotate much.48 [One 4th of 29 days = 7+ days.]
p.97.
... if over 36,000 impacts occurred during the one­year Flood and mostly at the beginning, the bombardment would be much more complicated. There would be additional geophysical and geological effects, such as some areas of Earth becoming saturated from multiple, simultaneous impacts; interference from tsunami waves and atmospheric winds from different asteroids; large areas of the earth losing variable amounts of its crust; massive volcanism; etc. The concept of so many impacts striking quickly is a major challenge to understand within a Flood model. Nevertheless I am compelled to try, and any mistakes I make can be corrected by other creationists. The idea of more than 36,000 craters greater than 30 km in diameter, all occurring within one year, is a shocking idea to many creationists. But I believe the deduction is sound, based on what we observe on other solid solar system bodies, especially on the moon. I might add that over the years a number of creationists have proposed that impacts initiated the Flood or at least triggered catastrophic plate tectonics (CPT), which caused the Flood. Carl Froede Jr has conveniently referenced those creationist papers.67 There certainly was enough energy to cause a Flood, produce the sediments, create basins, cause vertical tectonics, etc. Tens of thousands of impacts would help level high pre­Flood terrain by blasting mountains to pieces, but other mountains would form as a result of the central uplift and the uplifted rim. The debris would tend to fill up low terrain, contributing to the leveling of the earth. For a planet with so much water, such a leveling would have the net effect of flooding the entire earth. This could be the reason why the floodwater covered all the land by Day 150.


9
Updates / UPDATES
« on: March 17, 2019, 08:48:08 pm »
KT BOUNDARY

Where is the Flood/post-Flood Boundary? (Mesozoic host sediments are post-Flood)
https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j10_1/j10_1_101-106.pdf

The fossil record - Becoming more random all the time
https://creation.com/the-fossil-record
The reality of the geologic column is predicated on the belief that fossils have restricted ranges in rock strata. In actuality, as more and more fossils are found, the ranges of fossils keep increasing. I provide a few recent examples of this, and then show that stratigraphic-range extension is not the exception but the rule. The constant extension of ranges simultaneously reduces the credibility of the geologic column and organic evolution, and makes it easier for the Genesis Flood to explain an increasingly-random fossil record.

Reliable data disconfirm a late Cenozoic post-Flood boundary
https://creation.com/reliable-data-disconfirm-late-cenozoic-post-flood-boundary
post-Flood boundary lies deeper, likely at or near the K-Pg boundary


10
SOURCES + OUTLINE / Creation Science Sites
« on: February 23, 2019, 02:45:50 pm »
Creationism
https://www.creationism.org/

Creation Research Society
https://creationresearch.org/

Center for Scientific Creation
https://www.creationscience.com/


11
SOURCES + OUTLINE / Catastrophist Video Channels
« on: February 17, 2019, 11:39:05 am »
Climate Science Week in review
https://judithcurry.com

The world's most viewed site on global warming and climate change
https://wattsupwiththat.com/

Cosmic Tusk
https://cosmictusk.com/

Creation . com
https://creation.com/articles

Institute for Creation Research
https://www.icr.org/homepage/

Graham Hancock Ancient News
https://grahamhancock.com/subject/ancient/

Thunderbolts TPODs
https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/daily-tpod/tpods-of-2019-archive/

Antonio Zamora's Younger Dryas Impact etc Channel
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCM8bvhhFAB-Wmr-PeEVkGTA/videos

Ancient Architects Channel
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCscI4NOggNSN-Si5QgErNCw/videos

UnchartedX Channel to Rewrite History
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC2Stn8atEra7SMdPWyQoSLA/videos

Light up the Dark
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9YiM2p7prjjeICDPc3j6yw/videos

The Electric View
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQLbSHe3xr9Sa_RxyiBLP6A/videos

Thunderbolts Project
https://www.youtube.com/user/ThunderboltsProject/videos

Brien Foerster's Ancient Tech Channel
https://www.youtube.com/user/brienfoerster/videos

Mystery History's Ancient Tech Channel
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOp-_-lVkj9MO1VPLAyHvYQ/videos

Charles Kos
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC4dkC_L7uyH2ZYl_ixWASIg/videos

Pangaea Republic
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCitgISgHOvtKSnUSPoWCEMQ/playlists

Randall Carlson's Catastrophist GeoCosmic REX Channel
https://www.youtube.com/user/YSIproductions/videos

Phenomenal Travel Videos (Advanced Ancient Tech)
https://www.youtube.com/user/phenomenalplacecom/videos

Bright Insight's Catastrophism & Ancient Tech Channel
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsIlJ9eYylZQcyfMOPNUz9w/videos

Ancient Amnesia
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNmjwcovasERo5-B7YWKuhA/videos

ZEG TV HIDDEN FROM THE PUBLIC
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuwcZ63YW1SOTQUwXXkVXdg/videos

Disclosed TruthTV
https://www.youtube.com/user/DiscloseTruthTV/videos

Newearth
https://www.youtube.com/user/everhungriescatgang/videos

All Things Human
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJ-mqDCLJaBLAqxwqFN0oSA/videos

Sacred Geometry International
https://www.youtube.com/user/SacredGeometryAtl/videos

CMI Creation Station
https://www.youtube.com/user/CMIcreationstation/videos

Northwest Creation Network
https://www.youtube.com/user/nwcreationnetwork/videos

12
LK4 Continental Drift & Orogeny / ICE AGE
« on: January 18, 2019, 09:57:50 pm »
ICE AGE

Only one glaciation, Michael Oard
https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j29_2/j29_2_12-13.pdf

What caused the Ice Age?
https://creation.com/what-caused-ice-age

Non-glacial landforms indicate thin Scandinavian and British-Irish Ice Sheets
https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j31_2/j31_2_119-127.pdf

Do Greenland ice cores show over one hundred thousand years of annual layers?
https://creation.com/do-greenland-ice-cores-show-over-one-hundred-thousand-years-of-annual-layers

Are the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets old?
https://creation.com/ice-sheet-age


13
Updates / THOTH
« on: January 01, 2019, 06:40:32 pm »
Thoth from http://www.catastrophism.com/intro/search.cgi?zoom_query=Thoth&zoom_per_page=25&zoom_and=1&zoom_cat%5B%5D=-1

The Ship of Heaven [Aeon Journal]
... be understood apart from the basic character of the enclosed sun. Illuminated by the solar orb, Saturn's celestial dwelling presented a brightly lit half, so that as the Earth turned on its axis, earthbound observers saw two revolving semicircles of light and shadow moving in a vast pathway around the stationary orb of Saturn. Hence, our model implies that the ship was part and parcel of the sun god's enclosure. In the Egyptian Pyramid Texts, King Unas announces, "I revolve round heaven like Ra, I sail round heaven like Thoth." (23) While Ra's image is the enclosed sun, the common symbol of Thoth is the crescent-enclosure. Allowing the one image to explain the other, we see that Unas does not here engage in two separate acts, but in a single act depicted in two different ways: to revolve within the Aten is to sail in the crescent ship of Thoth. "I stand up in thy enclosure, O Maa; I sail round about," reads the Book of the Dead. (24) From such

The Hermes Connection [Aeon Journal]
... the Hindu Siva (Shiva). A revitalization of the hermetic legends in Egypt was brought to full fruition by Seti the Great of the Tanitic Dynasty-- in the second half of the 7th century B.C., according to the historical reconstruction of Velikovsky. Seti's royal name was taken from the dark god Set, another Saturnian image or avatar, whom Wallis Budge claimed was equated with Hermes/Mercury, (12) although this identification stems from the late Ptolemaic period. Seti's formalized regnal association was with the comparable Egyptian deity Thoth (12a), who is equated with Hermes. (13) Thus, Velikovsky's historiographic analysis is supported by this association. A comparison of a "dark god" with other ancient attributes pertaining to a bright effulgence presents a duality often encountered in myth. In Roman lore, for example, the Siva-like god of beginnings and endings, who was secondary only to Jupiter (Zeus), was the two-faced Janus Bifrons who also wore the broad-brimmed hat, the petasus. This Janus evolved into a solar deity and became associated

The Evolution of the Cosmogonic Egg [Aeon Journal]
... is accompanied by thunder and the shrieking wind. This is the "voice" of God. Somewhere above the sky a mighty **** reaches an orgasm that shakes the heaven...As saliva can be seen mixed with breath during forceful human speech, so the "speaking" of the divine **** is accompanied by a powerful blast of wind, the holy, creative spirit, bearing the "spittle" of semen. This "spittle" is the visible "speech" of God... (49) In fact the Egyptian Thoth, whom the theologians of Hermopolis accepted as "the true universal Demiurge," was believed to have "accomplished the work of creation by the sound of his voice alone." It was he, according to this particular theology, who was responsible for the hatching of the world-egg. (50) But since, as we have elsewhere seen, (51) the Word was synonymous with light-- and the sources really say nothing about the fructifying rain-- so must the Seed have been. The "mighty

Thanatos and Anastasis [Aeon Journal]
... by Set and the right to the throne of Egypt...Osiris was vindicated, and he was pronounced Ôjustified,' that is, Ôtrue,' or Ôrighteous of voice'" (Pyr. 316-318 ). (46) Once the verdict in favor of Osiris was delivered-- from that time forward the idea of truth was associated with [him and he became the god of truth, and of those who spoke the truth. Moreover, Osiris, having been declared true of word, or true of voice, by Thoth, went up into heaven, and reigned there as king. He also became judge of the dead [and had the power and the knowledge necessary for "weighing" [the words of men when they should be tried at the last judgment. (47) Though Jesus was ultimately crucified, Pilate could find no fault with him and "washed his hands of this innocent man's blood." Later, Jesus was even termed the "Sun of Righteousness." (48 ) Jesus and Osiris both came to preside over

Sothis and the Morning Star in the Pyramid Texts [Aeon Journal]
... the movements of the planet Venus. This view is almost certainly incorrect and has had a retarding influence upon a proper understanding of ancient Egyptian religious development. Also undermined by this new understanding of Sothis as Venus is the logic behind the identifications of other celestial bodies mentioned in the Pyramid Texts, including S3h and Horus as the Morning Star. Indeed, we would suggest a thorough reevaluation of all astral identifications in the most ancient Egyptian texts, including such apparently obvious celestial bodies as those typically assigned to Ra (the Sun), Thoth (the Moon), and the circumpolar stars. Until now the study of the most ancient texts has been governed by a uniformitarian approach to the ancient cosmos; namely, the belief that the currently most prominent celestial bodies must have been uppermost in the ancients' minds as well. The latter belief is demonstrably erroneous. A new approach to the ancient traditions is warranted, one free from preconceptions based upon the current arrangement of the solar system. The key to these researches, as always, must be the comparative method

Astral Kingship [Aeon Journal]
... Sed festival ceremony...served to neutralize the forces threatening peace" in the minds of the Egyptian populace who retained "the faint memory of past struggles" involving the unification of Egypt and feared a disintegration of that political stabilization and peace. (117) This purely sociological and earthbound interpretation of the Sed festival, on the part of Montet, falls flat, however. Furthermore, he may have misconstrued the significance of an Old Kingdom Egyptian text which referred to the divinities Horus, Set, Osiris Khenti-irty, Isis, Nephthys and Thoth as a single entity within the framework of the Sed festival. In one chapter of the Pyramid Texts, the same deities are invoked, reviled and most strongly urged to return to their place of origin and the king is forbidden to welcome them. (118 ) Montet found it "difficult to understand why [such popular gods should have been treated so harshly." If these deities were originally planetary gods then it is not at all difficult to understand why they were entreated to "return to their place of origin.

Velikovsky and the Problem of Planetary Identification [Aeon Journal]
... Jupiter. (2) The one exception, of course, was Athena, whom Velikovsky identified with the planet Venus, rather than with the Moon as per the majority of classical writers. Here we must concur with Velikovsky's judgment, although one can only shudder at the thought of what course Velikovsky's work might have taken had he retained the lunar identification of Athena. Extrapolating from the Greek sources, Velikovsky identified the ancient Egyptian gods with the planetary regents of their Greek counterparts. Ra, accordingly, was identified with the sun; Thoth with Mercury; Hathor with Venus; and Horus with Jupiter. (3) The same strategy was also employed with regard to the pantheons of Mesopotamia and India. That there are problems with Velikovsky's approach to the ancient sources has been shown by Cardona, Mewhinney, and others. (4) These writers have documented that Velikovsky's research occasionally suffered from his penchant for drawing far-reaching conclusions from a minimum of hard evidence. Cardona, for example, in his series "Child of Saturn," has expressed doubt about Velikovsky's thesis

From Myth to a Physical Model [Aeon Journal]
... the general tradition, the hero comes forth as the outflow of the heart, which is what the myths mean when they identify the hero as the externalized "will" or "desire" of the creator-king-- the Demiurge (c.f., the Greek Eros: in numerous sources one notes that the will or outflow of the creator's heart took form as the warrior hero). In the case of Egyptian symbolism the relationship can be confirmed in every major variant of the warrior hero, from Shu, to Horus, to Thoth. The heart from which the hero is born is the great goddess. Venus-Eye I believe it was O.G.S. Crawford who first drew scholars' attention to the widespread pictographs and symbolic images of what he called "the Eye Goddess." But the planet Venus he never mentioned, so he missed the key. It is incredible how frequently one encounters the identity of the planet Venus or Venus-goddess as eye or Great Eye. Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, the Americas, Polynesia-- it is everywhere. But no one

Morning Star* [Aeon Journal]
... point, Horus additionally received the epithet Heru-ahai, that is simply Horus the Pillar. (267) But because Mars, due to its eccentric orbit, was seen from Earth to periodically move down this pillar away from the encircling band, often visualized as an encircling wall, Horus was also lauded as "he who is south of [i.e., below the wall." (268 ) One last item I wish to mention, because we have to draw the line somewhere, is that in a somewhat late myth, Thoth decreed that Horus Behutet should thenceforth be called Light-giver. (269) I mention this because a near-identical name-- Light Bringer or Light Bearer, that is Lucifer-- was one of the Latin names for the Morning Star. THE DUAT When we saw Horus described as the god, or chief, of the Netherworld, the word translated as "Netherworld" by Mercer is "D3t," and/or "Dw3t," which I shall here simply render as "Dua" and "Duat."

The Crescent II [The Saturn Myth] [Books]
... enclosure." (25) Is there any direct statement that the enclosure depicted in the sign is the ship's pathway? The Egyptians called the band Aten or khu (" glory," "halo"): "Hail to you who sails in his Khu, who navigates a circle within his Aten," reads the Book of the Dead. (26) Clearly, the subject is the crescent-enclosure. In the Pyramid Texts, King Unas announces, "I revolve round heaven like Re, I sail round heaven like Thoth." While Re's image is the Aten, the common symbol of Thoth is the crescent-enclosure. Allowing the one image to explain the other, we see that Unas does not here engage in two separate acts, but in a single act depicted in two different ways: to revolve within the Aten is to sail in the crescent-ship of Thoth. (27) The circle of the Aten is the "brow" of Re, and it is on Re's brow that the texts locate the ship: "I fly up and

The Crescent [The Saturn Myth] [Books]
... . Of the black and white brothers the world knows no older example than the Egyptian pair Horus and Set. In fig. 67 the heads of Horus and Set appear upon one body, looking to the right and left. The black head of Set contrasts sharply with the light head of Horus, emphasizing the pair's role as "the two opponent gods." Closely related to Horus and Set are the twins Isis and Nephthys, often portrayed back to back (fig. 67). The Egyptian pairs Shu and Tefnut, Thoth and Maat, Sekhet and Neith all reveal a similar underlying character. In the Book of the Dead the pictograph of the two "portions" of Horus and Set is the sign, the band of the Aten. (21) The clear implication is that the sun-god's enclosure possesses two twin-like divisions, one light, the other dark. Moreover, if the circle of the Aten is half light, half dark, surely one cannot ignore the related sign, the crescent-enclosure, which appears to provide a literal illustration of the

The Great Father [The Saturn Myth] [Books]
... Ani is the hair of Nu. The face of Osiris Ani is the face of Re. The eyes of Osiris Ani are the eyes of Hathor. The ears of Osiris Ani are the ears of Ap-uat. The lips of Osiris Ani are the lips of Anpu... (24) In almost the same words, the Papyrus of Nu joins the divinities Osiris, Ptah, Anpu, Hathor, Horus, Isis, and others to the body of Re. (25) In the Memphite theology Atum, Horus, Thoth, and the company of gods became the limbs of Ptah. (26) Syncretization of this sort, though appearing absurd to us today, actually helped to preserve the original idea against the eroding forces of cultural assimilation. Faced with a growing number of competing deities, the priests proclaimed: there was only one great god in the beginning, whose body encompassed a circle of subordinate deities. In a subsequent development of the myth, the Heaven Man passed into a mythical-philosophical explanation of our Earth and the material universe as a

The Dawn of Astronomy: A Study of the Temple-Worship and Mythology of the Ancient Egyptians [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... Osiris (as a Mummy) 26 Plan of the Temple of Rameses II. in the Memnonia at Thebes 159 Osiris seated 27 Plan of Temples at Medînet-Habû 164 Various Forms of Bes-- as Warrior, Musician, and Buffoon 28 The Bent Axis of the Temple of Luxor 165 Khons-Lunus, Thoth-Lunus, the Goddess Sesheta 29 The Laying of the Foundation Stone Ceremonial 174 The Weighing of the Soul by Horus and Anubis, in Presence of Osiris 30 Plan of the Temples at Karnak, showing their Orientations to face p. 183 183 Thoth and Sesheta writing the Name of Rameses II. on the Fruit of the Persea 31 Plan of Denderah 192 Cleopatra as the Goddess Isis 32 Ruins of the Mamisi (Place of Birth) or Temple of Isis at Denderah 195 Isis (seated). 33 Ceremonial Procession in an Egyptian Temple 199 The Rising Sun Horus between Isis and Nephthys 34 Orientation of the Temple of Hathor at Denderah 202 The Goddess Nu-t 35 Capital, with Masks of Hathor with Cow's Ears 216 The Goddess Nu-t represented Double 36 The Cow of Isis 217 Various

Chapter III: the Astroxomical Basis of the Egyptiax Pantheon [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... suggests that the former was imported. In the form of Typhon the goddess Taurt is represented as a hippopotamus, while for Anubis the emblem is a jackal. In all illustrations of funeral ceremonies the above-mentioned figure largely. In the Book of the Dead we find that in the representations of the judgment of the dead, besides Osiris we have Anubis. both responsible for the weighing of the soul. With the moon we find two gods connected-- Thoth-lunus and Khons-lunus-- though the coimection is not a very obvious one. Thoth is also associated with the Egyptian year, and is variously represented, all forms, however, are based upon the ibis. For the stars generally we find a special goddess, Sesheta. Khons-Lunus Thoth-lumus The Godess Sesheta Thoth as the sacred scribe and Sesheta as the star-goddess are often represented together engaged in writing. Associated with the phenomena of morning and evening we find the following divinities. The attributes stated are those now generally accepted. This is a subject which will occupy us in the sequel. The Weighing of the Soul

Chapter XVII: the Building Inscriptions [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... temple of Hathor at Denderah. The Alignment of the Temple of Hathor at Dexderah The inscriptions state that the king while stretching the cord had his glance directed to the ak of the constellation of the Thigh-- the old name of the constellation which we now recognise as the Great Bear-- and on this line was built the new temple, "as had been done there before." The actual inscription has been translated as follows:-- "The living God, the magnificent son of Asti [a name of Thoth, nourished by the sublime goddess in the temple, the sovereign of the country, stretches the rope in joy. With his glance towards the ak [the middle? of the Bull's Thigh constellation, he establishes the temple-house of the mistress of Denderah, as took place there before." At another place the king says: "Looking to the sky at the course of the rising stars [and recognising the ak of the Bull's Thigh constellation, I establish the corners of the temple of Her Majesty." Here

Chapter XXII: Star-Cults (Continued) -- Amen-t and Khons [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... reference is different-- we have the generic name of the triad in one case, the specific name of the member of the triad in the other. As this is the first time a setting star has been in question, it is well to point out that in this case the ancient Egyptians no longer typified the star as a goddess but as a god-- and, more than this, as a dying god; for Khons is always represented as a mummy-- the Osiris form. Egyptologists state that both Thoth and Khons were moon-gods. Perhaps the lunar attributes were assigned prior to the establishment of sun-worship. I shall show, subsequently, that the temples now being considered find their place in continuous series stretching back in the case of Amen-t to 3750 B.C., and in the case of Khons to possibly long anterior date. In the case of Amen-t and Khons, therefore, where we are free from the difficulties connected with the interchange of the titles of Isis and Hathor at Denderah, the star-cults stand out much more clearly,

Chapter XXXVI: General Conclusions As to the North and South Races [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... know it did, about 3700 B.C., for one beginning at the summer solstice. In the above list I have indicated Osiris as a Moon-god. Many inscriptions might be quoted similar to the following one:-- "Salute a te, Hesiri, il signore dell eternitá. Quando tu sei in Cielo, tu apparisci come sole, et tu rinnuovi la tua forma comme Luno." [2 It has also to be borne in mind that the complicated headdress, including the goat's horns, is represented in connection with Thoth Chnemu and Osiris. [3 Later he was unquestionably a sun-god, but this would be certain to happen if the southern intruders worshipped the moon in the first line. Further, if in later times he represented both sun and moon, as he certainly did, it is not probable that he did so from the beginning. All the special symbolism refers to him as a Moon-god; he is certainly a Moon-god in the myth of Iris and Osiris, for he was cut into fourteen pieces, the number of days of

As the Cross of the Cardinal Points [Migration of Symbols (Book)]
... (Plate II). But the cardinal points still retained their importance. The sky goddess Nut was depicted bending over the earth, usually, but not always, with her head to the west and her loins to the east; her arms and legs were the four pillars of the sky. Similarly the legs of the Celestial cow of Nut and Hathor represented the four quarters. The four Horuses of the horizon were guardians of the four' quarters, or Osiris or Horus presided over the south, Set over the north, Thoth over the west and Sapdi over the east. At an earlier period, as has been indicated, Osiris was the "first of the Westerners" and Re the god of the East. In the Pyramid Texts, 204-6, Set is King of the South and Horus King of the North. 9 Dr. S. Birch has translated an Egyptian "magical text", which refers to four mansions, each four stories high, situated at Abydos, and gives the explanation: There are four mansions of life. Osiris

The Genesis of Israel and Egypt [SIS C&C Review]
... of both Egypt and Mesopotamia. In summary then Abraham and Menes share at least three outstanding features. a. Both were credited with initiating civilised life and being cultural innovators. b. Both were believed to have introduced new forms of religious worship including, almost certainly, flesh sacrifice. c. Both were associated with circumcision and were linked to a phallic cult. A further consideration adds yet more weight to the argument. Abraham, as well as Menes, are clearly related, in terms of general character, to the god Thoth/Hermes. Amongst the Egyptians, Thoth was regarded as the patron of learning and it was believed he bequeathed civilisation to mankind. It was said that he invented language, writing and medicine. The Greeks regarded Thoth (whom they associated with their own Hermes) as one of the oldest gods. He had a frivolous and impetuous nature and, it was suggested, could be destructive. It was said he assisted the Three Fates in the invention of writing, astronomy, the musical scale, the arts of boxing and ...

Egyptian Chronology - The Multiple Name Factor [SIS C&C Workshop]
... of one nome differing sensibly from those of another.'[4. Changes in religious practices and emphasis among gods also almost certainly occurred over time. The Ptolemies are known as a matter of policy to have supported the Egyptian priesthoods and temples. Hence any given Ptolemaic king probably received different Egyptian titularies or 'names' in dedications or other inscriptions in the various temples or other structures which he built, repaired, or otherwise supported in different parts of Egypt. If a Ptolemy endowed a temple that was primarily devoted to the god Thoth would the priests of that temple describe the king as a son of Thoth or a son of Ra? If he also supported another temple whose priests considered Ra as supreme, would these priests call him the son of Ra or the son of Thoth? Furthermore, if these names were basically religious and symbolic in nature, should we be surprised that the same names or minor variants of them were used in the inscriptions of many different Ptolemaic rulers who provided upkeep or financed additions to the same temples? All male Ptolemaic rulers

Shoshenq I and the Traditions of New Kingdom Kingship in Egypt [SIS C&C Review]
... Memphis, Shedsunefertem, was previously identified wrongly as an embalming table dedicated under Shoshenq I for the Apis Bull [3; however, like other fragments of his works, this was ultimately, after several phases of reuse, buried in the foundations of a later structure. At el-Hiba, between Beni Suef and el-Minya, Shoshenq I constructed a temple against the west side of the great mudbrick fortress built over a century earlier by the Theban High Priests Pinudjem and Menkheperre. This temple is dedicated to local aspects of Amun, Sekhmet and Thoth and the scenes and inscriptions were completed by Shoshenq I's successor, Osorkon I. This monument was built of an inferior quality limestone, probably quarried locally, and the walls have been eroded severely by the effects of dampness. It is nevertheless a rare example of an original building of this period. None of the monuments mentioned above is precisely dated within Shoshenq I's reign. At Karnak, however, where the grandest and best preserved of his building projects is to be found, we know that the work was not begun until

Velikovsky's "The Tomb of Ahiram" [SIS C&C Review]
... the left-hand side.- These gangs of workmen are very well documented, and the census lists which were taken at the beginning and end of each shift are very well documented as well. That is one source of information for the length of the year. Q: What happened to the other five days? Jones: They were festival days. At Deir el-Medineh there were five festival days for the five main gods they worshipped: Pharaoh Mentuhotep II, Pharaoh Amenhotep I, the god Bes, the goddess Hathor and the god Thoth. The other source of information on the length of the year is the ushabti figures, which are workman substitutes buried along with the funerary equipment of a good Egyptian burial. A set of these ushabti figures always comprises 360 figures plus a number of overseer figures, which provides one worker for each day of the year, or a gang of 10 for each of the 36 "weeks": this is another indication of the number of days in the year. Actual textual information is very difficult to assess, because we

Exodus [SIS C&C Review]
... refers to the slaughtering of the FIRST BORN (eldest) sons of Whose Name is Hidden. This was the pseudonym of the dragon Apepi [11, the great comet of myth. The eldest was also known as the First Born God, the epithet of Horus, son of Osiris. In hymn 393 of the Pyramid Texts the sky is overcast, the stars are darkened, the celestial expanses shake (or explode) and the bones of the earth tremble... etc. Warshawky made a connection between the Judgement of Thoth and Moses receiving the Law on Mount Sinai and went on to suggest that the punishment of Seth, the Bull, being ridden by Osiris, is the same story as Balaam riding a donkey [12. As a result, Warshawky claimed the Pyramid Texts must have been written after the Exodus- either the Exodus preceded the Old Kingdom or the Texts were written after the end of the Middle Kingdom. The Exodus story has as its background a human migration from one land to another, involving what became known as Palestine.

Edfu Books (Advert) [SIS C&C Review]
... and that the Israelites were paid a large tribute by Ahmose I to leave Egypt- which they used to fabricate the Tabernacle and the Ark of the Covenant. A further revelation, that springs directly from this quotation, is that the biblical Mt Sinai is most probably the Great Pyramid of Giza. If this were the case, then the circling of the 'mountains' around Sinai was in fact a ceremonial circumnavigation of Giza- a ritual that is preserved to this day by the circling of the Ka'ba in Mecca. By Ralph Ellis Thoth, Architect of the Universe Takes a radical look at the henges of Britain and the pyramids of Giza, and concludes that they were both designed to represent maps of the Earth- and each of these ancient maps comes complete with outlines of continents and lines of latitude correctly marked. The diagrams that demonstrate this are simple copies of these great monuments, but viewed from an unusual perspective. K2, Quest of the Gods Taking this idea one step further, K2 QotG identifies the precise location on the surface of the Earth that

The Exodus in the Pyramid Texts? [SIS C&C Workshop]
... the Hymn is a description of the killing of Horus the Child by Seth, and also a description of the plague of the "killing of the first born". The killing of the first born in heaven "caused" the plague on earth to be called as such. Velikovsky took great pains to rewrite bechor as bekhor, "first born" as ''chosen''.(11) I think the word may derive from the Egyptian b'ik hor (the Greek Harpocrates) and have both meanings. The "judgement of Thoth" the Hebrews saw as the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai, the punishment of Seth being ridden by Osiris as the story of Balaam and his donkey. The planet involved seems to be Venus. If I am correct, then the Hymn was written after the Exodus and this would imply that also most of the Pyramid Texts were written after the Exodus. Therefore, either the Exodus must be moved back to the Old Kingdom or the Pyramid Texts must have been written after the Middle Kingdom. The alternative that the

Alan Alford's The Phoenix Solution [SIS Internet Digest]
... Sirius symbols of the exploded planet? Did Orion mark the gateway to the heavenly Duat and the 'body of Nut'? The Nine Bows and the Shemsu-Hor as planets of the original solar system. Part Three: New Horizons. 10: THE METAPHYSICAL PYRAMID: The Double-Lion god in the Egyptian Duat, the etymology of Ta-Meri- ancient land of creation, rebirth and ascension. The two horizons or 'mountains' of the Duat. A new theory on the satellite pyramids- did they literally represent planetary satellites? The cosmic identity of Thoth, and why he was called Hermes Trismegistus? Why Egyptian sarcophagi were designed to be empty. 11: SECRETS OF ABYDOS AND GIZA: Two exploded planets in Egyptian and Mesopotamian mythology. How numerical symbolism was used to represent planetary gods in ancient Egypt. 12: KHUFU- SON OF A SATANIC GOD: A reappraisal of the Egyptian 4th Dynasty. Decoding the symbolic meaning of Sneferu's two giant pyramids at Dahshur. Evidence for Khufu being an evil tyrant and literally a 'satanic' king. Was Khufu imprisoned inside the Great Pyramid

A Critical Re-appraisal of the Book of Genesis, Part Two [SIS C&C Workshop]
... p.169. 46. Ibid., p.170. 47. Note: Before the Babel incident of Genesis chapter 11, Scripture informs us: "Now the whole earth had one language and few words" (11:1). 48. The Babylonians have a legend of a god-like being, Oannes, whom they believed to have been the original instructor of mankind. An old Babylonian account says that "for six days he instructed Alorus." The place occupied by Oannes in Babylonian stories is, in Egyptian tradition taken by Thoth. The Egyptian maintained that it was Thoth, "the lord of wisdom," who taught mankind to write. 49. Ginzberg, op. cit., p.195. 50. Wiseman, op. cit. [45, p.66. Occasional Publications Series A list of the titles complete with prices is now being prepared. Members seeking further information should contact Derek Shelley-Pearce at the address given on page 1. \cdrom\pubs\journals\workshop\w1987no2\03book.htm

Letters [SIS C&C Workshop]
... . From there, via Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, it is only a matter of island hopping to Queensland. b. In the early 1960s, British Museum scientists (no referenec given) discovered that, from about 1,000BC onwards, eucalyptus resin was employed in the embalming of the dead, among other uses. As such a commodity could only have been obtained in those times from New Guinea or Australia, did Egyptians make regular expeditions that far afield? c. The Gympie 'Ape Man' bears a resemblance to Thoth, depicted as a squatting ape prior to 1,000BC. Mr Gilmour claims to see a symbol, between the squatting legs of the 'Ape Man', identical to the Egyptian hieroglyph for a papyrus flower, Thoth's symbol as the god of writing. If I have not strained credulity too far already, may I now direct the reader's attention to an article in Nexus magazine (PO Box 30, Mapleton, Queensland 4560), April/May 1994, by Paul White? In it, he claims to have been

It's Time to Get Serious About Manetho [SIS C&C Review]
... same gentleman known by modern historians as Ramesses III? What if modern scholarship misread Manetho from the very outset? Manetho Revisited The work of the Manetho must be part of the basic toolkit for any budding Egyptologist, yet modern textbooks appear disturbingly light on information. According to a 1902 publication, 'This distinguished man was born at Sebennytus, the Thebneteret of the hieroglyphic inscriptions, and he flourished in the reigns of Ptolemy Lagus and Ptolemy Philadelphus; his name seems to be the Greek form of the Egyptian Ma'en-Tehuti, i.e. 'gift of Thoth'... He is described as a 'high priest and scribe', and bore a reputation for great learning, and he was undoubtedly admirably fitted to draw up, in Greek, the history of Egypt... He divided the kings of Egypt into thirty dynasties... Now the principal versions of the King List of Manetho are four in number, and they are found in the famous 'Chronography', which was drawn up about the end of the VIIIth century of our era by George the Monk,

Pharaoh Seti the Great and His Foreign Connections [Kronos]
... that the Greek predilection for geometric explanations of nature, their use of the "Golden Section" in pottery, sculpture, and temple alike, and even the dualism between "sensible and intelligible worlds"-- nearly definitive of Plato's system-- are as much stamped with the seals of ancient Egypt as were the doors of Egyptian tombs. All of this still leaves unaddressed the revised chronology. In this case, there are two significant pieces of Greek evidence: The Greek emphasis upon Hermes, identical in all respects to Egypt's Thoth, and the cosmological Timaeus of Plato, which contains definitive related passages to the Egyptian Book of Gates and to the theology of Heliopolis. Specialists in Egyptology know that the Book of Gates is peculiar in literary history. Thus we are not merely indicating some generic Egyptian characteristic, such as reverence for Osiris. On the Egyptian side, two matching pieces of evidence emerge: The Book of Gates inscribed on Seti's alabaster sarcophagus and also, with very minor variations, in his cenotaph at Abydos. There is also the curious story

Pharaoh Seti the (Great and His Foreign Connections - II [Kronos]
... and Neugebauer, in his Egyptian Astronomical Texts, I, try to make sense of the thing, but there is much to be said for the notion that it is not even a clock for any ordinary purpose. Neugebauer's account is worth further discussion in a later part of this series. (6) Finally, on the West side of the roof, one will find the "Dramatic Texts", usually supposed to deal with the "mysteries" involved in the relations between the principal gods of the Egyptians. Horus, Thoth, Isis, Osiris, Set, Nephthys, Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, and Nut figure strongly in these mysteries; there is a family history to unravel, and Pharaoh's relation to it or identity with it. LIVING DESCENDENTS OF SETI'S CENOTAPH The present Dalai Lama of Tibet- the Fourteenth- is, for Tibetan Buddhists, an incarnation of Chenrezi- a timeless spirit, some of whose bodies are entombed in the Potala at Lhasa. Many Occidentals may find this belief quaint and absurd. Buddhists acquainted with the

"Let There be Light" [Kronos]
... " Why would it be said that the Sun was as resplendent as the Sun? But why, then, did the ancients themselves confuse Saturn with the Sun?-- for there is no doubt that the later Egyptians, who passed the fallacy on to the Greeks, looked upon Ra as the embodiment of the solar energy. The answer to this riddle, as to many others of similar kind, is best illustrated by the story of Thamus, a mythological king of Egypt, who, with the following words, reproached Thoth for having invented writing:" 'Most ingenious Theuth [Thoth... one man has the ability to beget arts but the ability to judge of their usefulness or harmfulness... belongs to another; and now you, who are the father of letters, have been led by your affection to ascribe to them a power the opposite of that which they really possess. For this invention will produce forgetfulness in the minds of those who learn to use it, because they will not practice their memory. Their trust in

Mercury [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... Sinai refers to Sin, the Moon, so the name of Mount Nebo in Moab where Moses died (2) was called already in that early time by the name of the planet Mercury. Later in the seventh and sixth centuries before the present era, this god was much venerated, especially by the Chaldeans and other peoples of Mesopotamia, as the names of Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar prove. (3) In earlier times Mercury was known to the Sumerians as Enki. (4) Equally pronounced was the position of Thoth, the planet Mercury of the Egyptian pantheon, the theophoric part of the name Thutmose. (5) For the northern peoples, Mercury was Odin. (6) It is characteristic that in many astronomical texts Mercury, the Greek Hermes, the Babylonian Nebo, the Egyptian Thoth, is portrayed as the planet-god which had in his dominion the physiological capacity of memory in man, (7) as well as that of speech. According to Augustine, ? speech is Mercury.? (8 ) Direct information that confirms

Deification of the Planets [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... the Moon, but prima facie with the planets. Marduk, the great god of the Babylonians, was the planet Jupiter; so was Amon of the Egyptians, Zeus of the Greeks and Jupiter of the Romans. (1) It was much superior to Shamash-Helios, the Sun. Why was it revered by all peoples? Why was the planet Mars chosen to be the personification of the god of war? Why did Kronos of the Greeks, Saturn of the Romans, play a part in hundreds of myths and legends? Thoth of the Egyptians, Nebo and Nergal of the Babylonians, Mithra and Mazda of the Persians, Vishnu and Shiva of the Hindus, Huitzilopochtli and Quetzalcoatl of the Mexicans, were personifications of planets; innumerable hymns were dedicated to them and adventures and exploits ascribed to them. ? The life of our planet has its real source in the Sun,? wrote E. Renan. ? All force is a transformation of the Sun. Before religion had gone so far as to proclaim that God must be placed in the absolute and

'KA', AND EGYPTIAN MAGIC [Quantavolution Website]
... soldiers with weapons pointing the wrong way, cut bowstrings and so on, together with magic words and instructions for use. There is also a story of a wax model of a crocodile being thrown into a river, turning into a real one, and seizing a man. Magical rites and incantations were used to install souls in animals, to cure illnesses, to provide a home for the dead person by preserving the khat, or physical body, and to raise the dead. The means for achieving all this is the god Thoth. He is referred to as the god who made Osiris victorious, just as the Greek Hermes is referred to as the slayer of the monster Argos. (Horus is called the Lord of the Divine Staff whereby all the gods have been made victorious, and Hermes Trismegistos, Thrice Great Hermes, is a name of Thoth). He was the "son of Aner, coming forth from the two Aners?" Egyptian aner is a stone. (Budge). The ibis is a bird renowned for its skill in

CHAOS AND CREATION: CHAPTER 09: THE OLYMPIAN RULERS [Quantavolution Website]
... skies. Again Seth is taking the onus for Horus' action, while Zeus is doing his own job. The next phase, perhaps upon the occasion of the destruction of planet "Apollo" and the major displacement of Mercury, sees, in Egypt, Seth and Horus battling, and in Greece, a revolt of the giants against the Olympians led by Zeus. This set of events, then, would occur over a thousand years later than the death of Osiris and would mark the appearance of Mercury, Hermes, or Thoth as a new great god-- that is, a god who is threatening the Earth with destruction. The last battle against Typhon will be described below on the occasion of the Venusian catastrophes. There Seth is Typhon. THE BONDS OF SATURN AND JUPITER The primeval clouds that had gathered around the pulsing electric axis between Sun and Super-Uranus had furnished atmosphere to the magnetic tube in which the planets grew and moved. The flow and the magnetic field diminished, but the skies were not fully open until Jovean times. Remnant gases

GODS FIRE: CHAPTER SIX: THE CHARISMA OF MOSES [Quantavolution Website]
... ; the Jewish legend says that it was a temporary moratorium on births for all people. Even birth control policies in America have been declared forms of infanticide and genocide by religious and racial minority leaders and writers. Egypt was a heavily regulated, bureaucratic state. There is something to be made of Moses' name. It is clearly Egyptian, meaning "child" or "son" [8 and lacks the surname or prefix as, for example, in the pharaoh's name, Thoth-Moses, or "Child of the God, Thoth" (Mercury, Hermes). A variant theory says Moses means the "born one" in Egyptian, which is only a clumsy version of "child." Buber says: "That Moses bears an Egyptian name, no matter whether it means 'born, child (of somebody)' or something like 'seed of the pond, of the water,' is part of the historical character of the situation; he seems to derive from a largely Egyptianized section of the people." [9 Some say the Hebrew

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 12: CATASTROPHE, MYTH AND SKY [Quantavolution Website]
... the other great cats. Wine was thought to be the blood of those who had perished in battles in the sky. Radiation was attributed to the five planets visible to the naked eye, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The eye was thought to be a source of radiation. Axe, hoe, spear and arrow were symbols of lightning and radiation. Seven is an important number, being five plus the sun and moon. The Cretan goddess is concerned, like Artemis, with both animals and radiation. Thoth, the Egyptian god of electricity who was equated with the Greek Hermes and the Roman Mercury, was active in the sky. He restarted Ra's boat when it had stopped. This Egyptian story is in harmony with accounts from elsewhere, such as the record of phenomena at the battle of Beth Horon after the Exodus, during the invasion of Palestine by the Hebrews under Joshua [Joshua X: 13. The tholos tomb, a burial chamber approached by a passage, the dromos, may be an imitation of the column rising

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 19: LIFE [Quantavolution Website]
... reversal of the Mycenean dipas, cup, or heaven. Hittite tipas is a cup, and also means 'heaven'. The Latin lanx, lanc-, dish, may be El, the one above, and ankh, life. FIVES Greek pimpremi, burn, may have a connection with the five planets that were held to radiate divine force. The Cumbrian and Welsh, i. e. Gallic, word pimp, used by shepherds counting sheep, means five. The draughts board was said to have been invented by Thoth. Alexander the Great also claimed to be the inventor. Greek pessos is a 'man' at draughts. Etruscan pes is five. The squares on the board may represent areas of the sky, and the Egyptians called the 'men' dancers. At Carthage there was an important body of five magistrates called the pentarchy. At Rome the term quinqueviratus meant a body of five officials. CAULDRONS The phenomenon described by Jeremiah as a seething pot facing the north may have had some influence on the design of ancient pottery as well as

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 22: SACRED BIRDS [Quantavolution Website]
... associated with Horus. The object appearing in Egyptian art and hieroglyphics and called the utchat, or udjat, was the eye of Horus or of Ra. The osprey, a bird of prey like the eagle, was in Latin sanqualis. As with the eagle, the Romans watched its flight. The name may incorporate sankh; the radiation of the god was thought to give life. The buteo, falcon, was watched for its flight. The ibis, which had great skill in killing snakes, was associated with the god Thoth, who was equated with the Greek Hermes and was the Egyptian electrical god par excellence. Latin ardea is a heron. It was noted for the long crest on its head. Of the two elements of the word, ar is clearly the fire. Dea is rather less obvious, but Hebrew dea, knowledge, is an attractive possibility. Ardea was the name of an Etruscan city near Rome, capital of the Rutuli. The peacock was sacred to Juno. Its Latin name was pavo. Perhaps the pattern on its

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 24: THE NORTH [Quantavolution Website]
... is light. Hungarian kivilagit means to illuminate. The Illyrians may even have been the people of the great light, since the root ur means great. Perhaps Yggdrasil is the steed [means of travel, of the light of the frightener, or the light of the frightener's steed. The name of the actual horse of Odin was Sleipnir. In Greek myth, the father of Eros, love, was Poros, the passage to the sky. This suggests a link with Dionysus and Hermes. Hermes was the Greek equivalent of Thoth, and Dionysus was one of the deities who controlled the thunderbolt. The Greeks were aware of the connection between a deity of the thunderbolt and sexual passion. Tall trees such as the pine [Greek elate, the sycamore and the cypress may be associated with the poros. Greek hule means wood [as a material. If reversed, hule becomes eluh, the final h being pronounced more like ch, as in the Scottish word loch. Egyptian ucha is a pillar. Hule, wood, is probably the tree of

SOLARIA BINARIA: PART TWO: DESTRUCTION OF THE SOLAR BINARY: CHAPTER FIFTEEN: THE JUPITER ORDER [Quantavolution Website]
... bits of the residue of a large planet, long ago exploded [103. The time of the "asteroidal explosion" is recent (Van Flandern) even under long-time reckoning; it is very recent if placed in the context of Greek legend. In this context, several events coincide and relate to the larger theory of Solaria Binaria. Apollo has a younger brother, mischievous Hermes (Mercury), who is a swift, winged messenger of Zeus (Jupiter) and the gods, who is connected with electricity (especially as Thoth, in Egypt), the creator of illusions (mental problems), and is god of thieves, travelers, and healing. He, too, becomes a great god, known to many- East Indians, Mexicans, Teutons, and others. Though Yahweh reflects Jupiter, he also has qualities of Thoth; Moses was probably a devotee of Thoth, and acts towards Yahweh as Hermes towards Zeus (de Grazia, 1983a). Astronomically, Mercury would have been next to Apollo, would have acquired atmosphere and debris

GODS FIRE: CHAPTER TWO: THE SCENARIO OF EXODUS [Quantavolution Website]
... No rulers would ever conduct any kind of discussions in which plagues were the topic, without watching the sky; they were talking of gods and the gods had one true home and one main realm- the sky. This had been true since the days of creation, thousands of years before, by ancient reckoning in many cultures. The Pharaoh did not dispute the existence of Yahweh, indeed he reasoned and behaved as a typical sceptical and sophisticated ruler: "Maybe their god, which is not unlike our gods, Amen, Thoth, and Horus, has gotten something going for them." His obduracy, of which the Bible makes much, is to a certain degree rational and prompted by his knowing full well that the Hebrew complaint was almost entirely political and economic. It was Moses' scientific renown, coupled with the increasingly terrible natural manifestations, that prompted the Pharaoh to conduct the negotiations on Moses' religious grounds. He wanted any information (and so did his advisers) that would help cope with the deteriorating general situation caused by a raging

GODS FIRE: [Quantavolution Website]
... himself to his people and, it is important to stress, to their enemies. The limitations of space on the kapporeth or coverpiece of the Ark define in part the sculpture. Unlike the winged lions and bulls, griffins and other animals fashioned as cherubim in Assyria and elsewhere, the Ark's cherubim were probably two-footed with unisexual human features [25. A later Assyrian assemblage (Figure 11) is similar. So are two figures from Egypt, showing two winged goddesses hovering protectively over idols of Osiris, in one case, and Thoth in the other [26. The cherubim could not be seated or squatting, because they were facing Yahweh, but would stand with faces elevated, says the legend [27. Figure 12 may convey some notion of their appearance, in accord with legend and with the Bible. It may be seen that their wings would be spread wide as a covering of the box so that, in effect, two platform levels would be created, one on the ample but separated pair of wings and again on the lid of the

LIVING WITH ELECTRICITY [Quantavolution Website]
... goose, Greek 'chen', was known to the Egyptians as 'chenchenur', the great cackler. At Rome, geese were sacred to Juno; they gave warning of the Gauls' night attack on the Capitol. In the 1939 -1945 war, pheasants in country districts of England gave reliable early warning of the approach of German aircraft. We have already met the hoopoe with its erectile crest. The ibis was a symbol to the Egyptians of the electrical god, because of its skill at killing snakes, and to the ibis Thoth owes the shape of his head. Thoth armed the gods for their victory over Set. The ichneumon, or mongoose, was sacred to the Egyptians because of a similar skill, that of finding crocodile eggs, and the mongoose is known for its ability to catch snakes. The jackal is sab in Egyptian. I suggest that this may be related to the Latin 'sapere', to be wise. Anubis was the jackal-headed god. Ambitious politicians and military men copied the priestly practice of dressing up in the skins of animals

QUANTAVOLUTION: COSMIC HERETICS: Part 3: Chapter 9: NEW FASHIONS IN CATASTROPHISM [Quantavolution Website]
... and cites all of his sources. It is not so easy to explain the parallels between Velikovsky and Beaumont. Velikovsky never mentioned or cited Beaumont. Could Velikovsky have read and forgotten Beaumont's books? His method of proof is entirely different; practically everything-- style, format, language, method, and evidence-- is different; only the conclusions are the same. And I should stress that when Deg came into possession of the Beaumont materials, he found them mostly unusable for methodological and theoretical reasons; Beaumont's stress upon Thoth, however, helped convince Deg that a catastrophic age ought to be assigned to the god Hermes and the Planet Mercury. Moreover, with regard to both Velikovsky and de Grazia, too many of Beaumont's conclusions are the same as theirs to explain them as sheer coincidence. I guess that either in the 1920's or 1930's when V. was in Palestine, the books, published in England and dealing with matters of interest to the Near East, made an appearance in the bookstores and were seen by V. A second possibility

GODS FIRE: [Quantavolution Website]
... , as many surmised. It denotes a young ox, an ox in the full vigour of its youth." [30 The only reason I can offer for this modification of the universal cow-bull theme is that the Israelites knew that the comet was a young body in the sky. It had not been known to them for long. The bison and bull, always with a divine celestial connection, had been worshipped and were sacred since time immemorial [31. Zeus, the thunderbolter, assumed the image of the bull. Thoth (or Hermes or Mercury) took the image of a ram, afterwards. Figure 7. Moses' Tablets and Golden Calf Heretics. La Somme le Roy, ca. A. D. 1295 British museum Add. MS 54180, folio 5v) Zeus, it will be recalled, had fathered and mothered Athene who was the Greek planet Venus. The new heavenly body, the Messiah, would take the form of a calf. The Venus connection is obvious, with Baal, then, being Venus. And for

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 27: GLOSSARY [Quantavolution Website]
... only thing that depended on the gods. Much depended in the mind of the ancients on the arrival or departure, presence or absence, of objects in the sky, especially new arrivals. Much depended, too, on the power of heroes who had divine ancestry, on divine inspiration and on radiation. libation As well as the Malatya relief which shows a god holding his thunderbolt over the cup at a libation ceremony, there is a reference to libation in the Book of the Dead which is amenable to an electrical interpretation: Thoth dwells within his hidden places and performs the ceremonies of libation unto the god who reckoneth millions of years, and he maketh a way through the firmament." [Budge's translation, p. 392 magh Hebrew for a Persian priest. Cf. Latin magnus, great. The Sibyl became maior videri, bigger in appearance, as the god Apollo inspired her. manna Egyptian bener, sweet, may be related to the Latin Venus, Vener-. mouse Greek mus, sminthos. Smintheus was one of the epithets of Apollo

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Updates / Re: Mathis on Velikovsky +
« on: December 24, 2018, 11:44:28 pm »
Evidence for the Extreme Youth of Venus [SIS C&C Review]
From: SIS Chronology& Catastrophism Review (1994) "Proceedings of the 1993 Cambridge Conference"

_Evidence for the Extreme Youth of Venus, Wal Thornhill
_"The purpose of the Universe is the perpetual astonishment of mankind."- Arthur C. Clarke "Person who say it cannot be done should not interrupt person doing it."- spurious Chinese proverb
_Introduction
_The planet Venus is the brightest object in the sky- after the Sun and the Moon. Astronomers repeatedly refer to it as Earth's 'twin' [1. They should not- for twins are always born close together in time and there is no evidence to support their assumption that the two planets are of the same age. I will show instead that Venus has the hallmarks of a recent genesis. What do I mean by 'recent'? By recent I mean too recent to be measured in millions, let alone billions of years: more likely the event occurred within human memory and its age can be measured in thousands of years. What is meant by 'genesis'? At least it means the final chapters of the interaction between an errant, cometary Venus and other planets of the Solar System and its final settlement into a highly regular, planetary orbit about the Sun. At most it hints at the parturition of one of the gas giant planets to form the new planet Venus. The implications of such a late and spectacular event in the Solar System are profound. It will be difficult to contemplate by those who have built the current cosmogonic consensus. That consensus is built upon ad hoc additions to centuries-old ideas. It relies on gravity as the aggregating force acting over millions of years upon widely dispersed material to form the Solar System. Clearly, in the current steady state of the Solar System, gravitational theory seems to predict planet orbits accurately. Not only does the clockwork certainty make life easier for the mathematicians but it also makes the world seem safe. However, reality has a way of being much more complex than mathematical models: there is evidence, in particular from the behaviour of comets, that non-gravitational forces are also at work in the Solar System. Establishing a very recent and drastic change in the Solar System would cause reverberations in every field of study. As a recent example, scientists have pointed to the hellish surface conditions on Venus and have warned that the Earth could suffer the same fate as a result of rapacious human activity. Such an argument assumes that the genesis of Venus was similar to that of Earth but that the two evolved very differently. A quite different interpretation would result from the youthful Venus theory: that the Earth's biosphere seems to have a remarkable capacity to recover from catastrophe attendant upon a recent rearrangement of the inner Solar System. In turn, this would indicate that the biosphere, even now, may not be in a steady state, which has been suggested on theoretical grounds [2. Venus, Earth's twin? If Venus is a newcomer to its present orbit in the inner Solar System, it is necessary to dismiss the oft-quoted idea of it being a twin of Earth. This idea arose from their relative proximity in the inner Solar System and almost equal size and mass. Couple these facts with the nebular theory of planet formation (from a disk of gas and dust encircling the proto-sun) and we have Earth being formed at nearly the same time and from almost the same materials as Venus. The mean distances of the two planets from the centre of the Sun differ by about 25%, which would lead to an expected initial difference in composition of the same order. Then why does Venus have almost no water and Earth an abundance? Why does Venus have a much higher content of primordial inert gases? The astronomer V. A. Firsoff wrote: "I once described Earth and Venus as 'non-identical twins'. It used to be thought that their differences were more apparent than real. But in the words of Sherlock Holmes, 'Eliminate the impossible and what is left, however improbable, is the truth'. And it would be hard to find a more improbable planet than Venus." [3 Predictably, planetary geologists take the 'Earth's twin' approach and are thereby forced to make the faintly absurd pronouncement: 'The overall impression is that Venus is a dynamic world that has been shaped by processes fundamentally similar to those that have taken place on the Earth, but often with dramatically different results' [4. This can only be true if one accepts qualifiers like 'somehow' and 'mysteriously' as scientific descriptions of processes on Venus. More likely it indicates that our ideas of the relationship between geological cause and effect on the Earth may be wrong. Dr S. R. Taylor, a planetologist of the Australian National University Research School of Earth Sciences, summed up a lecture titled 'Venus:- a twin planet?' [5 by stating: "You are not looking at a twin planet to the Earth at all; there are very many substantial differences....the differences are so great it makes you wonder whether you could ever produce a twin of the Earth in some other solar system when you can't do it in your own." Venus, the improbable planet So, what is now known about Venus? The following sections give a brief summary of the space age findings and the accepted interpretations:-
_1. Magnetosphere
_A planet's magnetosphere is the region in space surrounding the planet where its magnetic field dominates. Under the influence of the solar wind it is compressed on the sunward side of the planet and stretches away behind the planet like a comet's tail. The dynamo theory of planetary magnetic fields supposes that they are generated by an internal dynamo created by fluid motions in a metallic outer core. The early Mariner spacecraft provided a surprise when they found an extensive 'cometary' magnetotail stretching behind Venus [6 along the Sun-Venus line. It is longer than that found for any other planet. The 'scale length' of the tail is about 700, compared to Earth's less than 300. [The scale length is the {} of Earth, the tail wake stretches for 3000 Earth radii (R E) and the magnetosphere varies between 10 and 15 R E. Atmospheric ions are stripped away from Venus in its tail. Venus appears to have no intrinsic magnetic field. This finding was unexpected because the dynamo theory would predict a small field for Venus, given its slow rotation and molten core. (The dynamo theory also fails to explain why slowly rotating Mercury has a magnetic field. That planet is not believed to have a molten core). The magnetic flux of the solar wind appears to interact directly with the ionosphere of Venus. This was not anticipated either, and is unlike all other planets in the solar family. Spikes in the Pioneer Venus orbiter magnetometer readings were interpreted as twisted magnetic field lines wrapped around each other like ropes. Alternatively, the magnetic field spikes may be induced in the ionosphere by electric current flows in the solar wind. Another major surprise is the presence of an ionosphere on the night side of Venus. Ionospheres are thought to be created by dissociation of atoms in the upper atmosphere by the action of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It was thought that the long Venusian night would be long enough for recombination to take place and for the ionosphere there to disappear.
_2. Rotation
_Venus has a retrograde axial rotation period of 243 days. It is assumed, because it so different to the Earth's rotation rate, that it must have been similar at some time in the past and then drastically modified as a result of a of a very large collision. There is no generally accepted theory to explain planetary rotation or axial tilt. Strangely, Venus always presents the same hemisphere to the Earth at times of inferior conjunction.
_3. Isotopic anomalies
_Three isotopes of argon are considered important in investigations of planetary atmospheres. 40 Ar is produced by the decay of radioactive potassium( 40 K) in the planet's rocks and is outgassed into the atmosphere over time. Venus has only of the amount of 40 Ar found in the Earth's atmosphere. The other isotopes, 36 Ar and 38 Ar are thought to be primordial gases, present when the planet formed. 36 Ar appears in proportions up to 100 times that found on Earth or Mars. Since it cannot be created after a planet's formation, if Venus was formed in the way the Earth and Mars were it should have an equal or lower concentration. There is also about 45 times more neon and 3 times more krypton in the atmosphere of Venus. Its atmosphere shows a deuterium to hydrogen ratio of about 100 times that of the Earth which, it is argued, might be consistent with the loss of oceans of water and the preferential outgassing of the lighter hydrogen. But such a mechanism does not easily remove the last vestiges of water to leave such a dry atmosphere. The isotopic abundances do not follow the expected pattern for planet formation from a nebula. For example, Venus, being nearer the Sun than Earth and Mars, should have lost more 36 Ar to the early, strong solar wind than those planets.
_4. Atmosphere
_None of the the characteristics of the Venusian atmosphere were predicted by prevailing cosmogonic theories. Venus has a planet-wide cloud cover and massive atmosphere which is remarkably uniform in temperature and pressure at all latitudes and in both day and night hemispheres. With a gravity 90% of the Earth's and being closer to the Sun, Venus would be expected to have retained less volatiles and hence have a thinner (not thicker) atmosphere than the Earth. The Venusian atmospheric composition is shown below. Atmosphere Earth Venus 77% nitrogen 21% oxygen 1% water vapour 97% carbon dioxide 2% nitrogen 1% oxygen Ammonia (0.1 percent) was detected by the Soviet probe, Venus 8, at the height of the clouds. Hydrocarbons of many sorts showed up in the initial evaluation of the mass spectrometer on board the Pioneer atmospheric probes but were discounted as lingering instrumental residues [7. Clouds occupy several discrete layers, at heights typically 46, 47-49, 50-55, and 56-62 kilometres above the surface (clouds on Earth rarely top 15km altitude), with the uppermost, yellowish, cirrus-like haze made from droplets of concentrated sulphuric acid. Since sulphuric acid does not account for the yellowish colour of the clouds, this deduction is suspect. It is this uppermost layer that is responsible for the markings visible in UV images. It has also been found that a major constituent of large cloud particles is chlorine. The highly reflective upper haze effectively hides lower levels rather like a veil in bright sunlight hides a bride's face. The clouds below are not as opaque as earthly clouds but are more akin to photochemical smog. Investigators had expected that only 2% of the total incident sunlight would reach the surface and that the atmosphere would be super-refractive. Neither is the case: it is surprisingly bright at the surface and pictures by Veneras 9 and 10 showed the horizon 200-300m distant. Cloud movements show a 4 day rotation period of the upper atmosphere at the equator which declines to 2 days towards the poles. This is explained by a constant wind velocity on a reducing perimeter as the upper atmosphere spirals up to the poles. However, with a rotation period of the planet of 243 days retrograde and sluggish surface winds, the upper atmospheric movement is incomprehensible. The negligible variation in surface temperature is explained theoretically in astronomical textbooks by slow winds in the dense lower atmosphere of 1 to 2 metres/sec from the poles to the equator [8. There are three reasons why this explanation is unsound: i). Since the planet is now the same temperature overall there is no heat engine to drive the lower atmosphere. ii). Moving patterns detected in two specific windows for infrared radiation through the carbon dioxide atmosphere indicate that the lower clouds are patchy and move at velocities up to 250kph [9. iii). Winds at the surface are slow (about 6kph) and always in the direction of rotation, not from pole to equator. In 1972, a 'breathing' phenomenon was discovered in the Venusian atmosphere [10. It is as if the cloud cover is acting like the lid on a kettle of boiling water; the infrared CO> 2 lines swing through a four day cycle akin to a relaxation oscillation which builds up slowly during each cycle and then collapses. This indicates that the cloud deck moves up and down through 1 km over the entire planet. Such a phenomenon requires considerable energy input- which is difficult to account for on a very slowly rotating planet if solar energy is the only source. The 'breathing' has been confirmed by the Magellan orbiter which underwent variable atmospheric braking at the lowest point of its orbit, with a 4 day cycle. Explanations of the Venusian atmosphere have required large numbers of assumptions and special conditions to be imposed on the hypothetical early solar nebula and the activity of the proto-sun. Many anomalies remain.
_5. Heat balance
_The rocks of the Earth contain radioactive uranium, thorium and potassium-40 which in the process of decay provide energy to heat up the planet's interior. The potassium/uranium ratio is about the same on Venus as on the Earth. It is therefore assumed, on the grounds that the two planets are twins, that the internal heat production is the same. The very high surface temperature of Venus of 750 K or 900 F is usually explained by the 'greenhouse effect' of CO 2, or even the 'runaway greenhouse effect', first suggested by Fred Hoyle in 1955 and worked out in detail in the late 1960s by Ingersoll and Pollack of Caltech. Such explanations also rely on the assumption that both Venus and Earth have had largely parallel development (twins again) and that therefore something went seriously wrong with the atmospheric evolution on Venus. Firsoff noted:  "Earth's seas are not boiling hot, despite the total greenhouse effect of water and average sunlight stronger than at the ground level of Venus. Nor is it at all clear how such a condition could have become established" [11 Venus receives 1.9 times more solar radiation than Earth but its clouds reflect about 80% of that sunlight, so that Venus actually absorbs less solar energy than the Earth. Solar radiation measured at the surface is 10-20W/m 2 (compare this with 340W/m 2 at the Earth's surface in the tropics). Even with the maximum greenhouse effect, the effective surface temperature of Venus should be low enough to freeze water [12. What is being asked of the 'runaway greenhouse effect' is equivalent to expecting a well-insulated oven to reach a temperature sufficient to melt lead by having only the pilot light switched on! The humorous but sadly apt inversion, 'I'll see it when I believe it', seems to apply to the interpretation of results relayed to Earth from all four Pioneer lander probes as their radiometers began to give anomalous results as they descended through the atmosphere. "Taken at face value, the anomalies suggest that parts of the atmosphere are transmitting about twice the energy upwards that is available from solar radiation at the same level." [13 Despite the obvious interpretation that the laws of thermodynamics are not being violated and that, simply, Venus is intrinsically hot and still cooling, the investigators are able to blandly state in the same paragraph: "In spite of these difficulties in interpreting some of the observations, the greenhouse effect, coupled with global dynamics, is now well established as the basic explanation of the high surface temperature." On the night side of Venus where sunlight reflected from the uppermost haze cannot dazzle the observer, it is possible to see surprisingly deeply into the planet's atmosphere. The only illumination is the infrared radiation from the planet's hot surface which is almost sufficiently intense to be seen as a very dull red glow. Cloud patterns picked out in infrared are intense enough to be seen during inferior conjunction (in broad daylight) from Earth using a suitably equipped 20cm telescope. The emissivity of the surface at the Magellan radar wavelength, which corresponds to surface electrical properties and surface temperature, correlates strongly with altitude. There are some exceptions to this pattern. High altitude temperatures are often much lower than would be expected on the basis of the adiabatic lapse rate of minus 9 K/km. The conventional view is that the higher emissivity is largely due to the surface chemical composition being different in the highlands. The greenhouse effect would have the surface temperature conforming to the lapse rate. Figure 1. A typical Venusian sinuous rille. The scale bar= 10km. They tend to grow narrow and shallow towards their termini. They are widely distributed in the equatorial regions.
_6. Lightning
_"The most striking [the pun seems unintended observations made by the Galileo spacecraft during its flyby of Venus was evidence of lightning." [14 The surprise is curious. Earlier reports of lightning were discounted, it seems, because they did not fit the pattern of earthly lightning. The Venera spacecraft found 'continuous lightning activity from 32km down to about 2km altitude, with discharges as frequent as an amazing 25 per second' [15. The highest recorded rate on Earth is 1.4/sec during a severe blizzard [16. The Pioneer lander recorded 1000 radio impulses. Thirty-two minutes after landing, Venera 11 detected a very loud (82 decibel) noise which was believed to be thunder. Garry Hunt suggested at the time that:'... the Venusians may well be glowing from the nearly continuous discharges of those frequent lightning strokes' [17. A 'mysterious glow' was detected coming from the surface at a height of 16km by 2 Pioneer probes as they descended on the night hemisphere. The glow increased on descent and may have been caused by a form of St. Elmo's fire and/or chemical reactions in the atmosphere, close to the surface. Lightning is poorly understood. The mechanism of charging of storm clouds remains a mystery. Because lightning is conventionally associated with violent vertical cloud movement on Earth, it was a surprise when investigators found strong evidence of lightning in the quiescent atmosphere of Venus. 'On Venus the clouds tend to resemble fogbanks,.... You don't see much lightning in fog.' [18
_7. Volcanism
_Venus seems to have about 4 times more sulphuric acid in its atmosphere than Earth. It also has minute concentrations of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These findings suggest lively, recent volcanic activity on the planet. There are between 100,000 and 200,000 small basaltic domes (averaging a few hundred metres high and 2km across), rather like underwater sea mounts. Some appear to have explosively erupted, judging by radar-bright deposits or 'plumes' of material broadening away from them. Venus apparently has very fluid lavas. Venusian sinuous rilles have been identified (Figure 1) in large numbers. These rilles are thought to be due to erosional processes involving very hot, fluid lavas. Smooth basaltic plains and lava flows, relatively unmarked by craters, make up 80% of the planet's surface- indicating its extreme youthfulness. There are 430 volcanoes of 19km or more diameter and tens of thousands of small ones. There is an enigma in that there are relatively few craters which have been encroached upon by lava. This would suggest that the craters, most of which look very new, are of more recent origin than the global lava flows. There is no satisfactory explanation for a resurfacing event which involved the entire planet. The word 'resurfacing' itself assumes there once existed an older cratered terrain- but, again, there is no evidence for that. There are many curious features on Venus which are attributed to upwelling lava. For example, there are large circular domes (750 metres high and averaging 25km diameter), often arranged in a chain, with craters and a complex pattern of 'fractures' on top. See Figure 2. These objects are interpreted as a thick lava flow which welled up through openings on level ground, although it is difficult to understand why they should all be so near perfect circles. Such circularity requires too many special conditions to be plausible. The lava orifice would need to be circular, the surface dead level with no obstructions, and the lava viscosity and cooling rate within very narrow limits. Compare the domes with the lobate structure of a true lava flow in Figure 3. The dome fractures are thought to be caused by the cracking of solidified surface lava by further outflows. It is strange that the fractures seem to be of relatively uniform width on widely separated domes. Also some 'fractures' in the surrounding plain appear to climb the wall of a dome and continue across the top (see Figure 2). Small craters appear on top of  the domes, generally in the centre and even smaller craters seem to populate the fractures. The surrounding plain is unmarked by craters, with the notable exception being along the floors of fractures. Figure 2. Seven circular 'domes' averaging 25km in diameter with maximum heights of 750m in Alpha Regio. North is at the top. The linear features are termed 'fractures'. Note the small craters populating the floors of some of them. The long channel in the southeast has a secondary channel along its floor. Figure 3. Multiple eruptions appear in this volcanic structure, located on the plains between Artemis Chasma and Imdr Regio. The central dome structure is 100km wide and about 450m thick on average. Note the usual uneven, lobate form.
_8. Cratering
_Craters are randomly distributed on Venus with some areas of higher or lower density. Surprisingly, most are in pristine condition. As expected, most craters are described in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's images as 'meteorite impact craters' and their features as 'typical..., including rough (bright) material around the rim, terraced inner walls, and central peaks.' [19 The central peaks are termed 'rebound' peaks. The largest craters may show concentric rings. Venus has a relatively low crater count which is attributed to both a global volcanic resurfacing event and the planet's thick atmosphere acting as a shield against small meteors. However, small craters do exist and are found populating the floors of the numerous linear 'fractures', which argues against their formation by impact. The insistence on describing craters as impact-generated is more due to the fact that it is geologists making such pronouncements and that they have difficulty matching the craters with volcanoes observed on Earth. Significantly, astronomers tend to ascribe the craters to volcanic activity, which indicates that neither group feel comfortable with an explanation based on processes with which they are familiar. Two characteristics of so-called impact craters which beg explanation are their near-perfect circularity and the melted floors of large, recent craters, clear of impact debris. Despite this, counting craters is the main technique for determining the age of a planet's surface. It also relies on assumptions about the past population of orbit-crossing comets and meteors in the inner Solar System. "The planetary geologists who are studying the radar images streaming back from Magellan find they have an enigma on their hands. When they read the geologic clock that tells them how old the Venusian surface is they find a planet on the brink of adolescence. But when they look at the surface itself, they see a newborn babe... Magellan scientists have been struck by the newly minted appearances of the craters formed...." [20 Crater counting and the random distribution puts the entire surface age at 500 million years. It is therefore generally concluded that any old surface was wiped clean by a cataclysmic event at that time and remained volcanically quiet since then. The high degree of circularity of most craters suggests that whatever created them acted largely perpendicular to the surface, which is highly unlikely for impacts. Such crater circularity is also a feature on our Moon, the moons of Mars (Figure 4), oddly shaped asteroids, and the nucleus of comet Halley where the cratering process may have been observed in action  (Figure 5). Figure 4. View of the 17km long asteroid 951 Gaspra (top), taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The smallest details are 55 metres across. Deimos (left) and Phobos (right), the moons of Mars, are shown for comparison. Note the craterlets on the rim of the large crater on Phobos. Figure 5. An artist's enhancement of the images of the nucleus of comet Halley taken by the Giotto spacecraft. Notice the bright circular spots and jets. Figure 6. Three large craters with diameters from 37 to 50km are seen in this image from the Lavinia region. Note the truncated ejecta fields around the craters. Asymmetric ejecta patterns have been cited as evidence for impact at an angle to the vertical. Some craters (Figure 6) have a flower-like ejecta blanket which did not travel very far, presumably due to the high atmospheric density. Mars shows similar features which were attributed to the action of water. Since Venus has no water that theory cannot be relevant. There are a number of asymmetric craters which do hint at impact. They show possible effects of the thick atmosphere on the way that meteors reach the surface or the manner in which the ejecta blankets are distributed. Many craters seem to be flooded from below with lava which is presumed to exist in hot layers just beneath the thin crust of Venus.
_9. Plate tectonics
_The surface of Venus has been described as 'spotty'. There are no apparent equivalents of our continental plates. There is only flimsy evidence for some form of plate subduction around the rims of pimple-like elevations called coronae but the origin of the coronae is a mystery. They have been described as magma extrusion features. There is no evidence of a mid-ocean type ridge on Venus to generate new crust. The situation was summed up recently in New Scientist: "The high-resolution radar images Magellan has produced show no evidence of the long chains of volcanoes, and no mid-ocean ridges or other features that would indicate a global system of plates." [21 Venus has rocks similar to those on Earth and possibly more internal heat which would be expected to lead to more dynamic tectonic activity. One suggestion is that the surface of Venus is too hot to sustain rigid plates and that the surface puckers and wrinkles in response to interior forces. Another flimsy idea is that the lack of water on Venus means that it lacks the essential lubricant for sliding crustal plates [22. The many differences between the crusts of Earth and Venus suggest an unusual event to have caused the observed continental rifting on Earth. The assumed driving mechanism for continental drift is mantle convection due to internal radiogenic heat. But it is a very unsatisfactory explanation given the rigidity of the crust and modest heat input which would lead to a low velocity of convection [23. There is no good evidence that anything other than settling movements between plates are now taking place on Earth, long after some past catastrophic rifting 'event(s)'. Rifting is most easily explained by external torques on the Earth. Surface features on Venus, interpreted as fractures, suggest crustal expansion with few signs of compression. The size and spacing of wrinkles is believed to give an indication of the crustal thickness. Venus has 'smaller, more closely spaced features than any previously seen' [24, which argues for a thin crust. But there is another possibility- that the so-called fracture lines are not fractures at all but channels, gouged out  of the surface by a mechanism to be described later. Gravity mapping is to be undertaken by Magellan after its orbit is lowered by atmospheric braking, and then circularised. Such mapping should provide more clues to the structure of Venus. Already it is believed that the prominent Maxwell Montes region should subside under self gravity in a relatively short time.
_10. Channels and valleys
_Venus appears to be laced with fractures, ranging from elaborate networks of fine cracks that extend over large areas of the planet to extensive canyons  thousands of miles long. Up to 200 channels of various types (some clusters being counted as a unit) have been counted. They are concentrated in the equatorial regions and particularly the highlands, rift and fracture zones associated with large shield volcanoes, and the uniquely Venusian coronae. Twelve valleys have been counted. They have been classified as either labyrinthic, rectangular, and irregular or pitted. Some valleys graduate into channels. Simple, non-branching channels have been classified as sinuous rilles, channels with flow margins, and canali [25. Figure 7a. The meandering channel known as the river Styx. It is 6,800km long but practically constant in width at about 2km. The scale bar= 50km. Figure 7b. Detail of river Styx. Note the indications of a smaller channel in the bed of the 'river'.Sinuous rilles generally originate in depressions up to a few hundred meters deep. The channel is cut into the terrain and grows narrower and shallower distally, with no outflow deposit. They  are the most numerous channel type and seem to be concentrated near coronae and arachnoid features. They are thought to be due, in some degree, to "a process of lava drainage channel deepening and widening through thermal-mechanical erosion by high temperature, low viscosity lava during a sustained eruption at high effusion rates" [26. There are severe problems with this proposal. For example, outwash deposits are generally lacking and the channel narrows rather than widens at the lower end. The channels are often preferentially cratered compared with  the surrounding terrain. They are probably too deeply cut into the surface (several hundred metres) to be explained by lava drainage. The dimensions of the Venusian sinuous rilles are far greater than any lava channels seen on Earth. Channels with flow margins occur on volcanic flow deposits. They are shallow and do not cut into the terrain like sinuous rilles. They are consistent with a lava flow origin. Canali are the next most common channel type. They are extraordinarily long, have remarkably constant width and depth  and a lack of complex branching. Canali are found on the smooth plains and trend in random directions. The longest canali are confined to specific plains. There is generally no way of distinguishing which end of the channel is the source and there is no evidence of ponding. Narrow levees can be discerned on some of the radar images. Suggestions for their origin struggle with enormous flows of long duration of exotic, highly fluid lavas on a scale not seen on any other body in the Solar System. Since  there is no evidence of any outflow of the canali it is suggested that successive outflows of lava or weathering has obliterated the sources and sinks of the canali! One of the most bizarre canali is the remarkably long and narrow Hildr Fossa, which Magellan scientists have nicknamed the River Styx (Figure 7). The feature has no analogue on Earth. With a constant width of less than 2km, Hildr is 6,800km long! Slightly longer than the Nile, it is the longest channel known in the Solar System. What is even more weird for a channel which is assumed to have been formed by the flow of some unspecified extremely hot, thin liquid is that it runs up hill and down dale by as much as a kilometre in a roller-coaster fashion. It has been suggested that the terrain must have undergone uplift since the channel was formed. But practically all of the many 'rifts' and channels on Venus exhibit the same disregard for gravity without signs of channel disturbance which would be expected from extensive  ground movement. In the searing heat and crushing pressure at the planet's surface, it is impossible to imagine any substance that could remain liquid long enough to carve out such a lengthy, uniform channel, to somehow disappear along the way and defy gravity in the process! Unremarked by investigators is a secondary, even more sinuous, channel meandering along the floor of Hildr (and most other channels and fractures where image resolution allows) with what appears to be small craterlets dotted along its length. This looks like a  more extensive form of the sinuous rilles. The bright radar echo from both sides of these channels and the shadow behind the top of the radar illuminated bank suggests that the banks are narrow, raised levees [27. The channels and valleys on Venus are assumed to be erosional features caused by a flowing liquid. The only liquid expected at the surface temperature of Venus is lava. Few of the features observed can be explained by lava flows.
_11. Surface age
_It is to be expected that the surface has not suffered from much erosion. With a year-round temperature at the surface of 470 degrees C, surface water, if there ever was any, has long ago boiled away leaving a totally dry and arid landscape. Winds in the lower atmosphere are also very sluggish due to the even temperature and high atmospheric density near the surface. So impact craters and scars from geologic events should remain visible for millions or billions of years. Using accepted assumptions about impact cratering rates in the inner Solar System, it is assumed that the surface age can be determined by crater counting. Scientists were surprised to find a distinct shortage of craters, which indicates a young planet. An early report of the Magellan findings stated: "The Venusian surface appears to be 100 million to 1 billion years old, quite ancient by terrestrial standards" [28 but very young when compared with the Moon or Mercury which also suffer little erosion. The craters on Venus all appear to be new. There is no evidence of an old, heavily cratered terrain. It was simply suggested that the planet's outer layers have been 'reworked and erased relatively recently' [29 without any cause being given. The erasure of the planet's features must have stopped abruptly for there to be little sign of encroachment of lava upon the craters. Clearly, the age will be too high if cratering rates were greater in the recent past. The detailed nature of the surface, revealed by panoramic photographs from Venera 9 after landing, was a surprise. There were no signs of a dust cloud on touch-down at 24 kph and the stones were sharp-edged and recent looking. Even if the erosion rate on Venus were a fraction of a percent of that on Earth, a soil measured in metres would be expected to form in 100 million years. In addition, some of the slopes on Venus, determined by the Magellan orbiter, are remarkably steep. There are slopes of 1 in 4, which is near the limit of stability. Such slopes  obviously cannot have existed for long. They are remarkably young. It is assumed that resurfacing by basaltic lavas is responsible for the apparent youthfulness of the surface. This requires some unknown mechanism based on unproven convection in the mantle to cause widespread resurfacing of the planet, followed by quiescence. It seems to be asking too much for some indeterminate internal process to create planet-wide lavas and then shut down for hundreds of millions of years while cratering takes place. Of course, all of this presupposes that Venus has a  history prior to the 'global resurfacing event'. 12. No satellite Venus has no satellite. The Earth is unique among the inner planets in having a moon which would not appear out of place among the satellites of the giant outer planets. It suggests a quite different history for Earth compared to Venus. How are planets formed? Before any discussion can take place about the age of Venus, the method of planet formation needs to be determined. The accepted nebular theory of the birth of the Solar System does not allow much leeway from a figure of 4.5 billion years. If Venus was added to the solar family of planets very recently, then a new cosmogony must be proposed which does not require that all planets be created at the same time. This would be a radical departure from astronomical thinking today and would result in a completely new perspective in cosmology as well as cosmogony. The better we understand our own back yard, the better are the chances that we will eventually unravel the mystery of our origins, and the solution will come sooner if our minds are prepared to accept the truth when it is found, however fantastic it may be. It we are guided by our reason and our scientific method, if we let the Universe describe its wonder to us, rather than telling it how it ought to be, then we will soon come to the answers we seek, perhaps even within our own lifetimes.' [34
_References

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Updates / Re: Mathis on Velikovsky +
« on: December 24, 2018, 06:02:10 pm »
The Surface Of Venus -- "A Newborn Babe" [Aeon Journal]
From: Aeon III:1 (Nov 1992)

_The Surface Of Venus-- "A Newborn Babe", Charles Ginenthal
_Strange, when you think about it, how a lack of information so often grows by leaps and bounds into a belief that has no scientific basis but becomes "accepted fact" simply because enough people want to believe it. Few things irk men of science (and they aren't all that honest) more than having to respond to questions with a puzzled look on their faces and a a collective shrug of shoulders. People have a nasty habit of assuming that scientists should know about those matters on which they're questioned-- if for no other reason than that scientists spread this belief and spend great sums of money collecting information. But with all his instruments and a lifetime of study, the scientist doesn't really have the faintest idea of what it may be like on Venus. Oh, he's got ideas (most of them horribly wrong), but he does not know. If you don't know-- at least say something. Don't quite make up out of thin air. Deduce. If you have only a shred of cloth, weave yourself a magnificent set of clothes by mixing liberal amounts of imagination with that shred. That's just about what happened with what we thought we knew about Venus. The theories were both serious and preposterous. They were sincere and they were outlandish. They were well intended and they were based on everything we knew about Venus, but people couldn't separate minimum fact from maximum imagination, and what emerged was gibberish. Martin Caiden, Planetfall (New York, 1974), p. 138 In 1950, Immanuel Velikovsky claimed that the testimony of ancient peoples from all parts of the globe described Venus as a giant, brilliant comet. Based on Velikovsky's analysis of this data he drew the conclusion that Venus was a newborn planet in the early cool-down stage of its development. Therefore, if his understanding of the evidence was correct then Venus' surface should exhibit all the conditions of a world that was very recently molten and is most likely still volcanic and geologically active. In 1985, Dr. Lawrence Colin, Chief of the Space Science Division at nasa's Ames Research Center and co-editor of Venus, wrote:...Our knowledge of Venus was still seriously limited in the early 1960s prior to mankind's first rendezvous by spacecraft. In 1961 competing views of Venus could be classified in seven broad categories: 1. moist, swampy, teeming with life. 2. warm, enveloped by a global carbonic-acid ocean. 3. cool, Earth-like, with surface water and a dense ionosphere. 4. water, massive precipitating clouds of water droplets with intense lightning. 5. cold, polar regions with ice caps 10 kilometers thick and a hot equatorial region far above the boiling point of water. 6. hot, dusty, dry, windy global desert. 7. extremely hot and cloudy, with molten lead and zinc puddles at the equator, seas of bromine, butyric acid and phenols at the poles. From this list it is not obvious that scientists were all describing the same planet. For those who are impatient about the outcome, speculation 6 appears to represent most closely what we now think Venus is like. (1) Reinforcing the sixth option Ernest J. Opik, the internationally known astronomer of Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, stated in 1960: The modern picture of Venus...[is a borderless desert extending over an area one hundred times that of the Sahara...[The Sahara itself would appear a paradise compared with the dry and suffocating dust storms raging behind the brilliant deceitful face of the Evening Star. (2) Nowhere was it ever suggested by establishment scientists that Venus would be found to be a volcanic cauldron covered by immense lava flows. In fact, as recent as 1989, Isaac Asimov, the late popular science writer, remarked: For years astronomers had believed that Venus was a geologically dead place. Although quakes, volcanoes and other activity surely wracked the planet at one time, it seemed certain that Venus was quiet today. (3) Therefore, if Velikovsky's analysis of the ancient testimony is correct the observations by the Magellan spacecraft should not only contradict the previous models of the Venusian surface but should also show overwhelming evidence of recent stupendous volcanism on a surface that appears to be pristine. One of the first indications of this excessive volcanism was presented in May 1990 in the Journal of Geophysical Research which analyzed the sulfur content of the Venusian clouds. There Na Y. Chan et al. state: Results of recent International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Venus made on January 20, 1987, and April 2 and 3, 1988, along with a re-analysis of the 1979 observations...are presented. The observations indicate that the amount of sulfur dioxide at the cloud tops of Venus declined by a factor of 84 from 38070 ppb [parts per billion to 5020 ppb in 1987 and 1988. (4) One of the researchers of this phenomenon, Larry Esposito from the University of Boulder Colorado, elaborated on this decrease of SO 2 and SO two months later in Astronomy: Pioneer Venus has continued to monitor these constituents above the clouds. Over the years a remarkable discovery has emerged: both sulfur dioxide and the haze have been gradually disappearing. By now only about 10 percent of the 1978 amount remains. This disappearance has also been confirmed by the Earth-orbiting International Ultraviolet Explorer between 1979 and 1987 and other Earth-based observations. The haze and the sulfur dioxide are now approaching their pre-1978 values. Analysis of recent Earth-based radio observations by Paul Steffes and his colleagues show less sulfur dioxide below the clouds than was measured by Pioneer Venus and Venera landers, which is also consistent with the decrease of sulfur dioxide. Inclusive Earth-based data show that a similar phenomenon may also have occurred in the late 1950s. The best explanation right now for the decrease is that from time to time major volcanic eruptions inject sulfur dioxide gas to high altitudes. The haze comes from particles of sulfuric acid, which is created by the action of sunlight on sulfur dioxide...Being heavy the particles gradually fall out of the upper atmosphere, letting conditions up there return to normal between eruptions. My calculations show that this eruption of the late 1970s was at least as large as the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. The explosion, equal to a 500-megaton H-bomb, was the most violent of the last century or so shooting vast quantities of gas into the Earth's stratosphere. (5) Some scientists have already drawn the same tentative conclusion posited by Esposito. Thus James Pollock states: Measurements by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter show that the amount of sulfur dioxide present near the cloud tops declined from approximately 100 parts per billion (ppb) in 1978 to about 10 ppb in 1986. There is also fragmentary evidence of similar increases and decreases at earlier times. Such fluctuations might be due to episodic injections of SO 2 high in the atmosphere by powerful volcanic explosions. (6) David Morrison and Tobias Owen put the case even more strongly: Observations over the past twenty years have indicated that large fluctuations occur in the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) in the atmosphere of Venus above the clouds. When these observations are combined with indications of volcanic topography and lightning discharges for possible volcanism, the case for erupting volcanoes on Venus becomes rather strong. (7) This appears to be indirect evidence that at least twice in the 1950s and 1970s there were major volcanic eruptions on Venus' surface.
_There are, of course, questions and objections related to this analysis; nevertheless, the Magellan spacecraft may have already observed explosive volcanism. In the December 1990 issue of Scientific American appears a photograph made by Magellan which appears to exhibit exploded material from one of its craters. The caption accompanying the picture states: Explosive volcanism may be responsible for the radar-bright deposit that extends roughly 10 kilometers from the kilometer-wide volcanic crater at the center of the image. The etched pattern of the surrounding plains becomes more obscure closer to the crater, which indicates that the deposit is thickest near the crater. The shape of the deposit suggests that local winds either carried the plume southward or else gradually eroded away the plume material except for that part located in the volcano's wind shadow. These bits of information, though consistent with volcanic activity, need to be corroborated by other information that will give a more comprehensive picture of a planetary surface formed by massive volcanic processes. In this respect, we turn our attention to another body in the solar system that is in the throes of massive, violent, ongoing volcanism and exhibits several notable features related to this Venusian phenomenon. That body is Io, the inner Galilean satellite of Jupiter. As Io orbits around Jupiter it is constantly being distorted in shape by its tidal interactions with the very massive Jupiter and its three outer Galilean satellites. As Io is distorted and flexed, like the action produced by bending a spoon, enormous heat is generated producing volcanism. Therefore, Io is molten at a relatively low depth of its surface and its thin crust is floating on an ocean of molten magma. The amount of heat emitted by Io, according to David Morrison (a member of the imaging science team for the Voyager spacecraft) shows: "[ An internal heat source-- estimated at 10 14 W-- needed to drive this volcanism is two to three orders of magnitude [100 to 1000 times greater than that expected from normal radionucleides..." ( 8 ) Io is the most volcanic body in the solar system. According to Billy Glass: The volcanic eruptions [on Io appear to be comparable in intensity to the greatest terrestrial eruptions which are rare on the Earth...Io appears to be volcanically more active than the Earth. This has made mapping Io difficult because the active regions undergo radical changes in short periods of time. In the four month interval between Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, for example, one of the largest (200 km diameter) [122 miles eruptive centers on Io known as Prometheus was transformed from a heart shaped feature to a circular one. (9) Hence, if Venus was an incandescent body 3500 years ago and then cooled to the point where it became molten before it arrived at its present state, it should exhibit a topography quite similar to that of Io. In essence the volcanic forms observed on Io should generally be representative of the surface features seen on Venus. There should, of course, be differences between the bodies because Io's temperature is not decreasing whereas we presume that Venus' temperature is. Furthermore, there will be differences in the materials each body contains which will also affect the appearance of their surfaces. Before comparing Io and Venus we wish to point out that many of the volcanic craters on Io do give the appearance of impact craters. According to Carr et al.: Calderas occur in every region of Io so far photographed. They are generally recognizable by their strong resemblance to terrestrial and Martian calderas. In many cases no relief can be detected and a caldera is inferred from the presence of a dark circular feature....Over 5% of the Ionian surface seems to be part of a caldera, either dormant or active. Where relief is discernible the calderas are recognized as rimless depressions with steep, inward-facing scarps and relatively flat floors. (10)
_Plains Vulcanism
_David Morrison describes Io's volcanic features as follows: Some of Io's volcanic features look a great deal like their terrestrial counterparts: low shield-shaped constructs with calderas at their peaks and flows of erupted materials on their sides. However, most of Io's calderas are not at the tops of mountains but instead appear to be scattered amid the plains. (11) Io exudes its magma in this manner because it is tremendously hot internally and has an extremely thin crust. Therefore if Velikovsky was right that Venus was hot internally just below its thin crust it too should pour forth its magma after the fashion of Io. Observations should show evidence that lava is either presently or has very recently been exuded from circular vents on the plains of the Venusian surface. In New Scientist we learn that radar shows lava flows on Venus are indeed very much like those on Io: The flat plains of Venus consist of lava that has flowed from the planet comparatively recently, according to latest radar results. And an appreciable amount of the planet's heat may escape through these lava flows, rather than through large volcanoes and rift valleys that geologists have known for some years. In the plains the researchers found dozens of small vents, which oozed lava without forming volcanic cones. The researchers say, "The large number and wide distribution of vents in the lowlands strongly suggest that plains volcanism is an important aspect of surface evolution and contributed to heat loss on Venus". (12) Thus, there is a basic similarity that strongly suggests that Venus is venting its internal heat through plains volcanism. This implies that Venus, like Io, has a thin crust and is extremely hot not far beneath that crust.
_The Nature of Io's and Venus' Craters
_Since Io possesses such a thin crust floating on a bed of magma, that crust can become deformed. Io's craters are situated over the upwellings of the hottest magmatic flows and, therefore, distortion of the crust should be in evidence most strongly at these sites of upwelling. This, indeed, has been well observed by Voyagers 1 and 2. Carr, et al., describe the crater caldera shapes in this manner: "Although most [craters are nearly circular, they range widely in shape; some have scalloped walls suggesting collapse about different centers, others have rectilinear outlines, and others have elongate, slot-like shapes." (13) One of the first reports from Magellan respecting non circular craters on Venus was presented in the New York Times for Sept. 18, 1990. There it was reported that a kidney-shaped crater had been observed. The explanation given to explain this unusually shaped structure was that the "kidney-shaped crater appeared unlike any other in the solar system. Perhaps an incoming meteor broke up as it passed through the dense Venusian atmosphere, causing several large chunks of material to strike almost simultaneously in an irregular pattern." (14) However, over time more and more irregular shaped craters were observed so that the first example could no longer be considered unique. Thus an article in Discover states, "Even Venus' meteorite craters are intriguing. Some have strange and irregular shapes, in puzzling contrast to the round outline typical of most impact craters in the solar system." (15) So far as is known only two worlds-- Venus and Io-- exhibit very large numbers of misshapen craters. This again strongly implies that they were created in the same way under similar conditions. That is, both Venus and Io are highly volcanic and have thin crusts floating on magma: "Lunar craters, like terrestrial impact craters tend to be circular, whereas calderas do not." (16) Geophysicists have generally considered misshapen craters as volcanic structures on the Moon and on Io. However, when they observe misshapen craters on Venus in which nearly all craters over 12 miles in diameter are observed to be filled with lava and in which a percentage have lava rivers emanating from them, the scientists have changed their interpretation to suggest that the craters are no longer of volcanic origin but of impact origin. If Io's and Venus' craters were, indeed, generated by similar processes then they should also show common features other than their non-circular shapes. For example some of Venus' craters are quite deep. Thus Dr. Gordon H. Pettengill, a leader of the Magellan radar team, reported that the spacecraft's first altimeter measurements were defining the texture of the planet's topography. One surprise, he said, "was discovering that a previously surveyed impact crater named Colette is more than two miles deep-- far deeper than any crater seen on the Earth or any other planet." (17) On Io, too, we find that "some calderas are several kilometers deep" (18) Moreover, there is another level of resemblance between the craters of Io and Venus that strongly suggests that Venus' craters are of volcanic rather than impact origin. Because Io's craters are accepted as having been produced by volcanism the outflows of rivers of lava from them is not considered enigmatic to the space scientists. In this regard it is reported: One of the most striking aspects of Io's calderas is the associated albedo patterns. The floors of most are very dark and the low reflectivity of many is accentuated by bright haloes around the craters....[Sulfur rendered molten by heat from silicate magmas...may be the source of some of the river like features that snake across Io's surface...The flows from one of Io's craters are very long stretching for hundreds of kilometers. (19) R. Stephen Saunders reports of one Venusian crater: "The crater's flat, smooth floor hints that it has been flooded with lava." (20) Saunders exhibits photographs of Venusian craters which show dark floors with bright halos around them and then informs us that: "River-like erosion features running from the largest crater in the image are as yet unexplained." (21) The reason for this difficulty is, of course, that the interpretation of these long river-like structures from the craters suggests that the craters are not impact formations but volcanic creations. With respect to this long river, Andrew Chaikin writes: One of the most bizarre features yet identified on Venus is a remarkably long and narrow channel that Magellan scientists have nicknamed the river Styx. Although it is only half a mile wide, Styx is 4,800 miles long. What could have caused such a channel is unclear. Water, of course, is out of the question. Flowing lava is a possibility but it would have to have been extremely hot, thin and fluid. (22) One further resemblance between the craters of Io and Venus is their general size or diameter. Billy Glass observed that the craters depressions on Io are "up to 200 km in diameter." (23) On Venus it is assumed that any crater larger than 300 km would settle by rheological flow in about one billion years. (24) Sulfur is the fluid suggested as being responsible for river structures on Io. However, the River Styx runs up as well as downhill. What is clearly implied, if this feature is a flow, is that the surface topography has shifted greatly since the flow ceased. Furthermore, Science News reports recent changes on Venus that have been attributed to wind blown debris but a deep regolith has not been seen anywhere on Venus and the scientist who discovered the changes also suggests that the differences between the 1991 image and another taken months later "may stem from an actual surface change." (25) The largest craters so far observed are about 275 km in diameter. This implies that a molten body like either Io or possibly Venus would produce craters of this size and smaller. This, of course, is still to be determined by the full scale observation of Venus by Magellan. If this evidence holds up it will again imply that Venus is molten at shallow depth. This however, does not negate the possibility that tidal forces on solid bodies such as the Moon may generate larger craters such as the Maria basins. In summarizing the information about craters one notes that their shape, depth, size, and bright halos around craters and dark flat centers bearing river-like lava flows on both Io and Venus are strong indications that volcanism is the cause of these surface features. One can also add that both Io and Venus possess craters with central peaks and craters without central peaks which can be seen in any good collection of photographs made of these bodies. To some extent confusion reigns in the analysis of Venus' craters as impact structures. Consider the problems posed by the crater known as Cleopatra. Here Burnham points out: Cleopatra is an impact crater surrounded by terrain that has been extensively modified by volcanism, probably induced by the impact. According to present thinking, if there was enough volcanic material available close to the surface so that it could spill out after the impact, then Maxwell [a nearby mount itself would have softened and slumped to a much lower elevation. What is the answer? No one knows yet. (26) In no manner at all does impact cratering explain Cleopatra. Rather, as is the case with most volcanic craters, a vent made its way up to the slopes of Maxwell Montes and broke through the surface creating a large crater and pouring lava over the surface. Significantly, Burnham reports that, "All craters larger than about 20 kilometers across have interiors at least partially flooded with lava." (27) [italics added. From this it is quite clear that volcanism rather than impact is the dominant cause of cratering on Venus.
_Pancake-Shaped Domes and Other Anomalies
_Among the strangest features found on Venus is a series of pancake-shaped domes. This surprising discovery was recounted in the New York Times as follows: At the news conference yesterday, Dr. R. Stephen Saunders, the [Magellan project's chief scientist, showed pictures of...pancake-shaped domes which he said were "features never seen before" on any planet. In one region, seven domes remarkably similar in size stretch out in a line remarkably straight for nature...They were presumably formed by extreme viscous lava pouring out of volcanic vents. The pattern "is telling us something about the eruption mechanism, the viscosity and the eruption rate.' But that was as far as geologists ventured in the interpretation. (28) The unusual shape of these features should have struck a chord somewhere among the planetary geologists because pancake-shaped domes have also been observed on Io. Thus Carr et al., inform us: While most calderas [on Io do not seem to be within sharply defined edifices, a variety of positive relief features are recognizable. Most are puzzling and difficult to relate to terrestrial landforms. Among the more comprehensible because of their resemblance to low volcanic cones, are two pancake-like constructions...They are nearly circular, and surrounded by low escarpments. Each has a bright-floored small crater in the middle. The albedo [reflection of light by the material of the main edifice is uniform and close to that of the surroundings. (emphasis added) (29) Once again two worlds-- Venus and Io-- share a unique feature seen nowhere else. Of course, normal volcanic domes have also been observed on Venus. Here Eberhart reported: Beneath Venus' acrid clouds which perpetually shield its surface from the eyes of Earth-bound observers, lie tens of thousands of low dome-shaped features. For several years planetary scientists have pondered the origin and significance of these gentle mounds, which have appeared in radar images made of the planet since 1983. Apparently the result of volcanism, the domes constitute "the most abundant geological feature on the planet" says Jayne C. Aubele of Brown University: "I'm excited about the domes and other scientists are beginning to be also" Aubele says "the presence of a volcano on the surface of a planet always tells us something about the planet. The presence of tens of thousands of volcanoes overwhelms me". (30) Although the number of domes on Venus of volcanic origin may turn out to be smaller in number when Magellan completes its survey, the great number clearly indicates how abundantly volcanic Venus must be. One researcher sums it up this way: "Magellan's radar survey of Venus found thousands of small volcanoes dotting the mostly flat landscape, as well as mountainous volcanic structures several hundred kilometers in diameter and evidence of massive outpourings of lava." (31) Later we are informed that, "Magellan has found no evidence of gradual resurfacing." This suggests that Venus lava flows were immense in scale, which is what Velikovsky's concept requires.
_Hot Spots
_For some time now it has been known that certain areas on Io are far hotter than the surrounding surface terrain. Such areas are described as "hot spots." Here Morrison tells us, "In Io's case nature has aided us by channeling much of the heat flow into a few small areas resulting in hot-spots with temperatures far higher than the ambient background." (32) Alfred McEwen et al., suggest that, "Observations...show that most of the hot spots [on Io have remained relatively stable in temperature, location and total power output at least since the Voyager encounters and possibly for the last decade." (33) Hotspots have been associated with surface features on Venus for a very long time; they were originally found by Earth-bound radar and confirmed by Venera spacecraft. (34) James Head asks: The question with arguably the broadest implications is simply how has Venus chosen to get rid of its internal heat (emphasis in original). Does Venus cool itself by sending magma directly from the interior to the surface? Then we would expect to see widespread volcanic deposits and numerous "hot spots," like those on Jupiter's satellite Io. (35) Thus the presence of hot-spots suggests that Venus-- like Io-- is venting its heat via hot-spot volcanism. This, in turn, suggests that Venus-- similar to Io-- is molten at a shallow depth. One of the great enigmas of the "runaway greenhouse effect" is the problem of explaining the source of Venus' high surface temperature. Based on this analysis it now seems highly probable that the high surface temperature has little if anything to do with a greenhouse effect. Velikovsky's conclusion that Venus' surface heat is derived from its molten core appears to be correct.
_The Age of Venus' Surface
_In Worlds in Collision Velikovsky suggested that Venus' age was to be measured in thousands of years rather than billions. In a recent article in Science a leading astronomer offered the following observation regarding the age of Venus' surface: The planetary geologists who are studying the radar images streaming back from Magellan find that they have an enigma on their hands. When they read the geologic clock that tells them how old the Venusian surface is they find a planet on the brink of adolescence. But when they look at the surface itself, they see a newborn babe...(emphasis added) Magellan scientists have been struck by the newly minted appearances of the craters formed...Only one of the 75 craters identified on the 5% of the planet mapped shows any of the typical signs of aging, such as filling in with lava of volcanic eruptions or being torn by the faulting of tectonic disruption. But by geologists usual measure these fresh-looking craters had plenty of time to fall prey to the ravages of geologic change. (36) Based on the assumption that Venus is an ancient body the scientists estimate the surface of Venus to be on the order of 100 million to 1 billion years old. In short, even though they are confronted with a surface that is pristine scientists nevertheless interpret the evidence according to the theory that Venus is 4.5 billion years old. Thus Billy Glass tells us that in analyzing Venus' history planetary scientists accept, "the geologic history of Venus...based primarily on what we have learned about the other planets and is necessarily highly speculative. We assume that Venus was formed 4.5 x 10 9 y ago." (4.5 billion years ago) (37)
_The Missing Venusian Regolith
_Geophysicists, in order to explain the physical nature of the Venusian surface, offer the supposition that between 100 million and a billion years ago the entire planet turned itself inside out. If one were to accept this assumption it would require that over that period of time between the covering of the surface with lava flows and the present, erosional forces would break down the surface rock into detritus to form a regolith. The problem for the space scientists is that there is no evidence of a regolith covering the Venusian surface. Moreover, in view of the nature of the highly acidic nature of the atmosphere it is obvious that there has been significant erosion of the surface. According to Bruce Murray et al., "there can be little doubt that chemical weathering must be very effective on Venus' surface." (38) Venus' atmosphere is known to contain hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid, both of which are very corrosive. Paolo Maffei explains further that, "the atmosphere of Venus also contains-- although in small amounts-- hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, which reacting with sulfuric acid [known to exist in Venus' atmosphere could form fluosulfuric acid, a very strong acid capable of attacking and dissolving almost all common materials including most rocks." (39) According to the scientists, Venus has been subjected to this intense weathering of its surface for at least 100 million years. Over this period of time the planet should have developed a covering of weathered material. Nevertheless, George McGill et al., inform us that: Radar and Venera lander observations imply that most of the surface of Venus cannot be covered by unconsolidated wind blown deposits; bulk densities on near surface materials are not consistent with aeolian sediments. Thus present-day wind-blown sediments cannot form a continuous layer over the entire planet. (40) Thus, despite the fact that erosional processes are clearly at work on Venus' surface, there is no evidence of a regolith. Bruce Murray, in dealing with this enigma wonders: Russian close-ups of Venus were surprising. I had presumed that its surface was buried under a uniform blanket of soil and dust. Chemical weathering should be intense in such a hot and acid environment. Unknown processes of topographic renewal evidently manage to outstrip degradation and burial (41) [emphasis added. In order to explain the lack of a Venusian regolith the scientists imagine a process that has no scientific basis for its action to reconsolidate the detritus on Venus. Nevertheless, let us assume that Venus' erosion rate is extremely weak and that it is not turned back into rock at the surface by unknown processes. What do we find? If we allow a tiny erosion rate of one millimeter per hundred years, then in 100 thousand years we produce one meter of loose material on the surface of Venus, which is equal to about 40 inches. However, in 100 million years we generate a kilometer of detritus, which is over 3000 feet of this loose material. Under no known condition can this much matter at the surface be turned to solid rock, and this is admitted by the scientists. What we find at the surface of Venus is the detritus of an erosion rate that is only a few thousand years old. Only by ignoring this clear evidence can the astronomers support the view that Venus' surface reflects events tracing to processes occurring between 100 million and one billion years ago. Although Magellan has cast doubt upon most of the scientific establishment's predictions regarding the nature of Venus' surface, a belief in a 4.5 billion year old age of the planet Venus is still enshrined as dogma. In accordance with this theory, it is believed by the space scientists that the degradation of craters on Venus' surface must have occurred over hundreds of millions of years. As the situation on Io proves, however, degradation does not require long time periods. Io's craters decay over extraordinarily short time periods measured in weeks or months. On Venus this period might take years. Based on the indications (cited above) that both Venus and Io are molten at shallow depth and are highly volcanic, Venus' craters would by no stretch of the imagination require millions of years to degrade. How then do scientists explain the fact that Venus' craters look so pristine? Here Kerr observes: Magellan scientists strove to explain the paradox of young looking craters on a relatively old surface. They raised the possibility that several hundred million years ago, a planet-wide outpouring wiped the slate clean, drowning any existing craters in a flood of lava. Then the flood would have had to turn off fairly abruptly so the craters formed by subsequent impacts would remain pristine. But such a global episode of volcanism generates another mystery. How could Venusian volcanic activity ebb so abruptly? (42) No doubt there will be other, equally imaginative, scenarios advanced in order to explain away this dilemma of so few craters showing signs of decay. To return to Kerr: But surface remodeling is going on after all, Magellan scientists told a large crowd at the AGU [American Geological Union meeting. More recent images show the ravages of time, but in a fashion that leaves few aged craters."(emphasis added) This is not so much an explanation of the findings as a directive that the evidence is to be interpreted as such. This is not the only problem, however. Again we cite Kerr: The expanded view reveals four nearly continent-sized areas, ranging from a few million to 5 million square kilometers, that have no impact craters at all. According to Magellan team member Roger Phillips of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, the absence of impact craters-- despite a steady rain of asteroids and comets onto the Venusian surface-- means that in the recent geologic past the craters were wiped out either by lava flooding across these areas or by tectonic faulting, stretching and compression. The volcanic activity required to resurface the crater-free regions would be impressive by any standards, Phillips says. For example, it took at least a million cubic kilometers of lava over a few million years to produce the 66-million-year-old Deccan Traps of India. But the lava-covered areas already uncovered on a small part of Venus by Magellan must have all formed within the past few tens of millions of years to have escaped being marked by impact craters. (43) So Magellan scientists are still left with an enigma. What is clearly implied by the radar and photographic evidence is that immense outpourings of lava have occurred over huge areas of Venus' surface, covering over everything including craters. The scientists still cannot explain why there are so few craters that are degraded or flooded or why Venus suddenly poured out its lava in oceanic amounts. But all of this is clearly what one would expect to find from the theory that Velikovsky advanced in Worlds in Collision whereby Venus was only recently subjected to tremendous stresses and participated in numerous clashes with other planets.
_Iron
_As a newborn planet, Venus would not have fully differentiated so it remains possible that all its iron has yet to sink to its core. Accordingly, it was reported in Astronomy that: Maxwell Montes...poses a big problem in interpretation. Parts have electrical properties that indicate the surface contains "flakes" of some unknown mineral, most likely iron sulfides, iron oxides, or magnetite. Iron sulfides (" fool's gold") fit the observations best, but studies have shown that they would be quickly destroyed by the corrosive Venusian atmosphere. Iron oxides (such as hematite) and magnetite are also possible, but the presence of either is not easy to account for. (44) If indeed iron is to be found upon the surface of Venus it would support the claim that it is a youthful planet in the early stages of cooling. (45) A planet that had differentiated its iron into its central core would not be expected to pour iron onto the surface with volcanic materials. The reason that the iron compounds have not completely corroded in Venus' corrosive atmosphere, most probably, is that these outpourings of iron are extremely recent surface coverings measured in perhaps a few years. Iron on Venus' surface is clear evidence that supports Velikovsky.
_Argon
_The superabundance of 36 Argon, and the tiny amount of 40 Ar, are glaring puzzles for the conventional view of Venus' history but perfectly consistent with Velikovsky's view that Venus is a youthful planet. As Glass explains, the 40 Argon builds up over time by the breakdown of 40 Potassium: The ratio of the mass of radiogenic 40 Ar to the mass of Venus is smaller by amount of a factor of 15 than the value for the Earth. Since 40 Ar within a planet increases with time due to radio active decay of 40 K, the amount of 40 Ar should be higher if the primary outgassing took place late in the planet's history. (46) If Venus did not outgas much 40 Ar over time why did it outgas so much 36 Argon? If Venus lost nearly all its 40 Ar why did it retain 36 Argon? If, on the other hand, the great outflowings of lava released great amounts of 36 Argon why didn't these outpourings also release large amounts of 40 Ar?
_Oxygen
_Ultraviolet radiation photodissociates CO 2, SO 2 and H 2 O; over millions of years oxygen should have become plentiful in Venus' atmosphere, but it remains a minute constituent. Venus' water vapor cannot have escaped in less than 20 billion years. Where then is Venus' water? To argue Venus had no water but retains other volatiles is a basic contradiction. Moreover, Venus' middle atmosphere should have been converted to CO 2 and O 2 over a few thousand years, yet this is not the case. To argue that the Sun's magnetic flow implants and removes gases is based on assumptions that have never been proven and does not address all the problems of the other gases which exist and are unrelated to the solar wind. A similar problem surrounds the prevalence of hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids. Both of these acids are neutralized by new surface rock; oxygen, on the other hand, will unite with new surface rock. If nearly all of Venus' oxygen was removed by uniting with new outflows of molten rock why didn't these great outflowings neutralize all the hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid? The lack of abundant oxygen on Venus and the existence of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid are only congruent with one theory-- that of Immanuel Velikovsky.
_The Greenhouse Effect
_For years the scientific community has maintained that the great heat of Venus is derived from an atmospheric greenhouse effect. Gary Hunt and Patrick Moore outline the ingredients necessary to generate a large and powerful greenhouse on Venus: CO 2 is responsible for about 55% of the trapped heat. A further 25% is due to the presence of water vapor, while SO 2 which constitutes only 0.02% [2/100 of a per cent of the atmosphere, traps 5% of remaining infrared radiation. The remaining 15% of the greenhouse is due to the clouds and hazes which surround the planet. (47) While carbon dioxide is certainly present on Venus, it can account for only 55% of the greenhouse effect. As Barrie Jones explains, other factors are also necessary to make the greenhouse work: Efficient trapping [of heat cannot be produced by CO 2 alone, in spite of the enormous mass of CO 2 in the atmosphere. This is because CO 2 is fairly transparent over certain wavelength ranges to planetary wavelengths. Radiation could escape through these "windows" in sufficient quantities to greatly reduce the greenhouse effect below that which exists. It is by blocking of these windows by SO 2, by H 2 O and by the clouds that greatly increases the greenhouse effect. (48) In short, it is crucial to the runaway greenhouse effect that there be sufficient water, sulfur dioxide, and haze to maintain the heat holding capacity of the planet. Respecting water, especially in the lower atmosphere, the scientists have been looking for this vapor for a very long time. As late as September 1991, water vapor has not been found in anything like that amount needed to support the contention that the greenhouse is a foregone conclusion. According to R. Cowan: A research team has focused on the greenhouse puzzle...The absence of water vapor above Venus' cloud banks mystifies scientists because models of the planet's strong greenhouse effect suggest that [water vapor plays a key role in maintaining the warming. Researchers have now looked for water below the cloud bank and down to the surface-- and their search has come up dry. Evidence of a dry Venus may force researchers to consider whether other chemicals could create and sustain the planet's greenhouse effect, says David Crisp of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who coauthored the new report. (49) Now when a vapor responsible for 25% of the efficiency of the greenhouse-effect has been sought in vain for some 20 years it implies that a major problem exists with the model in question. Furthermore, in our earlier discussion of the SO 2 and haze in the Venusian atmosphere we have shown that measurements indicate that these materials are transient products and do not sustain themselves for long periods of time. With this additional undermining of the greenhouse effect the process becomes more and more difficult to imagine. One of the major theoretical supports of the greenhouse model is the belief that Venus is in thermal balance. Over and over we are told that measurements of the cloud tops for infrared emissions show conclusively that the amount of sunlight incident on the planet is equal to the infrared radiation emitted by Venus. However, this must also be supported by in situ measurements throughout the atmosphere: Radiative balance occurs [on a planet at every level when the amount of downward-directed solar radiation that is absorbed is equal to the amount of infrared radiation that is emitted upward. When local temperatures satisfy this balance the atmospheric temperature is maintained. (emphasis added) (50) Not only must there be thermal balance at one level of the atmosphere, this thermal balance must exist at all levels throughout the atmosphere to confirm thermal balance. That this is not the case upon Venus has been known for some time. As long ago as 1980 Richard Kerr reported in Science that: When [4 Pioneer Venus probes looked at the temperature, each one found more energy being radiated up from the lower atmosphere than enters it as sunlight. To further complicate the situation, the size of the apparent upward flow of energy varies from place to place by a factor of 2 which was a disturbing discovery. (51) Kerr adds a telling and fundamental observation in this regard: "The much ballyhooed greenhouse effect of Venus can account for only part of the heating." (52) [emphasis added This simply means that the measured evidence from in situ probes precludes the possibility that Venus is in thermal balance. Since this evidence was confirmed by four probes it is highly unlikely that each probe could have been in error. What is most significant is the variation from place to place, the amount of heat rising varying at some places by a factor of 2. Thus, if in one region of Venus' atmosphere the temperature was x degrees, in another area it was 2x degrees. This means that there was at least twice the amount of heat coming up at 2x than could have been supplied by the greenhouse effect. It is most unlikely that in one region of Venus' atmosphere the greenhouse effect is twice as strong as in the other regions.
_Conclusion
_A fair reading of history will show that conventional astronomers have a very poor record when it comes to predicting the surface conditions of Venus. Such is not the case with regards to the thesis outlined by Immanuel Velikovsky in 1950. As this essay has sought to show, the evidence from Venus is fully consistent with the thesis of its anomalous origin and tumultuous recent history as set forth in Worlds in Collision. Indeed, it is this author's sincere hope that the day will come when members of the scientific community will find the courage and integrity to call for a full and proper investigation of Velikovsky's hypothesis.
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