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31
CNPS Structured Discussion / INVITE
« on: April 23, 2017, 11:37:33 am »
TB Members possibly interested in helping Improve Science:
bdw000, BirdyNumNums, Brigit Bara, Chan Rasjid, chut, Cubit32, D_Archer, dd6, Elder, fractal-geoff, GaryN, GenesisAria, Grey Cloud, jacmac, JCG, JeffreyW, JHL, jimmcginn, Keith Ness, Kuldebar, Melusine, philalethes, Phorce, phyllotaxis, Pi sees, Plasmatic, pln2bz, popster1, RayTomes, Roshi, Rushthezeppelin, saul, seasmith, Solar, Sparky, StefanR, trevbus, Webbman, Zelectric, ZenMonkeyNZ, Zyxzevn

Online scientific discourse is broken and it can be fixed
http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=14667
Scientific bias prevents scientific progress
http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=16408
Chris Reeve's et al Ideas to Improve Science Discourse
http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=16016

32
Family & Friends / Read My Stuff
« on: April 23, 2017, 06:07:02 am »
EDUCATION: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn
Research professor, Peter Gray', blog Freedom to Learn at PsychologyToday.com exposes problems in the education system, such as extreme stress, and better ways to teach and learn.

HEALTH: http://forum.freestateproject.org/index.php?topic=28796.0
James Sloane was a doctor for 13 years, but got fed up when he wasn't allowed to provide patients real curative nutritional support when dying of cancer and other diseases, so he entered alternative health care. I'm listing his remedies at the link above.

Some of the worst health mistakes are:
_1. low-fat, high carb diet;
(higher natural fat, and low grain & sugar diet is best; sugar & honey are better than artificial sweeteners)
_2. using pain meds, which can cause organ failure etc;
(I'll list alternatives for pain at the link above)
_3. using antacids & other meds for indigestion
(drinking water & good diet are better for indigestion & acid reflux)
_4. getting constipated
(I finally learned that drinking enough good water prevents it; I have to drink almost 2 quarts of water a day; you can add honey etc, but I blend it with about 1.5 bananas per quart)
_5. not getting enough nutrition for adrenal & circulatory system support for stress & circulation
(get it from natural stable vitamin C in Amla Berry powder in capsules or Acerola Berry extract powder etc and B vitamins in Rice Bran)

SCIENCE: http://forum.freestateproject.org/index.php?topic=23835.0
I post some of the best science & tech news at that link. Some of the articles explain how a lot of conventional science is fraud. So it's best to be skeptical about all science claims. I'm working with others on improving science.
_There's no way to tell yet how old the Earth is.
_3/4 of continental land consists of sedimentary rock over a mile thick.
_Almost all of that rock was formed during a Great Flood over 4,000 years ago.
_At that time there was only one supercontinent without any mountains.
_The flood was caused by tidal attraction to a swarm of asteroids, which caused huge tsunamis.
_The tsunamis washed all of the sedimentary strata onto the supercontinent from the seafloors and the continental shelf over several months time.
_Many people around the world have different stories of a Great Flood.
_A few centuries after the Great Flood the largest asteroid of all hit the supercontinent just north of Madagascar, east Africa.
_The impact broke the supercontinent apart and caused the Americas, Australia, India and Antarctica to slide over the Moho layer to where they are now.
_It also caused the mountain ranges to form.
_Most scientists think the sedimentary rock strata formed slowly over millions of years.
_But sedimentary rock is separated into three kinds: sandstone, mudstone and limestone, each kind being usually many feet thick over large areas.
_How could there have been thousands of years of just one kind of sediment being deposited and then thousands of years of a different kind of sediment?
_The only proven way most sediments can be separated is in flooding over short timespans.
_Radioactive elements are used to date rocks incorrectly, because scientists assume that certain radioactive decay takes millions of years.
_But electrical ionization causes radioactive elements to decay millions of times faster than normal.
_The impact and continental sliding produced a lot of ionization.

POLITICS & ECONOMICS: http://forum.freestateproject.org/index.php?board=63.0
I post a lot of articles at that forum a few times each month. Local community self-government is probably the best way to end corruption & provide opportunities for local people.

RELIGION: http://BILIB.webs.com
Everyone will be "saved" but not usually painlessly. Jesus said he's the good shepherd who goes after all lost sheep. The prophecy that Jesus would be born of a virgin almost certainly meant in the sign of the Virgin, which was Virgo, and he was born on Sept. 11, in Virgo. Look it up online. We're saved by following Jesus' example of loving or caring about everyone. That's what will save civilization IMO.

FAMILY TREE: Let me know if you want a copy of the Family Tree online. It needs to be updated, since it's mostly 20 years old.

33
CNPS Structured Discussion / CNPS General Discussion
« on: April 22, 2017, 01:20:31 pm »
Request New Forum Section
(from 9. CNPS Work Groups › CNPS Forum)
(04-19-2017, 09:42 AM (This post was last modified: 04-19-2017, 10:48 AM by Lloyd Kinder.)
I'd like to have a new forum section on Major Unexplained Science Facts & Alternative Models.

As an example, a major unexplained fact is that sedimentary rock strata are mostly separated over large areas into 3 major types, sandstone, claystone & limestone. Mainstream theory claims that the strata were deposited slowly over thousands and millions of years. But that would mean that over large areas only one type of sediment was deposited for many thousands of years, followed by many thousands of years of another type of sediment, etc. A better explanation is that the strata were separated during major flooding over very short time spans. (This would lead to the issue of radiometric dating, but there is a better explanation for that as well.)

Some other brief examples relate to universe expansion, black holes, quasars, neutron stars, science math, gravity, star and planet and galaxy formation etc, magnetic fields, chemistry, biology etc.

My idea is just to list everything briefly, including brief arguments, like with the first example above, and provide links to the best, more thorough discussions elsewhere, preferably in the CNPS Wiki.

Each unexplained fact could be given a name and listed alphabetically as well as by topic hierarchy.

-----

LK Ideas for Organizing a Wiki
(April 22 ca 10:30 AM)
1. Plans to Improve the Scientific Method
2. List Major Fields of Science
3. List Major Science Facts & Flaws for Main CNPS Wiki Topics

1. Plans to Improve the Scientific Method
The Scientific Method involves:
1.1. making accurate observations of reality;
--- [I just happened to notice that reality even includes things like imagination too.]
1.2. making a hypothesis to attempt to explain observations;
1.3. testing the hypothesis by experiment, using accurate and relevant measurements, using logic and, if needed, math as well, and taking relevant, accurate notes of all procedures involved, to determine if the hypothesis is contradicted;
1.4. revising the hypothesis and the experiment, if contradicted [during testing];
1.5. publishing the experiment;
1.6. getting 2 or more unaffiliated parties to replicate a successful experiment;
1.7. publishing the hypothesis as a probable fact and a scientific discovery, if all experiments are successful; and
1.8. using the discovery to increase control over nature for the purpose of improving the conditions of society.
---
Common errors that undermine the Scientific Method are:
1.1. making inaccurate observations of reality;
1.2. making an untestable hypothesis;
1.3. misusing logic or math in the experiment;
1.4. recording false or inaccurate data, or taking inaccurate notes;
1.5. suppressing potentially useful experiments;
1.6. failing to replicate an experiment by unaffiliated parties;
1.7. publishing false or misleading statements about experiments or experimenters; and
1.8. misusing scientific findings for the detriment of society.
---
Human imperfection results in many experiments being done improperly, or reported on inaccurately, or suppressed unfairly. Sociology needs to study these problems and devise means to prevent abuse of science.

2. List Major Fields of Science
Cosmology, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Catastrophism, Paleontology, Archeology, Mythology, Biology, Neurology, Psychology, Sociology, Parapsychology

3. List Major Science Facts & Flaws
(See Sample Wiki thread.)

-----

Paraphrasing Bruce's Forum/Wiki Ideas
[Prior note to Bruce:] I wanted to start working on a CNPS Wiki Outline, but I can't find anywhere on the CNPS forum, so I started doing it on my private forum at http://funday.createaforum.com/new-board/cnps-wiki-outline .

Here's my rephrasing of your suggestions for the CNPS structured forum, to be followed by my comments.
a. Tell readers the goal is to produce one or more papers and Wikis.
- Each would have multiple identified authors, comments, and possibly subjections.
- So the Wikis and papers would look like conventional academic material.
- Wiki members have a choice to create a Wiki in conventional Wiki format
or do it using my Word template then give it to a Wiki editor
LK Forum Request:
1. Name Major Science Flaws
2. & briefly describe the Flaws
3. & briefly describe the most promising alternative theories or facts
- For #1 have a separate thread for each significant flaw
- Compose a list of flaws
- Ask readers to submit other flaws &/or alternative theories
- Post each submitter’s name with their submissions- Edit & post flaws alongside proposed alternative theories
b. To structure the topic put it into the forum as 3 co-located threads.
ba. "Topic" - discussion (for unedited input, only lightly moderated);
bb. "Topic" - external inputs (for edited questions, challenges, clarifications and other stimulus to stimulate scientific discussion, containing only one or few posts);
bc. "Topic" - summary and coordination (for edited summaries to steer the discussion, with sections like:
what is the current point being discussed;
what are people hung up on;
what needs to be discussed;
what accomplishments have been made so far;
special assignments etc.
- Create an outline of the local discussion & put it in your “coordination” post. - Use Mark’s MIT MAP concepts:
Questions ( ? ),
Ideas ( lightbulb),
pros and cons (thumbs up and down ) etc.
- See the user guide I made for the MAP that shows all his features.
- Add in new heading functions as appropriate:
Lines just as general outline headings: e.g. “Physics – General Principles”;
Subheadings: e.g. “What have others said about this?” or “This is what the discussion has concluded so far on this point”

My comments: I'm willing to experiment with that idea, if you or we can get at least 2 or 3 people involved in trying it out. It seems a bit complicated and it's not clear what the payoff would be. I'm wanting to work on listing major science flaws and maybe asking others to contribute to the list, because the payoff would seem to be correcting major flaws and making them well-known and contributing to science progress, assuming a popular website can be developed.

Aether Lattice Holes Theory
LST: I started reading your LST yesterday & it seems a little promising. I don't understand how dislocations would have mass etc, but I'm open-minded. So far, LST doesn't seem likely to explain how atoms could spin. I favor the idea that electrons and neutrons are connected to protons and the whole atom has to be balanced in order to spin. And unbalanced atoms fly apart, which is radioactivity. I haven't read enough to see if you covered radioactivity etc.

DEMOCRACY:
A day or two ago I mentioned some of my work with Sociocracy, CNVC etc. Then synchronicity hit. One of the members of the group chat in 2006 from Sri Lanka emailed me last night saying he uses NVC in his social work and he wants to learn more by taking a class in Denmark in June. He said he's working with leaders of his country to try to prevent more war there, after the 25 year war that ended a few years ago. He said he lost many friends and relatives in the war. Your democracy proposal might be something they could benefit a lot from. It seems like it would work well, but have you considered how to persuade anyone to adopt it in the first place? Most people who run for public office seem to be mainly interested in how they can benefit just themselves and seldom seem much concerned about improving conditions for the public. CELDF seems to have some experience with the persuasion part by actually having gotten a number of communities to adopt some of their suggestions for local ordinances. I think CELDF also is trying to work with other countries too, so I guess I should contact them about my Sri Lanka friend. Should I also give him suggestions from you?

34
CNPS Structured Discussion / SAMPLE WIKI
« on: April 22, 2017, 10:53:01 am »
Wiki Planning Outline
The purpose of this thread is to discuss and help plan the CNPS Wiki for Science Improvement.

Plans for Organizing a Wiki
1. Plans to Improve the Scientific Method
2. List Major Fields of Science
3. List Major Science Facts & Flaws for Main CNPS Wiki Topics

1. Plans to Improve the Scientific Method
The Scientific Method involves:
1.1. making accurate observations of reality;
--- [I just happened to notice that reality even includes things like imagination too.]
1.2. making a hypothesis to attempt to explain observations;
1.3. testing the hypothesis by experiment, using accurate and relevant measurements, using logic and, if needed, math as well, and taking relevant, accurate notes of all procedures involved, to determine if the hypothesis is contradicted;
1.4. revising the hypothesis and the experiment, if contradicted [during testing];
1.5. publishing the experiment;
1.6. getting 2 or more unaffiliated parties to replicate a successful experiment;
1.7. publishing the hypothesis as a probable fact and a scientific discovery, if all experiments are successful; and
1.8. using the discovery to increase control over nature for the purpose of improving the conditions of society.
---
Common errors that undermine the Scientific Method are:
1.1. making inaccurate observations of reality;
1.2. making an untestable hypothesis;
1.3. misusing logic or math in the experiment;
1.4. recording false or inaccurate data, or taking inaccurate notes;
1.5. suppressing potentially useful experiments;
1.6. failing to replicate an experiment by unaffiliated parties;
1.7. publishing false or misleading statements about experiments or experimenters; and
1.8. misusing scientific findings for the detriment of society.
---
Human imperfection results in many experiments being done improperly, or reported on inaccurately, or suppressed unfairly. Sociology needs to study these problems and devise means to prevent abuse of science.

2. List Major Fields of Science
Cosmology, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Catastrophism, Paleontology, Archeology, Mythology, Biology, Neurology, Psychology, Sociology, Parapsychology

3. List Major Science Facts & Flaws
(This is a Suggested Wiki Outline)

(Give priority to flaws, shown with asterisks.)
Cosmology/Astronomy:
3.1- Universe
-Origin:
*Big Bang
*Creation
Eternal;
-Motion:
*Expansion
*Steady State
*Relativity
Spinning
Indeterminate
-Formation of 3.1-3.7:
*Gravitational
Electric
*Magnetic
Radiation
3.2- Uniweb
Great Voids
(The uniweb is the universal web of strings of galaxy clusters)
3.3- Galaxy Clusters
3.4- Galaxies
3.5- Galactic Bulge
Interstellar Medium
Galactic Halo
3.6- Star Clusters
Star Systems
Gas Clouds
3.7- *Black Holes
*Worm Holes
Stars
Ringstars
*Neutron Stars
Planets
Moons
Asteroids
Comets
Meteors
Physics/Chemistry:
3.8- Dust
Matter
Ions
Electric Discharge
Magnetism
Radiation
*Dark Matter
*Dark Energy
3.9- Space
Time
Motion
Aether
3.10 Earth Local Science:
Geology
*Uniformitarianism
Catastrophism
Paleontology
Archeology
*Mythology
3.11- Life - Biology
3.12- Consciousness - Neurology
3.13- Intelligence - Psychology & Philosophy
3.14- Society - Sociology
3.15- ESP - Parapsychology

35
Mike Messages / CHARLES CHANDLER
« on: April 03, 2017, 10:30:54 am »
Hi Charles. In late 2013 we were discussing how to improve science communication and science papers etc on the TB forum starting at http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=14667&sid=2528a4cfbcee64c0794f9a1007e2f1a9&start=45#p90668 --- I rejoined the Natrual Philosophy group lately (naturalphilosophy.org) and was pleasantly surprised that they're working on sort of the same thing there now. They have a regular forum there, but they're working on a more structured forum, as well as an alternative science Wiki, based on ideas similar to Deliberatorium. The person most responsible for that work seems to be Bruce Nappi, who has worked with Mark Klein, the guy at MIT who was experimenting with developing Deliberatorium there. Bruce says he was able to find ways to make Delib. work by modifying it a lot, with Mark's blessing. So I've been in touch with Bruce by email for a couple days and I volunteered to help develop the CNPS structured forum and their Wiki and to invite others to help, like from the TB forum etc. I told Bruce about our TB forum discussion that I linked above and he was very impressed with your part of the discussion. I told him he'd probably benefit by registering on your website and that you're a software developer. Bruce seems to be pretty good as a webmaster, but I didn't ask him yet how much experience he has. He writes a lot online and has a business apparently. One of his topics in online articles is participatory democracy via internet communication. His ideas on that are very similar to mine. I favor supermajority rule, instead of simple majority, and he says we can have 100% majority rule, which is unanimous rule. So I want to work with him on that too.

I asked Bruce yesterday to add a new section to the forum for the Electric Universe. I said I'd like to have discussion of at least 4 models there, the EU team's, yours, Oliver Manuel's and Brant's. Maybe there should be one for Bob Johnson's too, come to think of it. I hope a lot of TB forum members will want to discuss there and that we can develop efficient ways to have debates that lead to sound science for the CNPS Wiki etc. I think you're especially interested in saving people's lives from natural disasters etc, so I hope your papers on earthquakes, volcanism, tornadoes etc will get proper exposure, both at NCGT.org and at CNPS to start with. CNPS is having a conference in Vancouver, BC around July 20. Deadlines for submitting papers is May 31. I hope you may like to submit one or more of your papers. I don't know if you'd want to go to Vancouver to read your paper, but, if not, I imagine they'd allow someone else to read it there for you. Dwardu Cardona lives in Vancouver.

I think John Casey and Dong Choi may be able to improve their methods for predicting earthquakes etc, if they can learn something from your papers. I've been working with Mike Fischer of NewGeology.us for a couple months or so on a paper on Catastrophism for NCGT. Since NCGT seems to mainly support Surge Tectonics, I wanted to understand that better, so Dong Choi suggested I read Meyerhoff's book on Surge Tectonics. Meyerhoff was his mentor. Below is part of what I wrote lately to Mike.

- In the quote below from the book, Surge Tectonics, you can see they say the surge channels form at the top of the Moho.
- Here from the book is a Surge Channels Map I found online:
http://www.huttoncommentaries.com/images/ECNews/HeatFlow/WorldHeatFlowMap750.jpg
- The Webpage which seems religious is: http://www.huttoncommentaries.com/article.php?a_id=93
- They say the surge channels are within those warm bands. Many are said to be active channels and some are inactive, which I think means solidified.
- 3.9.3 ROLE OF THE MOHOROVIC DISCONTINUITY
Thus, when the postulated tholeiitic picrite magma reachs the Moho- [rising from below] ([P-waves] ... between  8.0-km/s ... and 6.6-km/s ...), it has reached its level of neutral buoyancy and  spreads laterally. Under the proper conditions---abundant magma supply and  favorable crustal structure---a surge channel can form. We suggest the possibility  that the entire 7.0-7.8-km/s layer may have formed in this way. In support of this  suggestion, we note that the main channel of every surge channel studied, from the  Archean to the Cenozoic, is located precisely at the surface of the Moho-. This  indicates that the discontinuity is very ancient, perhaps as old as the Earth  itself. This fact and the great difference in P-wave velocities above and below the  Moho- surface suggest in turn that the discontinuity originated during the initial  cooling of the Earth.
- Here's a quote from the Conclusions section of the book.
9. Surge channels, active or inactive, underlie nearly every major feature of the  Earth's surface, including all rifts, foldbelts, metamorphic belts, and strike-slip  zones. These belts are roughly bisymmetrical, have linear surface swaths of faults,  fractures, and fissures, and belt-parallel stretching lineations. Aligned plutons,  ophiolites, melange belts, volcanic centers, kimberlite dikes, diatremes, ring  structures and mineral belts are characteristic. Zoned metamorphic belts are also  characteristic. In some areas, linear river valleys, flood basalts, and/or vortex  structures may be present. A lens of 7.8-7.0 km/s material always underlies the  belt.

End quotes. So I figure the surge channels likely formed as a result of the SD impact off east Africa. Wherever the crust, whether oceanic or continental, fractured severely, folded, etc, there was excess heat that produced the surge channels at the top of the Moho-. Since Choi already is favorable to the idea of Earth acting as an electrical battery, which one of NCGT's member groups wrote a paper on back around 2004, I think he and that group may be very impressed with your model. Louis Hissinck, one of NCGT's editors, who is also a member of the EU team who favors Thornhill's model at least somewhat, should be somewhat interested in your model too. Peter James is another contributor to NCGT who may have connections to the EU team. Anyway, does my idea about surge channels in the Moho- caused by the SD impact make sense to you? I know the Moho- probably would have existed before the impact, but they say it's a few km thick, whereas you say only about a meter of the thickness is caused by the tides. So I figure the extra thickness, if true, may have resulted from the impact. Got any comments?

36
Mike Messages / SURGE TECTONICS HIGHLIGHTS
« on: March 29, 2017, 09:31:27 pm »
SURGE TECTONICS
3.1 Introduction
_Surge tectonics is based on the concept that the lithosphere contains a worldwide  network of deformable magma chambers (surge channels) in which partial magma melt  is in motion (active surge channels) or was in motion at some time in the past  (inactive surge channels).
_The presence of surge channels means that all of the compressive stress in the  lithosphere is oriented at right angles to their walls. As this compressive stress  increases during a given geotectonic cycle, it eventually ruptures the channels  that are deformed bilaterally into kobergens (Fig. 2.15).
_Thus, bilaterally deformed foldbelts in surge-tectonics terminology are called  kobergens.
_Surge tectonics involves
1. contraction or cooling of the Earth
2. lateral flow of fluid, or semifluid, magma through a network of interconnected  magma channels in the lithosphere
3. Earth's rotation, which involves differential lag between the lithosphere and  the strictosphere and its effects, i.e. eastward shifts (Table 2.3)
=the strictosphere is the hard mantle beneath the asthenosphere and lower crust
._lithosphere compression caused by cooling propels the lateral flow of magma  through surge channels

ST_3.2.2 CONTINENTS HAVE DEEP ROOTS
_Contrary to general belief continental roots are fixed to the strictosphere [as  shown] by large and increasing volumes of data, including neodymium and strontium  studies of crustal rocks (..., 1979).

_the deep roots of continents are a major obstacle to any hypothesis requiring  continental movements (..., 1985-1990).
_deep roots are seen beneath part of all of the Earth's ancient cratons.
_In places, however, lenses of 7.0-7.8-km/s material containing low-velocity zones  (Fig. 3.5) are present (..., 1989).
_Such lenses containing low-velocity layers postdate the establishment of the deep  cratonic roots, as we show in subsequent sections.

_3.3.2 Contraction Skepticism
_3.3.3 Evidence For a Differentiated, Cooled Earth
_1. The Earth includes several concentric shells, which are explicable only if the  Earth differentiated efficiently and at a much higher temperature than today.
_2. The outermost of these shells may be the oceanic crust whose thickness ranges  from about 4-7 km.
<<contradicts sed strata & oceanization
_This crust is characterized by relatively constant thickness and fairly uniform  seismic properties.
_This uniformity is explained if the oceanic crust is the outermost of the Earth's  concentric shells.
_5. A convincing evidence that huge segments of the lithosphere have been and are  being engulfed by tangential compression is the existence of Verschluckungszonen  (engulfment zones)
_In places along such zones, whole metamorphic and igneous belts that are  characteristic of parts of a given foldbelt simply disappear for hundreds of  kilometers along strike
_Although [some] considered these features to be former subduction zones, this  interpretation is difficult to defend because all of these zones, regardless of  age, are near-vertical bodies (1) reach only the top or middle of the asthenosphere  (150 to 250 km deep) and (2) do not deviate more than 10° to 25° from the vertical  (..., 1983-1984).
_6. The antipodal positions of the continents and ocean basins (unlikely a matter  of chance) mean that Earth passed through a molten phase
_7. Theory (..., 1970) and laboratory experiment (..., 1956) showed that heated  spheres cool by rupture along great circles. Remnants of two such great circles (as  defined by hypocenters at the base of the asthenosphere) are active today: the  Circum-Pacific and Tethys-Mediterranean fold systems. The importance of Bucher's  (1956) experiment to contraction theory, in which he reproduced the great circles,  is little appreciated.

3.8 Evidence for the Existence of Surge Channels
3.8.1 SEISMIC-REFLECTION DATA
_As noted above, reflection-seismic techniques (...) have shown that the  continental crust of the upper lithosphere is divisible in a very general way into  an upper moderately reflective zone and a lower highly reflective zone (...).  Closer scrutiny of the newly-acquired data soon revealed the presence in the lower  crust of numerous cross-cutting and dipping events.
_When many of these cross-cutting events were preceived to be parts of lens-like  bodies, various names sprang up: .... Strictly nongenetic names include lenses,  lenticles, lozenges, and pods (...). Finlayson et al. (1989) found that the lenses  have P-wave velocities of 7.0-7.8 km/s, commonly with a low-velocity zone in their  middle.
_Thus we equate the lenses with the pods of "anomalous lower crust" and "anomalous  upper mantle" that we discussed in a preceding section. Klemperer (1987) noted that  many of the lenses are belts of high heat flow. Hyndman and Klemperer (1989)  observed that the lenses generally have very high electrical conductivity.
_Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) discovered that there are two types of undeformed  reflective lenses, and that many of these lenses have been severely tectonized. The  first type of lens is transparent in the middle (Fig. 3.29); the second type is  reflective throughout (Fig. 2.11). Tectonized lenses also may have transparent  interiors, or parts of interiors; many, however, are reflective throughout (Fig.  3.21). Where transparent zones are present (Fig. 3.20), bands of high heat flow,  bands of microearthquakes, belts of high conductivity, and bands of faults,  fractures, and fissures are present. Where a transparent layer is not present, high  heat flow and conductivity, however, are commonly still present. Meyerhoff et al.  (1992b) also found that lenses with transparent interiors are younger than those  without transparent interiors; moreover, there is a complete spectrum of lenses  from those with wholly transparent interiors to those without.

_The best explanations of thes observations are that (1) the lenses with  transparent interiors are active surge channels with a low-velocity zone sandwiched  between two levels of 7.0 to 7.8 km/s material; (2) the lenses with reflective  interiors are former surge channels now cooled and consisting wholly of 7.0 to 7.8  km/s material; and (3) the tectonized lenses are either active or former surge  channels since converted into kobergens by tectogenesis.

_3.8.3 SEISMOTOMOGRAPHIC DATA
_Seismotomographic data, wherever detialed studies have been made, indicate that  the lenses seen in seismic-refraction and seismic-reflection studies form an  interconnected, reticulate network in the lithosphere. Although only one highly  detailed seismotomographic study has been made on a continental scale---this in  China---it leaves no room for doubt that the 7.0-7.8-km/s lenses with transparent  interiors and the seismotomographically detected low-velocity channels in the  lithosphere are one and the same....
_Using seismotomographic techniques, it will be possible to map active surge  channels over the world with comparative ease.

_3.8.4 SURFACE-GEOLOGICAL DATA
_Direct evidence for the existence of surge channels comes from tectonic belts  themselves, and from one type of magma flood province. The latter include rift  igneous rocks that crop out nearly continuously for their full lengths. Examples  include the rhyodactic Sierra Madre Occidental-Sierra Madre del Sur extrusive and  intrusive belt of Mexico and Guatemala, some 2,400 km long; the 1,600-km-long  Sierra Nevada-Baja California batholith belt; the 4,000-km+ batholith and andesite  belt of the Andes south of the equator; the 4,000-km-long Okhotsk-Chukotka silicic  volcanic belt; the 5,800-km-long Wrangellia linear basaltic province extending from  eastern Alaska to Oregon, which erupted in less than 5 Ma; and many other similar  continental magma belts. The ocean basins are equally replete with them, ranging  from the 60,000-km-long midocean ridge system through the 5,800-km-long Hawaiian-  Emperor island and seamount chain to many similar belts of shorter lengths.  Geochemical studies also show that most of these belts are interconnected. Another  linear flood-basalt belt, which has been studied only relatively recently, is the  subsurface Mid-Continent province that extends 2,400 km from Kansas through the  Great Lakes to Ohio (Figs. 3.23, 3.24).

_3.8.5 OTHER DATA
_Other data mentioned in the preceding sections corroborate the interconnection of  active surge channels. One of these is the coincidence of the 7.0-7.8-km/s lenses  of the active surge channels (Figs. 2.9, 2.31, 3.6, 3.9, 3.14, 3.20) with the belts  of high heat flow (Fig. 2.26) and with belts of microseismicity. Both the presence  of high heat flow and microseismicity indicate that magma is moving within active  surge channels.

_However, an even more dramatic example is the June 28, 1992, Landers, California,  earthquake-related activity shown on Figure 3.25. This figure shows that the 7.5-  magnitude earthquake was strong enough to affect areas up to 1,250 km from the  epicenter (...) and provides an exampole of Pascal's Law in action. Given the  importance of Pascal's Law in surge-channel systems, the fact should be noted that  the viscosity of the magma in the surge channels affected by the Landers event is  sufficiently low that, when the stress was applied at a single hypocentral point  (Landers), the effects could still be transmitted for 1,250 km!

_3.9 Geometry of Surge Channels
_3.9.1 SURGE-CHANNEL CROSS SECTION
_Corry (1988) published the "Christmas Tree" model shown in Figure 2.8; Bridgwater  et al. (1974) published the more complex model shown in Figure 3.26. Either of  these could be cross sections of surge channels. Both are multitiered with one or  more magma chambers above the main chamber.

_3.9.2 SURGE-CHANNEL SURFACE EXPRESSION
_Study of Figures 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 2.31, 3.6, 3.9, 3.13, 3.14, 3.20, 3.23 and 3.24  might lead one to believe that surge channels are everywhere fairly simple  structures expressed at the surface by a single belt of earthquake foci, high heat  flow, bands of faults-fractures-fissures (streamlines), and related phenomena  which, during tectogenesis, deform into a single kobergen. Although this simple  picture is true of many kobergens, it is not true of all. Study of Figures 3.26 and  3.27 suggests that, during tectogenesis of the surge-channel complexes shown on  these figures, two or more parallel kobergens may exist at the surface. Such a  complex surface expression is in fact quite common. Well-documented examples are  found in the Western Cordillera of North America, the Mediterranean-Tethys orogenic  belt (including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), and the Andes, inter alia. Within the  Western Cordillera, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the Andes, we have found four or  more parallel kobergens side by side at the surface as documented and illustrated  by Meyerhoff et al. (1992b).

3.9.3 ROLE OF THE MOHOROVIC DISCONTINUITY
The principal forces acting on the lithosphere are compression, rotation, and  gravity.

Thus, when the postulated tholeiitic picrite magma reachs the Moho- (i.e., the zone  between 8.0-km/s mantle below and 6.6-km/s above), it has reached its level of  neutral buoyancy and spreads laterally. Under the proper conditions---abundant  magma supply and favorable crustal structure---a surge channel can form. We suggest  the possibility that the entire 7.0-7.8-km/s layer may have formed in this way. In  support of this suggestion, we note that the main channel of every surge channel  studied, from the Archean to the Cenozoic, is located precisely at the surface of  the Moho-. This indicates that the discontinuity is very ancient, perhaps as old as  the Earth itself. This fact and the great difference in P-wave ==velicities above and  below the Moho- surface suggest in turn that the discontinuity originated during  the initial cooling of the Earth. Hence, Mooney and Meissner's (1992) "transition  zone" was the level of neutral buoyancy at the time the 7.0-7.8-km/s material was  emplaced.

?>The formation of the Christmas-tree-like structures (Figs. 2.8, 3.26) at the  Moho- is simply an extension of the larger scale process of magma transfer from the  asthenosphere to the discontinuity. Once surge channels are established at the  discontinuity, the same processes take over that brought the magma to the  discontinuity in the first place, specifically, magma differentiation in the  channels and the Peach-Kohler climb force (...). After lighter magmas have formed  by differentiation and related processes, they rise to their own neutral buoyancy  levels, forming channels above the main surge channel (Figs. 3.23, 3.27).

SURGE TECTONICS
Chapter 6 Magma Floods, Flood Basalts, and Surge Tectonics
_6.1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF FLOOD BASALTS
_Some 63% of the ocean basins are covered with flood basalts. At least 5% of the  continents are likewise covered with flood basalts. Thus 68%---a minimum figure---  of the Earth's surface is covered with these basaltic rocks. Flood basalts, then,  are not the oddities that many suppose them to be. In spite of this, they receive  little attention among the scientific community.
_ Engel et al. (1965) long ago demonstrated that deep ocean-floor tholeiitic  basalts are the oceanic equivalent of the continental flood basalts. The Basalt  Volcanism Study Project (1981) differentiated between the continental flood basalts  and "ocean-floor basalts," while recognizing that the principal differences were  the abundance of minor and rare-earth elements. Press and Siever (1974...)  recognized the fact that the ocean-floor basalts and continental flood basalts are  nearly the same, and that their differences are explained readily by contamination  in the continental crustal setting.

_6.1.2 CLASSIFICATION
_Continental flood-basalt provinces are geometrically of two types. The first is  broadly ovate, or even round, with the maximum diameter ranging from about 500 km  (Columbia River Basalt) to more than 2,500 km (Siberian Traps). The second is  distinctly linear, with a width of 100 to 200 km and lengths up to and even  exceeding 3,000 km.
_ Tectonism and metamorphism can severely disrupt any flood-basalt province after  its formation. For example, ... the Antrim Plateau Volcanics of northern Australia  ... parts ... have been removed by erosion. ... Similarly, only very scattered,  strongly flooded, and metamorphosed remains of the Willouran Mafic rocks are  preserved in ... South Australia, but their distribution shows that [it] is a  linear flood-basalt province.

_6.6 Flood-Basalt Provinces and Frequency in Geologic Time
As we observed near the beginning of this chapter, the commonly used textbooks of  physical geology, structural geology, and geotectonics rarely list more than 10 to  20 flood-basalt provinces. However, the magnificent review of basalts by the  participants in the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) mentions or figures not  less than 56 flood-basalt provinces and 45 additional provinces of dike swarms  which the project participants thought might have fed flood-basalt provinces that  have since been removed by erosion.
_ Yoder (1988, ...) wrote that "Great basaltic 'floods' have appeared on the  continents throughout geologic time (Table 1)," but showed on his Table 1 none  older than 1,200+/- 50 Ma. He also ... made it clear that he regards midocean-ridge  and other oceanic basalts as flood basalts, as have a number of earlier workers  (..., 1974). We concur absolutely with their interpretation. We also concur with  the participants of the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) that evidence of the  existence of flood provinces extends back in time to at least 3,760 Ma, and very  likely to the Earth's earliest (but nowhere preserved) history.

_6.7 Non-Basalt Flood Volcanism in Flood-Basalt Provinces
The bimodal nature of many flood-basalt provinces has been known and stressed for  many years (..., 1981). Time seems not to be a major factor (the idea being that,  the longer an underlying magma chamber is present, the more the magma will interact  with the continental crust above it). The most important factor may be the crustal  stress state.
_ We believe that the evidence from these examples demonstrates convincingly that  there is a complete gradation from all-basalt and basaltic andesite flood provinces  to bimodal provinces containing mainly rhyolite and ignimbrite. Hence, there are  basalt floods and rhyolite floods.
_ ... The volumetric predominance of these ash-flow tuffs has led to recognition of  the [Sierra Madre Occidental] as the world's largest rhyolite-dominated volcanic  province" (Fig. 6.28).
_ Thus, from 38 Ma until 17 Ma, a truly bimodal column of extrusive rocks  accumulated in northern Mexico and adjoining parts of the United States, with  rhyolite at one end, basaltic andesite at the other, and very little rock of  intermediate compositions. ... [Skipping remainder of paragraph]
_ We believe that these basalts of the "southern cordilleran basaltic andesite"  suite are flood basalts. And if they are flood basalts, then we have demonstrated  that the same mechanism that leads to continental and oceanic basalt outpourings  also produces the "orogenic andesite suite".
_ The Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt, a linear belt of Cretaceous volcanics, is  similar to the Sierra Madre Occidental. It extends 3,000 km from the mouth of Uda  Bay (northwestern Sea of Okhotsk) to the Bering Sea almost at St. Lawrence Island.  It seems to have every type of volcanic from andesitic through rhyolite. Basalts  are scarce. Soviet geologists either ignore it or say that it is the remnant of a  volcanic arc.
 
_6.9 Surge-Tectonics Origin of Magma Floods
In the preceding pages we have referred to the presence of several flood-basalt  provinces around the world, and have shown that some flood provinces include large  volumes of silicic rocks, usually rhyolite and/or dacite. We have also shown by the  northern Mexican example that flood basalts can interfinger with the andesite  orogenic suite.
_The available evidence has led us to the conclusion that the same mechanism causes  volcanism in the midocean ridges, linear island and seamount chains, oceanic  plateaus, island arcs, and continental interiors. We next attempt an explanation of  our conclusion.
_ Many attempts have been made to explain flood volcanism in the framework of the  plate-tectonics hypothesis. The two principal explanations involve (1) hot spots,  or mantle plumes and (2) an extraterrestrial cause (e.g., an asteroid impact).
_ Extraterrestrial causes have been proposed by Alt et al. (1988), who applied this  hypothesis to the Columbia River flood-basalt province. A major problem with this  concept is that it does not explain linear flood-basalt provinces such as the  Keweenawan (Mid-Continent) rift and Wrangellia. Furthermore, Mitchell and Widdowson  (1991) pointed out that impact and shock phenomena should be present in the area  surrounding the Columbia River province if it resulted from extraterrestrial  action, but they are entirley absent.
_ As we noted in Chapters 3 and 4, Mooney et al. (1983) observed that all active  rifts studied by them have an anomalous lower crust with P-wave velocities in the  7.0 to 7.7 km/s range (Fig. 6.36). [Others] obtained the identical result.... Fuchs  (1974) believed that this pod of anomalous lower crustal material houses the  mechanism that causes rifting. It is interesting to note that all midocean ridges  have a pod of 7.0-7.7 km/s as well (..., 1959-1965). (Furthermore, each island arc  and foldbelt also has a pod of 7.0-7.7 km/s material that pinches out from the  center of the arc or foldbelt (..., 1987-1989 ... for the Japan arc ... [and] for  the Appalachians.)
_ Figure 3.6 is a cross section across the Baykal rift, from Krylov et al. (1979)  and Sychev (1985). Years of refraction work have shown [that] Lake Baykal is  underlain at about 32 km by a pod that is connected to the deeper asthenosphere.  The shallow pod contains a low-velocity zone that presumably is a partial melt. The  pod extends the full length of the rift. It is, in short, a channel containing  partly molten magma and an excellent example of one of our surge channels. Were it  to burst, we believe that it would produce another linear flood-basalt province.
_ According to our surge tectonic hypothesis, magma in surge channels moves both  vertically and horizontally. When two surge channels come in contact, their magmas  join together. If they are oriented at an appreciable angle to one another, we  believe that the result is a "collision". These5 "collisions" are responsible for  the eruption of round or ovate flood-basalt provinces worldwide.

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS
We have proposed a new hypothesis of global tectonics in this book, one that is  different and will be considered unorthodox by many scientists and non-scientists  alike. However, we believe that current tectonic hypotheses cannot adequately  explain the increasing volume of data being collected by both old and new  technologies. We believe that the hypothesis of surge tectonics does explain these  data sets, in a way that is simple and more accurate.
 The major points of the surge-tectonics hypothesis can be summarized as follows:
 1. All linear to curvilinear mesoscopic and megascopic structures and landforms  observed on Earth (and similar features seen on Mars, Venus, and the moons of  Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus), and all magmatic phenomena are generated, directly or  indirectly, by surge channels. The surge channel is the common denominator of  geology, geophysics, and geochemistry.
 2. Surge channels formed and continue to form an interconnected worldwide network  in the lithosphere. They contain fluid to semifluid magma, or mush, differentiated  from the Earth's asthenosphere by the cooling of the Earth. All newly  differentiated magma in the asthenosphere must rise into the lithosphere. The newly  formed magma has a lower density and therefore, is gravitationally unstable in the  asthenosphere. It rises in response to the Peach-Kohler climb force to its level of  neutral buoyancy (that is, to form a surge channel).
<<So no vertical channels are needed
 3. Lateral movements in the Earth's upper layers are a response to the Earth's  rotation. Differential lag between the more rigid lithosphere above and the (more)  fluid asthenosphere below causes the fluid, or mushy, materials to move relatively  eastward.
 4. Surge channels are alternately filled and emptied. A complete cycle of filling  and emptying is a geotectonic cycle.
<<I rather think they don't empty; they solidify
The geotectonic cycle takes place along this sequence of events:
 a. Contraction of the strictosphere is always underway, because the Earth is  cooling;
<<...with minor exceptions due to major impacts
 b. The overlying lithosphere, which is already cool, does not contract, but  adjusts its basal circumference to the upper surface of the shrinking strictosphere  by large-scale thrusting along lithosphere Benioff zones and normal-type faulting  along the strictosphere Benioff zones.
<<Benioff zones were caused by recent impacts, so little shrinkage has occurred  since then, though major local and sometimes minor global effects have likely  occurred
 c. Thrusting of the lithosphere is not a continuous process, but occurs when the  lithosphere's underlying dynamic support fails. When the weight of the lithosphere  overcomes combined resistance of the asthenosphere and Benioff zone friction,  lithosphere collapse begins in a episodic fashion. Hence, tectogenesis is episodic.
<<Such collapse is likely frequent and minor, due to daily electrified tides
 d. During anorogenic intervals between lithosphere collapses, the asthenosphere  volume increases slowly as the strictosphere radius decreases and decompression of  the asthenosphere begins.
 e. Decompression is accompanied by rising temperature, increased magma generation,  and lowered viscosity in the asthenosphere, which gradually weakens during the time  intervals between collapses.
 f. During lithosphere collapse into the asthenosphere, the continentward (hanging  wall) sides of the lithosphere Benioff zones override (obduct) the ocean floor. The  entire lithosphere buckles, fractures, and founders. Enormous compressive stresses  are created in the lithosphere.
<<Again, the stresses should be minor, since they're frequent
 g. When the lithosphere collapses into the asthenosphere, the asthenosphere-  derived magma in the surge channels begins to surge intensely. Where volume of  magma in the channels exceeds volumetric capacity, and when compression in the  lithosphere exceeds the strength of the lithosphere that directly overlies the  surge channels, the surge-channel roofs rupture along the cracks that comprise the  fault-fracture-fissure system generated before the rupture. Rupture is bivergent  and forms continental rifts, foldbelts, strike-slip zones, and midocean rifts. We  call such bilaterally deformed belts kobergens.
<<This all occurred during the relatively recent major impact event
 h. Once tectogenesis is completed, another geotectonic cycle or subcycle sets in,  commonly within the same belt.
<<Surge channels likely only form during major impact events
 5. Movement in the surge channel during the taphrogenic phase of the geotectonic  cycle is parallel with the channel. It is also very slow, not exceeding a few  centimeters per year. Flow at the surge-channel walls is laminar as evidenced by  the channel-parallel faults, fractures, and fissures observed at the Earth's  surface (Stoke's Law). Such flow also produced the more or less regular  segmentation observed in tectonic belts.
 6. Tectogenesis has many styles. Each reflects the rigidity and thickness of the  overlying lithosphere. In opcean basins where the lithosphere is thinnest, massive  basalt flooding occurs. At ocean-continent transitions, eugeosynclines with  alpinotype tectogenesis form. In continental interiors where the lithosphere is  thicker, either germanotype foldbelts or continental rifts are created.
 7. During the geotectonic cycle, and within the eugeosynclinal regime, the central  core (crest of the surge channel) evolves from a rift basin to a tightly compressed  slpinotype foldbelt. Thus a rift basin up to several hundred kilometers wide  narrows through time until it is a zone no more than a few kilometers wide that is  occupied by a streamline (strike-slip) fault zone (e.g. the San Andreas fault).  Then as compression takes over and dominates the full width of the surge-channel  crest, the streamline fault zone is distorted, surge channel still contains any  void spaces, the overlying rocks may collapse into it, and through this process of  Verschluckung (engulgment) become a Verschluckungzone.
 8. The Earth above the strictosphere resembles a giant hydraulic press that  behaves according to Pascal's Law. A hydraulic press consists of a containment  vessel, fluid in that vessel, and a switch or trigger mechanism. In the case of the  Earth, the containment vessel is the interconnected surge-channel system; the fluid  is the magma in the channels; and the trigger mechanism is worldwide lithosphere  collapse into the asthenosphere when that body becomes too weak to sustain the  lithosphere dynamically. Thus tectogenesis may be regarded as surge-channel  response to Pascal's Law.
 9. Surge channels, active or inactive, underlie nearly every major feature of the  Earth's surface, including all rifts, foldbelts, metamorphic belts, and strike-slip  zones. These belts are roughly bisymmetrical, have linear surface swaths of faults,  fractures, and fissures, and belt-parallel stretching lineations. Aligned plutons,  ophiolites, melange belts, volcanic centers, kimberlite dikes, diatremes, ring  structures and mineral belts are characteristic. Zoned metamorphic belts are also  characteristic. In some areas, linear river valleys, flood basalts, and/or vortex  structures may be present. A lens of 7.8-7.0 km/s material always underlies the  belt.
 10. Active surge channels are most easily recognized by the presence of high heat  flow (Fig. 2.26), microseismicity, lines of thermal springs, small negative Bouguer  gravity anomalies, and a 7.8-7.0 km/s lens of material that is transparent in the  center or throughout.
 11. Inactive surge channels possess a linear positive magnetic anomaly, a linear  Bouguer positive gravity anomaly, and a linear, lens-shaped pod of 7.8-7.0 km/s  material that is reflective throughout.
 12. A surge-tectonics approach to geodynamics provides a new means for determining  the origin of the Earth's features and their evolution through time, for analyzing  regions prone to earthquakes and volcanism, and for predicting the location and  formation of mineral deposits throughout the globe.

37
Mike Messages / Re: MF 3/25-3/26
« on: March 26, 2017, 12:31:25 pm »
MF: Sat, March 25, 2017 10:31 PM
- In SD, all the mountain ranges were raised quickly by compressing continental crust.  Bending crust to form the Andes, the Rockies, the Himalayas, the Alps, etc. would activate the piezoelectric effect on a large scale, I would think.
- My website addresses cratons and continental roots on this page  http://www.newgeology.us/presentation41.html  from which excerpts are written below (quotes are sourced):
- Research is challenging the neat definitions of cratons.  "Generalizations of Archean cratons do not capture the variability between cratonic regions or the complexity within a single craton assemblage.  For example, not every craton is underlain by high-velocity roots, and the deepest roots do not always occur under Archean cratons."
- "Most geochemical characteristics of lithospheric mantle peridotites are most easily reconciled with a relatively low-pressure melting origin, albeit in the case of cratonic peridotites one taken to very high degrees of melting."
- "The geochemical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that the roots are the residue of partial melting".
- "The North Atlantic Cratonic sub-continental lithospheric mantle and all other cratonic continental mantle roots studied here are the product of extreme melt extraction at relatively shallow depths (~90 km or less)."
- "The boundary between the lower crust and mantle may be open.  When magmatic or tectonic activity destabilizes and deforms the lithosphere, ultramafic cumulates tend to move downward.  This 'foundering' occurs during orogeny, rifting, and continental breakup."
- "Intracrustal melting produces granitoid magmas and dense mafic restites that return to the mantle.  The foundering of mafic restites from granitoid magmas is likely a major process."
- High temperature is required for dense lower crustal mafic-ultramafic cumulates to sink into the mantle.  Results of experiments show that "an initial strain rate can significantly reduce the Moho temperature required for an instability to develop."  "Instability times decrease because the initial effective viscosity is lower."
- In the Shock Dynamics model, lateral stress (pivoting or compression followed by extension) melted continental crust, and the residue foundered, producing a mantle root.  Melting and founder of dense residue must have occurred after the motion of the continents (which lasted only about 26 hours) had ceased.

---

LK: Sun, March 26, 12:22PM
- That's great, Mike. I did a search on your site, but I didn't persist long enough to find that page about cratons and continental roots. It sounds like my suspicion about how the roots formed was correct. Now if we find which continents have roots and which don't, that will hopefully confirm SD further.
- I agree that a lot of piezoelectricity likely occurred during continental sliding and orogeny etc, but I was thinking it probably didn't contribute much to the SD and continental drift events. It's hard for me to distinguish in my mind between piezoelectricity, telluric currents, electron flow from tidal forces acting on current-free double-layers, and shock waves, etc. A few months ago I showed you an article about the shock effects of the Chixulub impact and you said you had read the same findings from last summer, I think. It talked about how the pressure from the impact shock waves caused solid rock to melt briefly and thus bend, similar to the bending seen in foldbelts or orogeny, I think. I don't think piezoelectricity was mentioned, but obviously it would have been involved, but I don't understand such things well enough to figure out exactly what it would have done. The momentum of an impact would do a lot. The shockwaves would cause brief melting and bending. I guess the piezoelectricity would be part of the ionization and melting. Do you think we should try to understand more thoroughly how piezoelectricity was involved?
- Another matter that seems important is to account for the surge channels that apparently exist in many locations, such as under ocean ridges, mountain ranges, foldbelts etc. Have you read what I copied from the Surge Tectonics book? They seem to detect the channels as lenses. If a lens has the same velocity P-waves all the way through, they call them inactive. If they had I think slower waves in the center, they call them active. That's if I understood what I read correctly. If their identification of active surge channels is correct, then it seems that the channels must have formed during the SD and continental drift events. Do you have an idea how molten channels would have formed in such locations during those events and why many of them would remain active/molten? I think Charles' model can help explain why they would remain active, i.e. because of tidal forces keeping the channels electrified each day. The channels under ocean ridges are said to be a few hundred km wide, but those within continents are much narrower.

---

Sunday, March 26, 2017 7:26 PM
- Hi Lloyd, Continental "roots" are associated with cratons.  Radiometric dating of cratons puts them in particular eons.  Oldest to recent they are: archon, proton, tecton (see attached image).
- Meteorite shock effects should be separate from piezoelectric effects.  In the former, the crust is temporarily fluidized, which is confirmed by the report you mention about Chicxulub.  In the latter, the combination of momentum and sudden braking or collision (Himalayas) result in brittle folding/breaking.  My guess is that this would influence the geomagnetic field and magnetic striping that reflects alternating polarization of re-worked oceanic crust.

---

LK: Thu, 3/29/17 9:50PM
- In the quote below from the book, Surge Tectonics, you can see they say the surge channels form at the top of the Moho.
- Here from the book is a Surge Channels Map I found online:
http://www.huttoncommentaries.com/images/ECNews/HeatFlow/WorldHeatFlowMap750.jpg
- The Webpage which seems religious is: http://www.huttoncommentaries.com/article.php?a_id=93
- They say the surge channels are within those warm bands. Many are said to be active channels and some are inactive, which I think means solidified.
- 3.9.3 ROLE OF THE MOHOROVIC DISCONTINUITY
Thus, when the postulated tholeiitic picrite magma reachs the Moho- (... between  8.0-km/s ... and 6.6-km/s ...), it has reached its level of neutral buoyancy and  spreads laterally. Under the proper conditions---abundant magma supply and  favorable crustal structure---a surge channel can form. We suggest the possibility  that the entire 7.0-7.8-km/s layer may have formed in this way. In support of this  suggestion, we note that the main channel of every surge channel studied, from the  Archean to the Cenozoic, is located precisely at the surface of the Moho-. This  indicates that the discontinuity is very ancient, perhaps as old as the Earth  itself. This fact and the great difference in P-wave velocities above and below the  Moho- surface suggest in turn that the discontinuity originated during the initial  cooling of the Earth.
- Here's a quote from the Conclusions section of the book.
9. Surge channels, active or inactive, underlie nearly every major feature of the  Earth's surface, including all rifts, foldbelts, metamorphic belts, and strike-slip  zones. These belts are roughly bisymmetrical, have linear surface swaths of faults,  fractures, and fissures, and belt-parallel stretching lineations. Aligned plutons,  ophiolites, melange belts, volcanic centers, kimberlite dikes, diatremes, ring  structures and mineral belts are characteristic. Zoned metamorphic belts are also  characteristic. In some areas, linear river valleys, flood basalts, and/or vortex  structures may be present. A lens of 7.8-7.0 km/s material always underlies the  belt.
- QUESTION #1: Does it make sense to you that these magma "surge" channels would have formed at the top of the Moho under those many belts, bands etc? My guess is yes, starting during the SD event.  I wonder if the folding, rifting, fracturing etc caused the channels, instead of vice versa. Hmm?
- Here's a webpage of Pratt's on oceanization: http://davidpratt.info/sunken.htm
- Here's a map from there: http://davidpratt.info/earth/fig10.jpg
- The caption says Figure 13. Worldwide distribution of oceanic plateaus (black)
- The article says those locations on the seafloors have granite or continental rock. They think it means those are former continental areas and that there was no continental drift.
- QUESTION #2: How do you think that is best explained?
- I was surprised to see that Pratt seems to believe in Theosophy, which also seems to be his reason for having interest in geology.
- I posted the main points of the Surge Tectonics book on the forum at:
http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/s/msg184/#msg184
- So it's a quicker read now.

38
Mike Messages / Re: SURGE TECTONICS
« on: March 23, 2017, 10:51:44 am »
CHAPTER 1
WHY A NEW HYPOTHESIS?
1.1 Introduction
Before 1962, the year in which H.H. Hess revived and revised Arthur Holmes's (1931) concept of seafloor spreading (which also was proposed by Ampferer [1941]), the geology and geophysical departments of the world taught several geodynamics hypotheses. These hypotheses stimulated lively discussions and resulted in the publication of a highly diversified spectrum of ideas. After Hess's version of seafloor spreading was published, diversity in geodynamics thinking began to wane, and outside of Asia and Eastern Europe, had all but vanished by the end of 1963. ... it is the belief of these authors that as intensive geotectonic research has vastly increased the database for Earth-dynamic studies, plate tectonics has not adequately and completely explained the geology of many regions of the world.
 The purpose of this book is to present a comprehensive and internally consistent hypothesis of global tectonics, an hypothesis that we call surge tectonics. [Skipping most of 2 paragraphs] ...
 ... a huge body of evidence has accumulated to show that this lithosphere mosaic is in a state of equiplanar tangential stress (..., 1979). That is, compressive stress is ubiquitous in the lithosphere; moreover it is tangential and directed approximately equally in all directions of the compass, in accord with Newton's Third Law of Motion. This fact alone means that, for one part of the mosaicwork to move laterally (and tangentially), all parts must shift in order to accommodate the movement of the one part (..., 1966). One of several convincing proofs of this involves the classical hole-in-the-plate-problem or architecture and architectural engineering (..., 1913-1991). Within any body (or plate) subjected to equiplanar tangential stress (e.g., compression), stresses in all directions are approximately equal and opposite, in accord with Newton's Third Law, unless there is a flaw (hole) in the body. Wherever a flaw, or 'hole', is present, the compressive stresses must of fault zone in California, where the axis of maximum compressive stress is everywhere at right angles to the fault trend (..., 1987; ...).
 We also know from geological field mapping that objects within the lithosphere mosaic are moved substantial distances, both vertically and laterally. However, the argument that large lithosphere plates, each 50 to 200 km thick, each extending for thousands of kilometers in all directions, and each weighing incalculable tons, can be moved freely and systematically about the Earth's surface defies all physical laws and common sense. Strictly lateral tangential movements are out of the question to explain the observed lateral and vertical motions that have been mapped in the field. To accommodate these visible, measurable, large lateral movements, rock bodies within the lithosphere mosaic must be able to move. To do this requires (1) upward (vertical) motion of rock bodies to positions of least resistance, followed by (2) lateral outward motions of the newly freed bodies on the upper lithosphere surface where the stresses required for lateral movements are far less than those required within the lithosphere. To accomplish the observed motions---which are not confined to relatively narrow mobile belts but occur everywhere within the lithospheric plates---a geodynamic explanation other than conventional plate tectonics and any other existing geodynamic hypothesis is required.
 Surge tectonics is a new hypothesis which proposes that the Earth acts like a hydraulic press. The containment vessel for this press is an interconnected network of magma chambers and channels in the lithosphere; the fluid in the chambers is magma from the asthenosphere; and the trigger mechanism, or press, is episodic collapse of the lithosphere into the asthenosphere along points of weakness. Three interdependent and interacting processes are involved: (1) lateral flow of fluid, or semifluid magma through the interconnected channels; (2) cooling of the Earth causing contraction, which contributes to tectogenesis; and (3) the Earth's rotation. Surge tectonics draws on well-known physical laws, especially those related to the laws of motion, gravity, and fluid dynamics. [Skipping last paragraph]

1.2 Former and Current Concepts of Earth Dynamics
1.2.1 GENERAL
1.2.2 CONTRACTION
[Skipping 5 paragraphs]
 Even though MacDonald (1963) answered many of the growing objections to the contraction hypothesis, the hypothesis fell from grace. ... A third reason was the observation that the amount of measured foreshortening in foldbelts is far greater than the amount that contraction can account for ... [which] in our judgment, is valid. If contraction does take place, another mechanism must produce the foldbelts. Regardless, many geophysicists (..., 1981-1982) still regard contraction as an ongoing process within the Earth.
 A contracting Earth is an extremely attractive model for tectonic processes, because---in theory at least---it can provide directly for tangential compression at the Earth's surface. However, contraction as the sole cause of tectogenesis is highly unlikely for many reasons, most of which were discussed by Scheidegger (1963) and Bott (1971). Not the least of these is the fact that in neither the contraction envisioned by Jeffreys (1970) nor that described by MacDonald (1963) can all of the true shortening in mobile belts be accounted for. However, if weak zones---surge channels---containing magma are present in the lithosphere, contraction can play a role much different than that usually attributed to it.

1.2.3 MANTLE CONVECTION
[Skipping almost all of the section]
 ... However, now that data are available---especially seismotomographic data---that suggest that convection cells are not present in the upper mantle, it may soon be unnecessary to discuss the pros and cons of convection on such a theoretical level.

1.2.4 EARTH EXPANSION
... Finally, MacDonald (1963) has shown that, whereas expansion probably was important during the first three eons of Earth history, it was rather minor and almost certainly is not taking place today.

CHAPTER 2
...
2.3 Data Sets Unexplained in Current Tectonic Models: Foundation for a New Hypothesis
2.3.1 LINEAR STRUCTURES
Sonographs of the midocean ridges reveal the presence everywhere of long, linear, ridge-parallel faults, fractures, and fissures. The ridge-parallel sets of faults, fractures, and fissures are not restricted to the crestal regions of the ridges, but extend down the ridge flanks to levels where the sediments of the adjacent abyssal-plain basins lap onto the ridges (..., 1979). Because several of the midocean ridges extend into adjacent continents (..., 1960-1992b), we extended our study of the ridge-parallel faults, fractures, and fissure systems to embrace all tectonic belts within the continental regions.
 So that there will be no misunderstanding, it is necessary to define here our use of the therm tectonic belt. In general, a tectonic belt is any structural megafeature developed at the Earth's surface above what we call a surge channel. Thus a tectonic belt includes the full spectrum of linear tectonic features known on Earth. In continental regions, these include continental rifts, strike-slip fault zones, germanotype and alpinotype foldbelts, and continental volcanic arcs. They also include such linear cross-strike features as the Colorado Mineral Belt and the Lower Yangzi Valley plutonic-volcanic belt. In oceanic regions, tectonic belts include midocean ridges, "aseismic ridges," linear island and seamount chains, and oceanic island arcs.
 Tectonic belt-parallel systems of faults, fractures, and fissures were found in every tectonic belt examined, whether a continental rift, a strike-slip fault zone, or a foldbelt. Examples include the Western Cordillera of the United States (Fig. 2.1; ..., 1978) and, at a smaller scale within the same tectonic province, the California Coast Ranges-San Andreas fault zone (Fig. 2.2; ..., 1976). Other examples are the East African Rift system (Fig. 2.3; ..., 1976-1987), the Rhine Graben (Fig. 2.4; ..., 1979), the Front Range of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming (Fig. 2.5; ..., 1986), and the Reelfoot Graben beneath the Mississippi Embayment (Figs. 2.6, 2.7; ..., 1978-1982). Together, these systems involve a huge body of data that are not well explained in plate tectonics, and with rare exceptions, have not been addressed. The fact that faults, fractures, and fissures parallel the strike of each tectonic belt indicates, as a simple consequence of Stoke's Law (see Appendix), that each of these belts has been, or is underlain by a mobile body that moves parallel with the tectonic belt. Thus the primary motions producing these systems of faults, fractures, and fissures are not at right angles to the tectonic belts (..., 1986).
 Linear evaporite trends and many types of linear basins originate in half-gravens, grabens, and compression-produced topographic (synclinal) lows, and generally are explained as a consequence of tension or compression. However, all linear basins and all oval basins (e.g., Paris basin, Williston basin, Illinois basin, Moscow basin, Sichuan basin), both on cratons/platforms and in less stable regions such as rifts and foldbelts, are underlain by lenses of 7.0-7.8 km/s material.
 Linear valleys and mountain systems commonly can be explained as inherited from the strike of underlying older structures. Mountains that are transverse to regional structure, however, pose bigger problems (e.g., the California Transverse Ranges, the Uinta Mountains of the Rocky Mountains, the Wichita and Arbuckle Mountain of the United States Great Plains). Similarly, long, straight river courses across regional strike do not always have an obvious explanation. Examples include the lower courses of the Mississippi River (Mississippi  Embayment), the St. Lawrence River, and the Yangzi River. These linear to curvilinear valleys are underlain by lenses of 7.0-7.8 km/s material at the Moho-.

2.3.2 LITHOSPHERE DIAPIRS AND LITHOSPHERE MAGMA CHAMBERS
Ever since the publication of Wegmann's (1930, 1935) pioneer papers on the topic, mantle diapirism has been invoked increasingly as a mechanism for generating or promoting tectogenesis. Van Bemmelen (1933) and Glangeaud (1957, 1959), for example, favored mantle diapirism and subsequent lateral sliding and/or compression for creating the structures of the Mediterranean Sea region. Mantle-diapirism hypotheses have found favor at different times with many geologists (..., 1968) for explaining the structural evolution of the Mediterranean belt, and indeed still do (..., 1988).
 The evidence adduced for extensive lithosphere diapirism is now formidable (..., 1980-1992). Shallow magma chambers are ubiquitous beneath active tectonic belts, whether they be rift zones, streamline (strike-slip) fault zones, or foldbelts. Some rift-valley examples of shallow magma chambers or diapirs include the East African Rift system (..., 1992), the Red Sea Graven (..., 1988), the Rhine Graben (..., 1984), the Baykal Rift (..., 1979-1985),  the Rio Grande Rift (..., 1982), Iceland (..., 1982), the Hetao-Yinchuan Graben (..., 1989), the Fen Wei (Wei He) Graben (..., 1989), and many, many more. Streamline (strike-slip) fault zone examples include the San Andreas Fault zone (..., 1980), the Dead Sea Fault zone (..., 1989), the Alpine Fault (..., 1991), the Queen Charlotte Fault zone (..., 1988), and many more. One problem with finding examples of magma chambers at shallow depths along streamline (strike-slip) fault zones is that these zones have not been studied in the same way as rifts and foldbelts. Hence the discovery of shallow melt, or potential melt, zones beneath streamline fault zones has been largely serendipitous. Examples of shallow diapirs beneath foldbelts are also abundant. A few examples include the California Coast Ranges (..., 1983-1985), the Alps (..., 1983), the Dinaric Alps (..., 1974), the Himalaya and Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (..., 1991), the Yunnan Himalaya (..., 1989), the Japan Arc (..., 1987), and the Pyrenees (..., 1989).
 Almost since the beginning of the plate tectonics era, geophysicists such as Lliboutry (1971), Bonini et al. (1973), and many others have pointed out the important role that diapirism must play in any scheme of Earth dynamics. Despite this, mantle diapirism and related upwelling processes received little consideration as intrinsic parts of plate tectonics until Dewey (1988a) recognized their possible importance throughout the Alpide-Mediterranean and parts of the Circum-Pacific tectonic belts. Dewey's (1988a) explanations, however, do not account for coexisting states of compression and tension, as the field data from many areas required (e.g., Alboran Sea; ..., 1989). In contrast, surge tectonics requires the simultaneous formation of side-by-side compressional and tensil regimes during tectogenesis. Table 2.1, based on random sampling of some recent literature, shows how widespread the idea of mantle diapirism and upwelling has become. More than 50% of the examples listed are alpinotype or germanotype foldbelts; the remainder are tensile belts. Our point is that, whereas mantle diapirism may have a place in the tensile regimes of plate tectonics, it cannot be accommodated in the compressional regimes.

2.3.3 MAGMA CHAMBER-RELATED PHENOMENA
 Lithosphere magma chambers and related asthenosphere upwellings form zones of reduced seismic velocity, the low-velocity zones of the literature. Commonly a large magma chamber forms close to the mantle-crust boundary, followed by the formation at still higher levels in the middle to upper crust of smaller magma chambers whose sizes decrease upward, thereby forming a "Christmas Tree" structure as described by Corry (1988) for sill complexes in the upper crust (see Fig. 2.8). The large magma chamber close to the mantle-crust boundary is pod-shaped (see Fig. 2.9), and is referred to in the literature by various names--lenses, lenticles, lozenges, pillows, rift pillows, pods, shear pods, anastomosing networks of shear zones, and so forth---terms that show the lack of knowledge of their origin(s). These lenses, for many years, have been termed layers of "anomalous upper mantle" or, conversely, "anomalous lower crust." Although they have been observed most commonly at the mantle-crust boundary, such lenses do occur in some tectonic belts in the middle to upper crust (..., 1989-1990; Figs. 2.10, 2.11).
 The lens at the mantle-crust boundary typically has a P-wave velocity in the 7.0-7.8 km/s range (..., 1959-1983). Many of them contain a low-velocity zone (5.4-6.6 km/s) near their centers (..., 1970-1979). Beneath continents and many parts of the ocean basins, these lenses are typically between 100 and 500 km wide, most commonly in the 150-250-km range (..., 1980-1983). Where not present at the mantle-crust boundary, they pinch out laterally into a thin but nearly omnipresent zone with a velocity range of 6.9 to 7.9 km/s (..., 1987-1989).
 An identical but much larger lens occupies the crust-mantle boundary zone beneath midocean ridges (..., 1959-1965), where they were first discovered by Revelle (1958). Here beneath the midocean ridges, the lenses are typically 1,000 to 3,000 km across and they occupy the full 65,000-km length of the midocean ridge system
 Because these lenses pinch out laterally from the centers of the midocean ridges, they were at first perceived as an obstacle to the newly formulated hypothesis of sea-floor spreading (..., 1961), but were soon provided with an explanation conforming to plate tectonic models. _____The problem, as it was perceived, was that, if the "anomalous mantle" lens formed at the midocean ridge crests (as it had to do, in sea-floor spreading), then some process had to remove the 7.0-7.8-km/s material as the oceanic crust moved away from the midocean ridge crest toward its laterally coeval and subparallel subduction zones. Two speculative solutions to the problem were suggested and, to the best of our knowledge, were accepted without benefit of additional research.
 The first solution was proposed by Drake and Nafe (1968, ...): "Velocity-depth data indicate that velocities in the range 7.2-7.7 km/s are almost completely absent in the deep ocean basins away from ridges or prominent seamounts and under the low-lying continental shields, but are present in all other regions to some degree. The material in this velocity range must be derived from the mantle but is of lower density than normal. If, as is suggested by the data, it is of a transient nature, its appearance and disappearance may be related to the changes in elevation associated with tectonic activity." Elsewhere in the same paper, Drake and Nafe (1968, ...) wrote that oceanic crustal layer 3 (the lowest ocean crustal layer which overlies the Moho-) "...would receive permanent additions of rock with the properties of gabbro, and a 7.2- to 7.7-km/sec layer would first develop and then vanish. In this view, the principal contribution of the 7.2- to 7.7-km/sec layer is to increase total thickness and, through isostatic adjustment, to increase surface elevation during the orogenic process, and then to disappear with an accompanying reduction in thickness and elevation."
 Referring to the 7.2- to 7.7-km/sec layer as low-velocity mantle, Vogt et al. (1969) wrote that, "The occurrence of low-velocity mantle under [the midocean ridge] crest could well be a steady-state phenomenon. That is, it may be constantly created under the axis and converted to normal mantle under the flanks" (..., 1969, ...). In further explanation, Vogt et al. (1969, ...) wrote that the low-velocity mantle "...under the ridge axis is most likely an ultrabasic crystal slush through which basaltic fluids must rise to feed the growing layers 2 and 3.... This slush then probably solidifies and becomes 'normal' mantle as it withdraws from the axis." This second explanation is no more satisfactory than that proposed by Drake and Nafe (1968).
 The problem has not been researched further, to the best of our knowledge, and remains unsolved. The problem is crucial, because these lenses are found under every type of tectonic belt. Under the continents, for example, long linear lenses of 7.2-7.8-km/s material underlie all rifts (..., 1983), all streamline (strike-slip) fault zones (..., 1989), and all foldbelts (..., 1968-1989). Under the ocean basins, identical lenses underlie the midocean ridges (..., 1959-1965), linear island and seamount chains (..., 1968), and other aseismic oceanic ridges (..., 1975). The lenses are a common denominator for all tectonic belts and, therefore, cannot be transient features, as maintained by Drake and Nafe (1968). Nor can the material that forms them become "normal" mantle as it withdraws from the axis of each tectonic belt, as suggested by Vogt et al. (1969). In plate tectonics, the midocean ridges are the only tectonic belts from which rock materials (i.e., the new crust formed at the axes of midocean ridges) can withdraw. If Vogt et al. (1969) are right, then a second explanation must be developed to explain the presence of identical lenses in other types of tectonic belts.
 In many foldbelts, the "anomalous" lenses have been deformed together with the shallower rocks (e.g., Figs. 2.13-2.15). Where a foldbelt has been found to be deformed bilaterally (i.e., the belt is bivergent), one side of the belt is said to have a zone of "backthrusts" (..., 1984-1986), although few of the "backthrusts" exhibit the criteria of backthrusts (..., 1951). In this work, we demonstrate that all foldbelts are bilateral (i.e., bivergent), an observation made long ago by Kober (1925), Vening Meinesz (1934), and many others. We call these bivergent foldbelts kobergens, a concept that we define and explain in detail in the following chapter. Examination of our many figures illustrating bivergent foldbelts reveals at once that such features combine the effects of compression and tension (Fig. 2.15). Along the two flanks of the foldbelts are folds, thrusts, and nappes whose vergence on one flank is the opposite of the on the other flank. Between the two flanks is a zone of tension. Thus compression and tension act together, side by side, in belts hundreds, even thousands, of kilometers long. Consequently, the seemingly contradictory evidence for stress regimes noted by workers in foldbelts (..., 1988a-1989) is not at all contradictory but is an inevitable consequence of tectogenesis. The literature on bivergent foldbelts dates at least to Suess (1885) and has increased steadily to the present (..., 1989).

39
Mike Messages / Re: NCGT PLAN
« on: March 23, 2017, 10:31:33 am »
NCGT Discussion
- cold formation of Earth,
- transgressing/regressing oceans,
- major vertical uplift/subsidence and
- radiometric dating

---

On 02/04/2017 20:56, lloyd kinder wrote:
> Geology Question & Invitation
> Hi. I read the NCGT Journal & Newsletters. I hope you may be able to answer a brief geology question below. Or you may like the invitation.
> 1. Sedimentary Rock Strata:
> What brief explanations do you know of for (or what specific source/s can you cite perhaps that explains) the fact that horizontal sedimentary rock strata covering large areas are generally sorted into different rock types, i.e. esp. sandstones, claystones, and limestones? I.e., assuming millions to billions of years of erosion and deposition occurred, how was it possible for only one rock type to be deposited over large areas for thousands of years, followed by thousands of years of another rock type, etc?
> 2. INVITATION:
> CNPS added a section on their forum at my request for Surge Tectonics and I started a couple threads there. If you'd like to participate, or invite other NCGT members to do so, anyone can register for free at http://forums.naturalphilosophy.org --- And the Surge Tectonics section of the forum is at http://forums.naturalphilosophy.org/forumdisplay.php?fid=129 --- I copied excerpts there from Chapters 3, 6 & 7 of Meyerhoff et al.' 1996 book, Surge Tectonics.
> - In case you're not familiar with CNPS, they have a yearly conference in July for all kinds of mostly alternative sciences. People need to be members to submit papers for their Proceedings and the deadline is the end of May. They have details at http://www.naturalphilosophy.org/site/proceedings-2017
> - CNPS is working to improve scientific discussion and methodology for greater efficiency and thoroughness. They are also working to create an online Wiki Encyclopedia that critiques Wikipedia and other short-sighted conventional science claims. When enough scientists join this effort, it should prove exciting as it will likely greatly advance science and society. The potential for the internet to improve communication worldwide is just beginning to be tapped and realized.

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Tuesday, April 4, 2017 3:53 AM
Hello Lloyd, It’s possible that some sedimentary strata were not deposited gradually but very quickly in some catastrophic event. For example, Derek Ager (The New Catastrophism, 1993) wrote: ‘we cannot escape the conclusion that sedimentation as at times very rapid indeed’ (p. 49). This subject is also covered by William R. Corliss in Neglected Geological Anomalies (1990), which has a chapter entitled ‘Deposits of remarkable size’. We know that fossilization requires rapid burial. There are cases of tree trunks in vertical position running through several sedimentary layers.
Regards, David Pratt

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4/9/17 10:15PM
Hi David. Thank you for the references. I guess you're familiar with Mike Fischer's website about Shock Dynamics at http://NewGeology.us since he has posted some of your geological arguments there against aspects of plate tectonics. Shock Dynamics is definitely a catastrophic model. It doesn't address rock strata formation significantly, but he makes note of the Great Flood event some centuries before the Shock Dynamics asteroid impact. Creationist John Baumgardner wrote a paper called in part, Noah's Flood, in which he surmised that a large object orbited the Earth for a few months on an elliptical orbit. When it reached perigee, tidal forces apparently caused very high tsunamis that covered much of the supercontinent, depositing megasequences about once a month. I don't follow Biblical claims myself, but those findings seem close to correct to me.
- I found a website of yours about Theosophy and that seems to be the basis of your interest in geology as at NCGT.org. Is that right? I don't find that to be very plausible myself. But the surge channels described in Surge Tectonics seem reasonable and may fit into the Shock Dynamics and Baumgardner scenario/s okay. Mike's model considers the Moho to be an important piece of the puzzle, and that's where the surge channels are said to be. Mike and I consider it unlikely that the continents rose and fell numerous times to deposit the sedimentary rock strata, esp. over long time periods, because only over short time spans could moving waters sort out the strata into separate layers all at once, or many at once. The only contradiction is radiometric dating, but Walter Brown has explained that radioactive decay was found to proceed up to at least billions of times faster under conditions of high ionization, which would have occurred where continents slid over the Moho. Would you like to comment or discuss?

- Good Day. Lloyd Kinder

40
Mike Messages / Re: SURGE TECTONICS
« on: March 22, 2017, 05:17:23 pm »
SURGE TECTONICS
Chapter 6 Magma Floods, Flood Basalts, and Surge Tectonics
6.1 Introduction
... The old term, "plateau basalt", had functioned with comparative efficiency and illustration, but Tyrrell's "flood basalts" gave an immediate and striking image of basalts poured out in broad areal effusion. "Plateau basalt" has continued in the literature to a considerable degree, but "flood basalts" has become by far the preferred term in mafic volcanology.
 The origin of flood basalts has sparked controversy since they were first identified in the last century [the 1800s]. The purpose of this chapter is to re- examine the critical data, including descriptions of many flood-basalt provinces, to introduce the new term "magma floods" for flood basalts--a term that we consider more appropriate and encompassing--and to propose an explanation of our own in terms of surge tectonics.

6.1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF FLOOD BASALTS
Some 63% of the ocean basins are covered flood basalts. At least 5% of the continents are likewise covered with flood basalts. Thus 68%---a minimum figure--- of the Earth's surface is covered with these basaltic rocks. Flood basalts, then, are not the oddities that many suppose them to be. In spite of this, they receive little attention among the scientific community. We examined nearly twenty geologic textbooks and reference works published since 1969, and found only two with more than three paragraphs on flood basalts. ... Such treatment---or lack of treatment---seems unusual, out of place, if one considers that flood basalts are the most important rock exposed at the Earth's surface (..., 1986...).
 Engel et al. (1965) long ago demonstrated that deep ocean-floor tholeiitic basalts are the oceanic equivalent of the continental flood basalts. The Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) differentiated between the continental flood basalts and "ocean-floor basalts," while recognizing that the principal differences were the abundance of minor and rare-earth elements. Press and Siever (1974...) recognized the fact that the ocean-floor basalts and continental flood basalts are nearly the same, and that their differences are explained readily by contamination in the continental crustal setting. Yoder (1988), one of the world's authorities on basaltic magmas, stated essentially the same thing.
 In fact, as increasing numbers of basalts are analyzed, the difference between the oceanic and continental floods blurs even further. For example, ... (1991) found groups of samples from the Siberian Traps that are essentially indistinguishable from midocean ridge basalts. Fitton et al. (1991) found numerous Great Basin basalts that are chemically indistinguishable from midocean ridge basalts, and Sawlan (1991) observed a complete chemical continuum from midocean ridge basalts to the flood basalts in the Baja California, Gulf of California, and Mexican basin- and-range province.
 These extremely close--in places identical--genetic relationships are well established. In a subsequent section of this chapter, we shall present geochemical data to support this statement.

6.1.2 CLASSIFICATION
Continental flood-basalt provinces are geometrically of two types. The first is broadly ovate, or even round, with the maximum diameter ranging from about 500 km (Columbia River Basalt) to more than 2,500 km (Siberian Traps). The second is distinctly linear, with a width of 100 to 200 km and lengths up to and even exceeding 3,000 km.
 Oceanic flood-basalt provinces at first appearance are difficult to classify. However, as more ... data ... become available, it is possible to distinguish the same two types of geometries there as well. Ovate to semi-ovate shapes characterize many oceanic submarine plateaus. The maximum diameters of these plateaus, excluding the Kerguelen Plateau, are in the order of 1,200 to 1,600 km.
 Linear ridges are of two types. The larger is the midocean-ridge system with widths between 1,200 and 3,600 km; the smaller is exemplified by the various linear island and seamount chains with widths of 100-200 km and lengths of thousands of kilometers.
 Ovate flood-basalt provinces include [over 13 places]....
 Linear flood-basalt provinces include [over 14 places]....
 Tectonism and metamorphism can severely disrupt any flood-basalt province after its formation. For example, ... the Antrim Plateau Volcanics of northern Australia ... parts ... have been removed by erosion. ... Similarly, only very scattered, strongly flooded, and metamorphosed remains of the Willouran Mafic rocks are preserved in ... South Australia, but their distribution shows that [it] is a linear flood-basalt province.

6.1.3 THE PETROGRAPHIC CHARACTER OF FLOOD-BASALT PROVINCES
To judge from the geological literature, many earth scientists assume that flood- basalt provinces are composed mainly of basalt and little else. This characterization is justified for some provinces but it is incorrect for many more. For example, the Columbia River flood-basalt province consists nearly 100% of tholeiitic basalt with small volumes of basaltic andesite and minuscule amounts of dacite and rhyolite (..., 1979-1988). In contrast the Snake River flood-basalt province on the southeastern side of the Columbia River province consists more than 50% of rhyolite and siliceous (rhyolitic) ignimbrites (..., 1989). A second example is the Lebombo monocline region of the Karroo flood-basalt province in southern Africa. Here are thick sequences of rhyolite (and perhaps ignimbrite) which, for most of the length of the monocline--at least 600 km--comprise 30 to 55% of the volcanic section (..., 1983). Yet another example is the Keweenawan (Midcontinent) flood-basalt province where every region has large volumes of rhyolite associated with the basalt. Our first point is that many flood-basalt provinces are bimodal, and the volume of associated silicic extrusive (or intrusive) rocks can be substantial.
 A second common assumption is that tholeiitic basalt and related tholeiitic rocks constitute the principal mafic rock types. Here again, the field evidence proves the assumption is incorrect. It is true that the Columbia River flood-basalt province consists 99% of tholeiitic mafic rocks. Yet the huge, 3,000-km-long Arabian flood-basalt province consists mainly of alkalic basalt. In fact, Camp and Roobol (1981) and Camp et al. (1991) refer to this example as the "Arabian continental alkalic basalt province." Thus our second point is that many types of basalts may be present in flood-basalt provinces. Tholeiitic basalt is just one of those types.

6.2 Descriptions of Selected Continental Flood Basalt Provinces
We present here some brief geological descriptions of representative ovate and linear continental flood-basalt provinces in order of decreasing age. Many additional continental provinces could have been added to this list, but we believe that those selected adequately illustrate the points we wish to make. Undoubtedly, some earth scientists will not agree that all of our examples are, in fact, flood- basalt provinces. Therefore, we include data on areal extent, volume, thickness, composition, and age which led us to conclude that we were dealing with flood- basalt provinces. Data concerning the ages, areal extent and volume of these provinces and others are summarized on Table 6.1.

6.3 The Use of Geochemistry in Identifying Flood Basalts
6.3.1 INTRODUCTION
Geochemical/petrochemical studies of igneous rocks for many decades were restricted to (1) studies of the bulk chemistry (major compounds only) of each rock type, and (2) deviations from the "norm" determined for each rock type. High- pressure ... and high-temperature studies were conducted in the search for the chemical phases and eutectics of rock melts. Such studies were invaluable in determining the origins of various rock types, and led to many classical papers, especially the Yoder and Tilley (1962) and Yoder (1976) treatises on the origin and generation of basalt.
 With the advent of plate tectonics, petrochemistry was used increasingly as a supplement to traditional methods of identifying tectonic environments. The assumption was made that each tectonic environment had its own petrochemical "signature." When major-element studies failed to bear out this assumption, however, increasing attention was given to minor (trace) and rare earth elements. Regrettably, nearly all large-scale petrochemical research concentrated on the basalts (e.g., the NASA-sponsored Basaltic Volcanism Study Project published in 1981), and other rock types have failed to receive anything like the attention that the basalts received. As an inevitable consequence, many conclusions were made on the basis of basalt geochemistries alone. Our points are: (1) that a great deal of research---many decades, in fact---will be necessary before sound conclusions regarding the chemical "signature" of tectonic environments will or can be soundly based; and (1) even though the more silicic magma types are in very large part aggregates of crustal compounds and processes, they too have important scientific "messages" to impart. It is too early to reach final conclusions based only on basalt data.
 The results of minor and rare-earth element studies, however, have been helpful, for they document in part the history of each sample with the use of spidergrams (Fig. 6.16). They also discriminate easily between midocean-ridge basalts and other basalts, although this already was possible from major element data alone. However, as we document below, the ability of spidergrams to discriminate among most tectonic settings is doubtful without much additional information, partly from isotope data and, in the long run, with the aid of actual field data.
 An important step that must be taken now is to standardize the order in which the trace and rare-earth elements appear on a spidergram (Fig. 6.16). Second, there is no consistency about which elements are included or excluded (Fig. 6.16), and this problem also must be resolved. Too often elements important to an interpretation are omitted on spidergrams. Finally, there is no consistency about which material is used for "normalizing" element plots. Currently some are chondrite-normalized; some are normalized against an idealized midocean-ridge basalt composition; and many are normalized against the composition of an hypothetical primordial mantle, a practice which, as Thompson et al. (1983) have noted, introduced unnecessary subjectivity into interpretations.

6.3.2 BASALT MAGMAS
... [Skipping 3 paragraphs]
It is important to be aware that the concentration of incompatible trace elements* [those most likely to be transported by melts and other fluids passing through the mantle and therefore most likely to preserve evidence of mantle enrichment and depletion processes in their relative abundances] changes greatly in this basaltic liquid, depending on their relative partition coefficients, initial concentrations, and dilution rates. In the midocean-ridge basalts, the volume of incompatible minor elements is very small, a fact that suggests that the parental material has already undergone some partial melting and loss of liquid, but still retains parts of all major melt phases (..., 1988).
 Several processes involved in the emplacement of magmas in the crust complicate the above picture. The composition of surface samples from rocks that were molten and under high pressure is not necessarily that of the parental liquid at depth. This is true because (1), as the liquid rises, internal reaction relations take place that successively eliminate olivine and orthopyroxene (..., 1967-1988). Hence the composition of the basalt may be altered considerably during its rise from ca. 130 km; (2) of heat loss; (3) the change in pressure further changes the liquid composition; and (4) the rise of the melt produces a change in the stable phases within the liquid.
 The reasons for the differences between continental flood basalts and midocean-ridge basalts are related in part to the above factors, but differences in the thickness of the lithosphere clearly must exert an important influence as well (..., 1988). The penetration of an old, thicker, continental massif by basalt melt is clearly more difficult than that of the much thinner oceanic lithosphere, although the rising magma rises in the same way under both lithospheres, following the Peach-Kohler climb force (Newton's Law of Gravity; ..., 1964-1989) and stops when the level of neutral buoyancy has been reached (..., 1989). The longer---or slower---the rise beneath the continental crust, the greater the fractionation, as reflected in the more iron-rich character of the continental lavas (..., 1981- 1988). Deep-seated magma segregation beneath the continents provides for more alkalic parental magmas, a greater range of enrichments, and a greater variation that depends on repose time, interactions with the continental crust, and the rates of ascent. The bimodal character of so many continental flood basalts implies the presence for periods of time of multiple magma chambers.

6.3.3 STUDIES OF MINOR AND RARE EARTH ELEMENTS
When studies of major elements and compounds revealed difficulties in discerning chemical signatures peculiar to each tectonic environment, research began to focus on studies of minor (trace) elements, rare-earth elements, and chemical isotopes. Although a high degree of success has been claimed for such studies, the facts tell quite a different story. Indeed, it is a poor reflection on the state of current geoscientific resaerch that the eagerness of some researchers to satisfy preconceived hypotheses and models has led some into publishing material that is scientifically sound [unsound?]. Minor (trace) element, rare-earth element and chemical isotopes studies are summarized for the following environments.
 Midocean-Ridge Basalts (Ocean-Floor Volcanism) ...
 Ocean-Island Basalts (Oceanic Intraplate Volcanism) ...
 Continental Flood Basalts (Continental Intraplate Volcanism) ...
 Volcanic Arc Basalts ("Subduction" Basalts) ...
 Island Arc Basalts ...
 Continental Margin Volcanic Arcs ...

6.4 Geochemical Comparisons among Basalts Erupted in Different Tectonic Settings
... 6.4.7 CONCLUSION
Our examination of the literature on basalt rocks has led us to conclude that geochemistry is useful in distinguishing between midocean-ridge basalts and other basalts. This is true of bulk geochemistry, major-element geochemistry, and minor (trace) element and rare-earth element tectonic settings other than that of the midocean ridge. Exceptions to this statement do exist, but only in areas where the investigator has exceptional knowledge of the field relations among the various igneous units that he/she is investigating. Geochemical techniques are useful, however, in deciphering the chemical histories of the various igneous units, subject once again to the proviso that field relations among the various units being studied are well understood.

6.5 Duration of Individual Basalt Floods
6.5.1 INTRODUCTION
The length of time during which a particular basalt flooding episode lasts differs greatly among the various flood-basalt provinces. Some, such as the Siberian flood-basalt province, have been active more than 200 Ma. Others---the Wrangellian province, for example---probably completed their flood activity in 5 Ma or less. Even in flood-basalt provinces of long duration, the largest volume of basalts may have been extruded in one, or perhaps two or three relatively short bursts. A close relationship seems to exist between times of tectogenesis and times of major basalt flooding.

6.5.2 FLOOD-BASALT PROVINCES OF LONG DURATION
Radiometric and/or paleontologic constraints are available for only a few flood- basalt provinces. Therefore, we mention only places where good dating is available. The radiometric data are summarized on Table 6.1.
[2.5-283 Ma are indicated.]

6.5.4 CONCLUSION
We have discussed several flood-basalt provinces which were active during periods that ranged from more than 210 Ma (long duration) to less than 12 Ma (short duration). We have found no evidence to suggest that there are any time controls or any rules of thumb that guide the length of time during which a flood-basalt province may remain active. Nor is there a relationship between type of flood- basalt province may remain active. Nor is there a relationship between type of flood-basalt province and the duration of its extrusion. For example, the Columbia River province is ovate while the Wrangellian province is linear; yet the two endured for approximately the same lengths of time. Reports that the Deccan and Siberian flood-basalt provinces were in fact of very short duration are based on a lack of information. In fact, information adequate to determine the "lifespans" of most flood-basalt provinces, including Siberian province, is not yet available.

6.6 Flood-Basalt Provinces and Frequency in Geologic Time
As we observed near the beginning of this chapter, the commonly used textbooks of physical geology, structural geology, and geotectonics rarely list more than 10 to 20 flood-basalt provinces. However, the magnificent review of basalts by the participants in the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) mentions or figures not less than 56 flood-basalt provinces and 45 additional provinces of dike swarms which the project participants thought might have fed flood-basalt provinces that have since been removed by erosion.
 The participants in the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) concurred on a large number of phenomena that characterize flood-type volcanism. However, they showed considerable confusion, ambivalence, and lack of agreement on which, and what type of, provinces should or should not be described as flood-basalt volcanism. This confusion and ambivalence manifest themselves with respect to the differences between flood-basalt provinces and continental rift-related provinces. Additionally, they used interchangeably the terms "flood basalt," "plateau basalt," "continental rift volcanism," and "hot-spot volcanism."
 We summarize here briefly their overall remarks on the ages of flood-basalt activity. They wrote that (1) most flood provinces are less than 200 Ma; (10 no major flood-basalt activity took place in the interval 1,100-200 Ma (yet ... they list eight provinces within this time span, two of which are huge---the Siberian Flood-Basalt Province and the Emeishan Flood-Basalt Province); (3) reasonably well-preserved remnants of flood provinces are known from the time interval 2,150- 1,100 Ma, and (4) a few poorly preserved remnants are present in the geological record to 3,760 Ma (..., 1981, ...). Yet, on page 41, the same authors state that flood-basalt provinces older than 1,200 Ma are unknown.
 The participants ... have for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, provided solid evidence that flood-basalt volcanism is a phenomenon that has persisted since the beginning of--or since very early in---the Earth's history. However, we have not seen any convincing evidence to support the claim by Rampino and Stothers (1988), and a similar claim by White and McKenzie (1989), that flood- basalt volcanism is periodic, with large outpourings every 32 to 30 Ma. We suspect, but cannot prove, that flood volcanism is triggered by tectogenic (orogenic) pulses that are episodic. In our opinion, the available evidence all but demonstrates an endogenic origin. Which of the various possible endogenic causes is the correct one must await the careful sampling and dating of thousands of more carefully located igneous-rock samples in every major flood-basalt province.
 Yoder (1988, ...) wrote that "Great basaltic 'floods' have appeared on the continents throughout geologic time (Table 1)," but showed on his Table 1 none older than 1,200+/- 50 Ma. He also ... made it clear that he regards midocean-ridge and other oceanic basalts as flood basalts, as have a number of earlier workers (..., 1974). We concur absolutely with their interpretation. We also concur with the participants of the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) that evidence of the existence of flood provinces extends back in time to at least 3,760 Ma, and very likely to the Earth's earliest (but nowhere preserved) history. Interestingly, most of what Press and Siever (1974), Yoder (1988), and we concur in what was anticipated by the pioneer work of Engel et al. (1965).

6.7 Non-Basalt Flood Volcanism in Flood-Basalt Provinces
The bimodal nature of many flood-basalt provinces has been known and stressed for many years (..., 1981). Time seems not to be a major factor (the idea being that, the longer an underlying magma chamber is present, the more the magma will interact with the continental crust above it). The most important factor may be the crustal stress state.
 Estimates of the volume of non-basaltic rocks in a given flood-basalt province are difficult to find. Accordingly in Table 6.2 we have left many blank spaces and the percentages that we have supplied are poorly documented except in local areas.
 ... [Skipping 6 paragraphs]
 We believe that the evidence from these examples demonstrates convincingly that there is a complete gradation from all-basalt and basaltic andesite flood provinces to bimodal provinces containing mainly rhyolite and ignimbrite. Hence, there are basalt floods and rhyolite floods.
 ... [Skipping most of 1 paragraph] The volumetric predominance of these ash-flow tuffs has led to recognition of the [Sierra Madre Occidental] as the world's largest rhyolite-dominated volcanic province" (Fig. 6.28).
 ... [Skipping one paragraph]
 Thus, from 38 Ma until 17 Ma, a truly bimodal column of extrusive rocks accumulated in northern Mexico and adjoining parts of the United States, with rhyolite at one end, basaltic andesite at the other, and very little rock of intermediate compositions. ... [Skipping remainder of paragraph]
 We believe that these basalts of the "southern cordilleran basaltic andesite" suite are flood basalts. And if they are flood basalts, then we have demonstrated that the same mechanism that leads to continental and oceanic basalt outpourings also produces the "orogenic andesite suite".
 The Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt, a linear belt of Cretaceous volcanics, is similar to the Sierra Madre Occidental. It extends 3,000 km from the mouth of Uda Bay (northwestern Sea of Okhotsk) to the Bering Sea almost at St. Lawrence Island. It seems to have every type of volcanic from andesitic through rhyolite. Basalts are scarce. Soviet geologists either ignore it or say that it is the remnant of a volcanic arc.
 
6.8 Flood Basalts or Magma Floods?
Although we advocate the continued use of the term "flood basalt," it is clear that another term is needed to describe floods of andesite, dacite, and rhyolite. For future studies, we suggest the all-encompassing term magma floods. In this way, we can include all of the various lava types, dikes, necks, and sills. It is a term that even embraces situations such as the Ferrar Dolerite of Antarctica and the network of sills and dikes of the Amazon basin.

6.9 Surge-Tectonics Origin of Magma Floods
In the preceding pages we have referred to the presence of several flood-basalt provinces around the world, and have shown that some flood provinces include large volumes of silicic rocks, usually rhyolite and/or dacite. We have also shown by the northern Mexican example that flood basalts can interfinger with the andesite orogenic suite. In addition, we have presented evidence that spidergrams are not more effective at identifying the tectonic setting than bulk chemistry. The available evidence has led us to the conclusion that the same mechanism causes volcanism in the midocean ridges, linear island and seamount chains, oceanic plateaus, island arcs, and continental interiors. We next attempt an explanation of our conclusion.
 Many attempts have been made to explain flood volcanism in the framework of the plate-tectonics hypothesis. The two principal explanations involve (1) hot spots, or mantle plumes and (2) an extraterrestrial cause (e.g., an asteroid impact).
 Extraterrestrial causes have been proposed by Alt et al. (1988), who applied this hypothesis to the Columbia River flood-basalt province. A major problem with this concept is that it does not explain linear flood-basalt provinces such as the Keweenawan (Mid-Continent) rift and Wrangellia. Furthermore, Mitchell and Widdowson (1991) pointed out that impact and shock phenomena should be present in the area surrounding the Columbia River province if it resulted from extraterrestrial action, but they are entirley absent.
 Mantle diapirism or asthenosphere upwelling constitutes the hot-spot or mantle- plume hypothesis (..., 1971) used widely in tectonic models today. Recent literature on mantle plumes include works by ... (1988-1991). Hot spots are often portrayed as diapiric bodies that are essentially cylindrical, mushrooming plumes. While this might account for isolated volcanoes, it does not account for the massive ovate and linear flood basalt provinces found in many parts of the world.
 Mantle upwelling also has been invoked by many writers to explain the presence of long, linear continental rifts (..., 1983), which are, for the most part, similar to one another. ... [Skipping remainder of paragraph listing widths and lengths of numerous linear rifts etc]
 As we noted in Chapters 3 and 4, Mooney et al. (1983) observed that all active rifts studied by them have an anomalous lower crust with P-wave velocities in the 7.0 to 7.7 km/s range (Fig. 6.36). [Others] obtained the identical result.... Fuchs (1974) believed that this pod of anomalous lower crustal material houses the mechanism that causes rifting. It is interesting to note that all midocean ridges have a pod of 7.0-7.7 km/s as well (..., 1959-1965). (Furthermore, each island arc and foldbelt also has a pod of 7.0-7.7 km/s material that pinches out from the center of the arc or foldbelt (..., 1987-1989 ... for the Japan arc ... [and] for the Appalachians.)
 Figure 3.6 is a cross section across the Baykal rift, from Krylov et al. (1979) and Sychev (1985). Years of refraction work have shown the Lake Baykal is underlain at about 32 km by a pod that is connected to the deeper asthenosphere. The shallow pod contains a low-velocity zone that presumably is a partial melt. The pod extends the full length of the rift. It is, in short, a channel containing partly molten magma and an excellent example of one of our surge channels. Were it to burst, we believe that it would produce another linear flood-basalt province.
 According to our surge tectonic hypothesis, magma in surge channels moves both vertically and horizontally. When two surge channels come in contact, their magmas join together. If they are oriented at an appreciable angle to one another, we believe that the result is a "collision". These5 "collisions" are responsible for the eruption of round or ovate flood-basalt provinces worldwide.

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS
We have proposed a new hypothesis of global tectonics in this book, one that is different and will be considered unorthodox by many scientists and non-scientists alike. However, we believe that current tectonic hypotheses cannot adequately explain the increasing volume of data being collected by both old and new technologies. We believe that the hypothesis of surge tectonics does explain these data sets, in a way that is simple and more accurate.
 The major points of the surge-tectonics hypothesis can be summarized as follows:
 1. All linear to curvilinear mesoscopic and megascopic structures and landforms observed on Earth (and similar features seen on Mars, Venus, and the moons of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus), and all magmatic phenomena are generated, directly or indirectly, by surge channels. The surge channel is the common denominator of geology, geophysics, and geochemistry.
 2. Surge channels formed and continue to form an interconnected worldwide network in the lithosphere. They contain fluid to semifluid magma, or mush, differentiated from the Earth's asthenosphere by the cooling of the Earth. All newly differentiated magma in the asthenosphere must rise into the lithosphere. The newly formed magma has a lower density and therefore, is gravitationally unstable in the asthenosphere. It rises in response to the Peach-Kohler climb force to its level of neutral buoyancy (that is, to form a surge channel).
 3. Lateral movements in the Earth's upper layers are a response to the Earth's rotation. Differential lag between the more rigid lithosphere above and the (more) fluid asthenosphere below causes the fluid, or mushy, materials to move relatively eastward.
 4. Surge channels are alternately filled and emptied. A complete cycle of filling and emptying is a geotectonic cycle. The geotectonic cycle takes place along this sequence of events:
 a. Contraction of the strictosphere is always underway, because the Earth is cooling;
 b. The overlying lithosphere, which is already cool, does not contract, but adjusts its basal circumference to the upper surface of the shrinking strictosphere by large-scale thrusting along lithosphere Benioff zones and normal-type faulting along the strictosphere Benioff zones.
 c. Thrusting of the lithosphere is not a continuous process, but occurs when the lithosphere's underlying dynamic support fails. When the weight of the lithosphere overcomes combined resistance of the asthenosphere and Benioff zone friction, lithosphere collapse begins in a episodic fashion. Hence, tectogenesis is episodic.
 d. During anorogenic intervals between lithosphere collapses, the asthenosphere volume increases slowly as the strictosphere radius decreases and decompression of the asthenosphere begins.
 e. Decompression is accompanied by rising temperature, increased magma generation, and lowered viscosity in the asthenosphere, which gradually weakens during the time intervals between collapses.
 f. During lithosphere collapse into the asthenosphere, the continentward (hanging wall) sides of the lithosphere Benioff zones override (obduct) the ocean floor. The entire lithosphere buckles, fractures, and founders. Enormous compressive stresses are created in the lithosphere.
 g. When the lithosphere collapses into the asthenosphere, the asthenosphere- derived magma in the surge channels begins to surge intensely. Where volume of magma in the channels exceeds volumetric capacity, and when compression in the lithosphere exceeds the strength of the lithosphere that directly overlies the surge channels, the surge-channel roofs rupture along the cracks that comprise the fault-fracture-fissure system generated before the rupture. Rupture is bivergent and forms continental rifts, foldbelts, strike-slip zones, and midocean rifts. We call such bilaterally deformed belts kobergens.
 h. Once tectogenesis is completed, another geotectonic cycle or subcycle sets in, commonly within the same belt.
 5. Movement in the surge channel during the taphrogenic phase of the geotectonic cycle is parallel with the channel. It is also very slow, not exceeding a few centimeters per year. Flow at the surge-channel walls is laminar as evidenced by the channel-parallel faults, fractures, and fissures observed at the Earth's surface (Stoke's Law). Such flow also produced the more or less regular segmentation observed in tectonic belts.
 6. Tectogenesis has many styles. Each reflects the rigidity and thickness of the overlying lithosphere. In opcean basins where the lithosphere is thinnest, massive basalt flooding occurs. At ocean-continent transitions, eugeosynclines with alpinotype tectogenesis form. In continental interiors where the lithosphere is thicker, either germanotype foldbelts or continental rifts are created.
 7. During the geotectonic cycle, and within the eugeosynclinal regime, the central core (crest of the surge channel) evolves from a rift basin to a tightly compressed alpinotyhpe foldbelt. Thus a rift basin up to several hundred kilometers wide narrows through time until it is a zone no more than a few kilometers wide that is occupied by a streamline (strike-slip) fault zone (e.g. the San Andreas fault). Then as compression takes over and dominates the full width of the surge-channel crest, the streamline fault zone is distorted, until it and the adjacent rocks are severely metamorphosed. If the underlying, and now severely deformed surge channel still contains any void space, the overlying rocks may collapse into it, and through this process of Verschluckung (engulgment) become a Verschluckungzone.
 8. The Earth above the strictosphere resembles a giant hydraulic press that behaves according to Pascal's Law. A hydraulic press consists of a containment vessel, fluid in that vessel, and a switch or trigger mechanism. In the case of the Earth, the containment vessel is the interconnected surge-channel system; the fluid is the magma in the channels; and the trigger mechanism is worldwide lithosphere collapse into the asthenosphere when that body becomes too weak to sustain the lithosphere dynamically. Thus tectogenesis may be regarded as surge-channel response to Pascal's Law.
 9. Surge channels, active or inactive, underlie nearly every major feature of the Earth's surface, including all rifts, foldbelts, metamorphic belts, and strike-slip zones. These belts are roughly bisymmetrical, have linear surface swaths of faults, fractures, and fissures, and belt-parallel stretching lineations. Aligned plutons, ophiolites, melange belts, volcanic centers, kimberlite dikes, diatremes, ring structures and mineral belts are characteristic. Zoned metamorphic belts are also characteristic. In some areas, linear river valleys, flood basalts, and/or vortex structures may be present. A lens of 7.8-7.0 km/s material always underlies the belt.
 10. Active surge channels are most easily recognized by the presence of high heat flow (Fig. 2.26), microseismicity, lines of thermal springs, small negative Bouguer gravity anomalies, and a 7.8-7.0 km/s lens of material that is transparent in the center or throughout.
 11. Inactive surge channels possess a linear positive magnetic anomaly, a linear Bouguer positive gravity anomaly, and a linear, lens-shaped pod of 7.8-7.0 km/s material that is reflective throughout.
 12. A surge-tectonics approach to geodynamics provides a new means for determining the origin of the Earth's features and their evolution through time, for analyzing regions prone to earthquakes and volcanism, and for predicting the location and formation of mineral deposits throughout the globe.

41
Mike Messages / SURGE TECTONICS
« on: March 22, 2017, 09:24:31 am »
Surge Tectonics
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Why a New Hypothesis?
1.2 Former & Current Concepts of Earth Dynamics
1.2.3 Mantle Convection
1.2.4 Earth Expansion
1.2.5 Vertical Tectonics
1.2.6 Zonal Rotation
1.2.7 Continental Drift, Polar Wandering
1.2.8 Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics
1.2.9 Tectonostratigraphic Terraces
1.2.10 Wedge Tectonics
1.2.11 Plate Tectonics with Fixed Continents
1.2.12 Zipper Tectonics (Spiral Tectonics)
1.2.13 Viscous Flow Model
Chapter 2 Unraveling Earth History: Tectonic Dating Sets
2.1 Data Availability
2.2 New Data Acquisition
2.2.1 Submersibles and Deep-Sea Drilling
2.2.2 Sonography
2.2.3 Accurate Bathymetry
2.2.4 Seismotomography
2.2.5 Space Geology
2.2.6 Satellite Photography
2.2.7 Satellite Radar Altimetry
2.2.8 Radar Mapping of Venus
2.2.9 Other Techniques
2.3 Data Sets Unexplained in Current Tectonic Models: Foundation for a New Hypothesis
Chapter 3 Surge Tectonics
=3.2 Velocity Structure of the Earth's Outer Shells
3.2.1 Basic Framework
3.2.2 Continents Have Deep Roots
3.3 Contraction
3.3.2 Contraction Skepticism
3.3.3 Evidence For a Differentiated, Cooled Earth
3.4 Contraction as an Explanation of Earth Dynamics
3.5 Review of Surge and Related Concepts in Earth-Dynamics Theory
3.6 Geotectonic Cycle of Surge Tectonics
3.7 Pascal's Law---the Core of Tectogenesis
3.8 Evidence for the Existence of Surge Channels
3.8.1 Seismic-Reflection Data
3.8.3 Seismotomographic Data
3.8.4 Surface-Geological Data
3.8.5 Other Data
3.9 Geometry of Surge Channels
3.9.1 Surge-Channel Cross Section
3.9.2 Surge-Channel Surface Expression
3.9.3 Role of the Moho
3.9.4 Formation of Multitiered Surge Channels
3.10 Demonstration of Tangential Flow in Surge Channels
3.11 Mechanism for Eastward Surge
3.12 Classification of Surge Channels
3.12.2 Ocean-Basin Surge Channels
3.12.3 Continental-Margin Surge Channels
3.12.4 Continental Surge Channels
3.13 K Structures
3.14 Criteria for the Identification of Surge Channels
Chapter 4 Examples of Surge Channels
=4.1 Ocean-Basin Surge Channels
=4.2 Surge Channels of Continental Margins
4.3 Continental Surge Channels
4.4 Surge Channels in Zones of Transtension-Transpression
Chapter 5 The Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia - A Regional Application of the Surge-Tectonics Hypothesis
5.1 Surge Tectonic Framework
5.2 Surge-Tectonic History
Chapter 6 Magma Floods, Flood Basalts, and Surge Tectonics
6.2 Descriptions of Selected Continental Flood Basalt Provinces
6.3 The Use of Geochemistry in Identifying Flood Basalts
6.4 Geochemical Comparisons among Basalts Erupted in Different Tectonic Settings
6.5 Duration of Individual Basalt Floods
6.6 Flood-Basalt Provinces and Frequency in Geologic Time
6.7 Non-Basalt Flood Volcanism in Flood-Basalt Provinces
6.8 Flood Basalts or Magma Floods?
6.9 Surge-Tectonics Origin of Magma Floods
Chapter 7 Conclusions
APPENDIX

Chapter 3
SURGE TECTONICS
3.1 Introduction
Surge tectonics is a new hypothesis quite unlike previously proposed hypotheses, although many of its component parts are based on ideas long known. We believe the hypothesis provides a comprehensive and internally consistent explanation of all tectonic phenomena without the necessity of making unsupported assumptions or ad hoc explanations. We have found nothing that surge tectonics cannot explain in a simpler way than other tectonic hypotheses. Surge tectonics draws on well-known physical laws, especially those related to Newton's laws of motion and gravity. Fluid dynamics plays an important role in surge tectonics. (For more information on the laws we utilize, those mentioned in the text are defined in the Appendix; those withing more detail are referred to two standard physics textbooks by Sears et al. [1974] and Blatt [1983]. An excellent state-of-the-art fluid-dynamics text is that by Tritton [1998]).
 Surge tectonics is based on the concept that the lithosphere contains a worldwide network of deformable magma chambers (surge channels) in which partial magma melt is in motion (active surge channels) or was in motion at some time in the past (inactive surge channels). These surge channels play the role of the holes in the "hole-in-the-plate" problem ("elliptical hole problem") of civil and construction engineering, industrial engineering, and rock mechanics (..., 1913-1991). The presence of surge channels means that all of the compressive stress in the lithosphere is oriented at right angles to their walls. As this compressive stress increases during a given geotectonic cycle, it eventually ruptures the channels that are deformed bilaterally into kobergens (Fig. 2.15). Kobergens were named by Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) in honor of Austrian geologist, Leopold Kober (1921-1928). Kober observed that Alpide foldbelts have been bilaterally deformed with the northern ranges vergent toward Europe and the southern toward Africa (see Fig. 12 in M-b, 1992b). Thus, bilaterally deformed foldbelts in surge-tectonics terminology are called kobergens.
 Surge tectonics involves three separate but interdependent and interacting processes. The first process is the contraction or cooling of the Earth. The second is the lateral flow of fluid, or semifluid, magma through a network of interconnected magma channels in the lithosphere. We call these surge channels for reasons that will become apparent. The third process is the Earth's rotation. This process involves differential lag between the lithosphere and the strictosphere (the hard mantle beneath the asthenosphere and lower crust), and its effects--- eastward shifts---already discussed (Table 2.3). Because lithosphere compression caused by cooling is the mechanism that propels the lateral flow of fluid, or semifluid, magma through surge channels, we discuss first the velocity structure of the Earth's lithosphere and underlying layers, then the contraction hypothesis (Earth cooling), and then the effects of contraction on the Earth's outer shells.

3.2 Velocity Structure of the Earth's Outer Shells
3.2.1 BASIC FRAMEWORK
The Earth's outer shells (Fig. 3.1) consist of a "hard" lithosphere above a "soft" asthenosphere (..., 1896-1940). The interpreted seismic structure of these two shells is given in Table 3.1, which is based on Press (1966) and Iyer and Hitchcock (1989). The asthenosphere overlies another hard shell that Bucher (1956, ...) named the strictosphere. Its seismic characteristics (at least near the upper surface of the strictosphere) also are given on Table 3.1. Of these shells, the lithosphere is especially important because visible tectonic effects provide the principal clues to the origin of tectogenesis. It has not been too long, since the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle became sufficiently well imaged to permit more than just educated guesses about it.
 Before 1958, when Revelle (1958) discovered a layer of material with a velocity of 7.3 km/s on the southern part of the East Pacific Rise, the lithosphere was perceived as consisting of 6.6-km/s crust overlying directly the 8.1-km/s mantle. What Revelle (1958) discovered was a lens or high-velocity crust, or low-velocity mantle, with a P-wave velocity of 7.0-7.8 km/s separating the "normal" crust above from the "normal" crust below. Similar lenses were found almost everywhere beneath the midocean ridge system (..., 1959-1965). By 1982, a similar lens of 7.0-7.8-km/s material was found beneath most of the Earth's rifts (Figs. 2.9, 3.2-3.8). Mooney et al. (1983) suggested that such lenses are a characteristic of extensional tectonic belts.
 During the 1970s, refraction shooting in the northern Appalachians discovered a similar 7.0-km/s lens under the Acadian (Devonian) foldbelt (..., 1980-1989; and Fig. 3.13). It was not long before identical lenses beneath foldbelts were identified in many parts of the world (Figs. 2.13, 2.18, 2.21, 3.9-3.14). Good images of these lenses were recorded on reflection -seismic lines used for deep continental and oceanic tectonic studies (Figs. 2.10, 2.11, 2.14, 3.15; ..., 1988). Figures 2.10 and 2.11, from the English Channel and southwestern Queensland respectively, are particularly good images of two of these lenses near the base of the continental crust.
 Mooney and Braile (1989), summarizing the present state of knowledge of the structure of the Earth's crust, inserted a 7.0-7.9-km/s lower crustal layer between the 6.6-km/s sialic crust above, and the 8.1-km/s mantle below. They showed the layer to be absent in places. In general, it is present beneath cratons, platforms, foldbelts, rift systems, and wrench-fault zones. Under cratonic areas the layer is 7-15 km thick; under tectonic belts it is thicker, ranging from 10-25 km. In many places the 7.0-7.9-km/s velocity is gradational with mantle velocities (>7.9 km/s). In these places, the Moho- is not a true discontinuity but a transition zone several kilometers thick (..., 1989). Areas were found also beneath ancient platforms and shields where the 7.0-7.8-km/s layer is up to 30 km thick. Examples include the Baltic Shield (3.5; ..., 1989) and parts of the Canadian Shield (..., 1989).
 The preceding suggests that the 7.0-7.8-km/s layer is distributed rather randomly, and that its thickness in a given area is a result of random processes. These conclusions are almost unavoidable if one tries to explain the distribution and thickness with any of the Earth-dynamics hypotheses published during the last century. In surge tectonics this apparent randomness of distribution and thickness is in part predictable.
 The origin of the 7.0-7.8-km/s layer almost certainly is closely related to the high reflectivities of the lower crust as described and illustrated by Klemperer et al. (1986), Klemperer (1987), Goodwin and Thompson (1988), Thompson and McCarthy (1990), and others (see Figs. 2.10, 2.11, 2.14, 3.15). We emphasize the fact that a lens (or lenses) or 7.0-7.8-km/s material underlies all of the microearthquake bands that we studied, and therefore, all of the high heat-flow bands shown on Figure 2.26.

3.2.2 CONTINENTS HAVE DEEP ROOTS   
An important aspect of upper mantle and crustal structure is that continental cratons have deep crustal roots (..., 1963-1996). Contrary to general belief (..., 1987a), continental roots are fixed to the strictosphere (..., 1985-1986). This conclusion is supported by large and increasing volumes of data, including neodymium and strontium studies of crustal rocks (..., 1979). The absence, or near-absence, of a low-velocity asthenosphere beneath ancient cratons led Lowman (1985, 1986) to propose an Earth-dynamics hypothesis of sea-floor spreading between fixed continents. In this hypothesis, if sea-floor spreading takes place, it is restricted to suboceanic regions. Thus, the deep roots of continents are a major obstacle to any hypothesis requiring continental movements (..., 1985-1990).
 An example of deep continental roots is presented in Figure 1.1, a seismotomographic cross section of North America. The dark shading beneath the Canadian Shield shows a root extending to 400-450 km (..., 1987). Similar deep roots are seen beneath part of all of the Earth's ancient cratons. In places, however, lenses of 7.0-7.8-km/s material containing low-velocity zones (Fig. 3.5) are present (..., 1989). Such lenses containing low-velocity layers postdate the establishment of the deep cratonic roots, as we show in subsequent sections.

3.3 Contraction
3.3.1 GENERAL
A discussion of the history and concept of contraction have been presented in Chapter 1 of this book. It will not be repeated here, but the interested reader is encouraged to review that discussion.

3.3.2 Contraction Skepticism
Many workers today either doubt that contraction is taking place or fail to see why the possibility should even be considered. Bott (1971, p. 270), expressing a common opinion, wrote that because of the success of plate tectonics in producing foldbelts, contraction now "...is irrelevant to tectonic problems." Two reviewers of the paper by Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) also expressed doubts that contraction can be taking place. However, one of them, K.B. Krauskopf (pers. comm., 1990), conceded that "...too little is known about what goes on in the [Earth's] interior for any definite statement to be made." He noted that MacDonald's (1959-1965a) models could easily be as sound today as they were in 1965 because "...not much more is known today..." about the concentration of radioactive elements in the Earth's interior.

3.3.3 Evidence For a Differentiated, Cooled Earth
The evidence is straightforward. The most salient facts follow.
 1. The Earth includes several concentric shells, which are explicable only if the Earth differentiated efficiently and at a much higher temperature than today.
 2. The outermost of these shells may be the oceanic crust whose thickness ranges from about 4-7 km. This crust is characterized by relatively constant thickness and fairly uniform seismic properties. Both Worzel (1965) and Vogt et al. (1969) observed that if the plate-tectonic explanation of ocean-crust generation is correct, it is a truly remarkable process that produces such a uniform layer in all ocean basins regardless of the spreading rate---1.2 dm/yr or 60 cm/yr. This uniformity is explained, however, if the oceanic crust is the outermost of the Earth's concentric shells. There are other explanations, one of which is discussed later.
 3. Mehnert (1969), among several, noted that the further back one looks into the geological record, the greater is the abundance of mafic rocks. This is explained if the lithosphere has been thickening through time by cooling, as Mehnert (1969) suggested.
 4. Miyashiro et al. (1982), reporting on studies of the Earth's metamorphic rocks, noted that Precambrian rocks show the highest geothermal gradients and that geothermal gradients of younger rocks generally decrease to the present time.
 5. A convincing evidence that huge segments of the lithosphere have been and are being engulfed by tangential compression is the existence of the previously discussed Verschluckungszonen (swallowing or engulfment zones) of Ampferer (1906) and Ampferer and Hammer (1911). In places along such zones, whole metamorphic and igneous belts that are characteristic of parts of a given foldbelt simply disappear for hundreds of kilometers along strike (e.g., Alps: ..., 1983; K...-S... foldbelt ..., 1973; New Zealand Alps ..., 1974: ...; southern California Transverse Ranges: ..., 1984). Figures 2.23-2.24 and 3.16-3.17 illustrate the characteristics of typical Verschluckungszonen. Although Mueller (1983), Humphreys et al. (1984), and other workers considered these features to be former subduction zones, this interpretation is difficult to defend because all of these zones, regardless of age, are near-vertical bodies (1) reach only the top or middle of the asthenosphere (150 to 250 km deep) and (2) do not deviate more than 10° to 25° from the vertical (..., 1983-1984).
 6. The antipodal positions of the continents and ocean basins mean that Earth passed through a molten or near-molten phase (..., 1907-1968). Such antipodal relations are unlikely to be a matter of chance or coincidence (..., 1968).
 7. Theory (..., 1970) and laboratory experiment (..., 1956) showed that heated spheres cool by rupture along great circles. Remnants of two such great circles (as defined by hypocenters at the base of the asthenosphere) are active today: the Circum-Pacific and Tethys-Mediterranean fold systems. The importance of Bucher's (1956) experiment to contraction theory, in which he reproduced the great circles, is little appreciated.
 8. As Earth cooled, it solidified from the surface downward. Because stress states in cooled and uncooled parts are necessarily opposite one another, compression above and tension below, the two parts must be separated by a surface or zone that Davison (1887) called the level of no strain (Fig. 3.2). We, as did Wilson (1954), equate the cooled layer with the lithosphere (Fig. 3.1). The uncooled part below is what Bucher (1956) called the strictosphere. Thus, as originally proposed by Scheidegger and Wilson (1950), Davison's (1887) level of no strain must be the asthenosphere, or a zone of no strain across which the change in stress states is gradual (Fig. 3.1). Only in a cooling Earth, which approximates a closed thermal system, can an asthenosphere form.
 9. Continued cooling deepens the asthenosphere and the upper surface of the strictosphere. The stresses accumulated through cooling are relieved episodically by rupture along the great-circle fractures that are the Earth's cooling cracks or the Benioff zones of current literature. Because the lithosphere is being compressed and the strictosphere subjected to tension, the mechanics of rupture should follow the Navier-Coulomb maxiumum shear-stress theory (..., 1962). Accordingly, the lithosphere Benioff zone must dip less than 45° to a tangent to the Earth's surface (in actual fact, it dips 22° to 44°, Figs. 2.36, 3.1). In contrast, the strictosphere Benioff zone must dip more than 45° to a tangent to the Earth's surface (50° to 75°, Figs. 2.36, 3.1). Benioff (1949, 1954) discovered the change in Benioff-zone dip from lithosphere to strictosphere, but Scheidegger and Wilson (1950) recognized these dips as an expression of the Navier-Coulomb maximum shear-stress theory (Figs. 2.36, 3.1). The dip values of the lithosphere and strictosphere Benioff zones confirm that the Earth is a cooling body. (Ritsema [1957, 1960], working independently, also discovered the abrupt dip changes in the dip of the Benioff zone with increasing depth.)
 An important fact concerning the Benioff zone is that the two segments, one in the lithosphere and the other in the strictosphere, do not necessarily form a single, continuous zone as depicted in diagrams and cross sections (e.g., Figs. 2.36, 3.1). Benioff (1949, 1954) found that the two segments of the Benioff zone, instead of joining near the base of the asthenosphere, may be offset for distances of 100 to 200 km (Fig. 3.18). In some places such as the Lesser Antilles arc, a strictosphere Benioff zone may not even be present below the lithosphere Benioff zone (e.g., Lesser Antilles and Scotia volcanic arcs). These facts are explained in our surge- tectonics hypothesis but not by other hypotheses. In fact, all detailed modern studies of hypocenter distribution in Benioff zones show the same clear division into a shallow, gently dipping lithosphere benioff zone and a deeper, steeply dipping strictosphere Benioff zone (Fig. 2.36; ..., 1973; ..., 1977).
 Ritsema's (1957, 1960) focal-mechanism studies of shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes showed that the Benioff-zone dip in the lithosphere is only half of its dip in the strictosphere. An even more significant discovery made by Ritsema (1957, 1960), although he attached little importance to it, was the revelation that earthquake foci above 0.03R (approximately 180 km depth) show mainly compression, whereas those below 0.03R show mainly tension. Most earthquakes above and below 0.03R, as Scheidegger (1963) also noted, have a strike-slip component. Thus Ritsema's findings lend support to Scheidegger and Wilson's (1950) interpretation of the Benioff zone as a manifestation of the Navier-Coulomb maximum shear-stress theory.
 10. Computer simulations of possible Earth thermal histories (...,1959, 1963; ..., 1961; Reynolds et al., 1966), using a broad spectrum of assumed initial temperatures and chemical compositions, show that the Earth is cooling (..., 1959-1966). The fact that Earth's Benioff zones still are active earthquake-generating zones provides strong support for this conclusion. Perhaps the strongest support comes from the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) report by 101 petrologists, mineralogists, and petrographers, who wrote that the repeated extrusion of basalt to the Earth's surface through its history is proof of the Earth's long history of cooling.
 11. Finally, the existence of Verschluckungszonen in the lithosphere and upper mantle also constitutes evidence that the Earth is actively cooling. Verschluckungszonen are interpreted by us to be large masses of lithosphere and upper mantle that were downbuckled into the upper mantle during tectogenesis as the lithosphere readjusted its shape to fit the underlying, cooling strictosphere (Figs. 2.24, 3.16-3.17). If this interpretation is correct, the existence of Verschluckungszonen may constitute proof that the Earth has been cooling to the present day. We discuss Verschluckungszonen in a subsequent section.

3.4 Contraction as an Explanation of Earth Dynamics
3.4.1 CONTRACTION ACTING ALONE
Despite the attraction of a cooling Earth, both Scheidegger (1963) and Bott (1971) concluded that contraction acting alone is inadequate to produce the crustal shortening measured in Earth's many tectonic belts. For both geological and seismological reasons, this conclusion appears to be well-founded. They gave several reasons; three of which and one of our own are crucial.
 1. The total amount of shortening measured across the Earth's foldbelts far exceeds what can be inferred on theoretical grounds, whether one uses the contraction model of MacDonald (1963) or of Jeffreys (1970). Even if one accepts Bucher's (1955...; 1956...) outstanding demonstration that apparent (measured) shortening can be and generally is four to five times true shortening, the contraction hypothesis cannot explain all true shortening in foldbelts. (Lyttelton's [1982] theoretical estimate of 2,000 km of shortening adequately explained the measured shortening, but his hypothesis requires cataclysmic geological events that need to be sought in the field.)
 2. Contraction alone is unable to explain the origins of all types of tectonic belts---compressional foldbelts, tensional rift zones (including midocean ridges), and strike-slip zones.
 3. Ritsema (1957, 1960) and Scheidegger (1963) observed that earthquake first- motion studies show that strike-slip motions are most common in Benioff zones, not just in strike-slip and rift zones. Contraction alone cannot explain the ubiquitous strike-slip component.
 4. Contraction theory requires that foldbelts are concentrated in and adjacent to oceanic trenches. This is not observed. More than 50% of the Earth's foldbelts lie at great distances from the surface trace of a Benioff zone, and all Jurassic- Cenozoic foldbelts lie within the high heat-flow bands illustrated on Figure 2.26. This cannot be explained by any Earth-dynamics hypothesis yet proposed. However, if contraction could lead to tectogenesis of large parts of the lithosphere far removed from Benioff zones, the preceding objections to the contraction hypothesis would be irrelevant.

3.4.2 CONTRACTION ACTING AS THE TRIGGER FOR TECTOGENESIS
Figure 2.26, as we have discussed, portrays the bands of high heat flow that crisscross the Earth's surface. We believe that this reticulate network of high heat-flow bands is underlain by a network of interconnected magma chambers. In our surge-tectonics hypothesis, these magma chambers are the mantle diapirs discussed in preceding sections and summarized in part in Table 2.1. Figure 2.26 indicates that these mantle diapirs, or magma chambers, are interconnected. The interconnected channels comprise the surge channels of surge tectonics. If the hot material in these channels is sufficiently mobile, lateral flow through them should be possible provided a pressure gradient is present. The compression already present in the lithosphere would provide the force needed to initiate and maintain flow. We emphasize that such flow would be temporally discontinuous (.i.e., episodic) and, when it did occur, would be extremely slow. Flow velocities are discussed later.
 We have pointed out that in a cooling Earth, the lithosphere by definition is everywhere and at all times in a state of compression (Fig. 3.1; ..., 1887-1982). The compression is concentrated in planes tangent to the Earth's surface, and is equal in all directions. James C. Meyerhoff (pers. comm., 1988) called this equiplanar tangential compression, and this compression in the lithosphere is what Bucher (1956) referred to (incorrectly) as all-sided compression.
 The only elements in the lithosphere that disturb this approximately equiplanar tangential stress state are the surge channels. Flow can take place in these channels wherever a pressure gradient develops. For example, the escape of lava from a channel lowers the pressure at that point, and equiplanar compression, acting at right angles to the surge-channel walls, mobilizes the fluid elements inside the channel until pressure equilibrium is restored. The presence above active channels of channel-parallel fault, fracture, and fissure systems indicates that (1) flow takes place along the full length of each tectonic belt and (2) the channels are in communication with the Earth's surface through the fault-fracture- fissure system.
 Surge channels and their fault-fracture-fissure systems constitute zones of weakness in the lithosphere. Because (1) the channels are the only bodies in the lithosphere that, owing to their potential to contain mobile fluids, they have the capacity to upset the state of equiplanar tangential compression, and because (2) they are constantly losing their contents to the surface lithosphere compression ultimately destroys them. Their deformation and ultimate destruction are the essence of tectogenesis. Thus the cooling process in the Earth's strictosphere effectively guarantees the presence within the lithosphere of a powerful mechanism for tectogenesis.

3.5 Review of Surge and Related Concepts in Earth-Dynamics Theory
Several workers proposed, on both theoretical and geological-geophysical grounds, the presence of bodies similar to surge channels in the lithosphere. Others developed concepts much like those that are the basis for surge tectonics.

3.5.1 SURGE CHANNELS
Our study of this topic was by no means exhaustive, we may have missed important references that deal with the concept of surge-channel-like edifices in the lithosphere and uppermost mantle. A particularly good example of a surge-channel- like feature was proposed by Vogt (1974) for the Iceland region, including the Kolbeindey, Reykjanes, and Faeroe-Greenland ridges. He wrote (...), "In the model I assume there is a pipe-like region below the spreading axis, extending subhorizontally away from a plume such as Iceland.... This mid-oceanic pipe extends from the base of the axial lithosphere, about 5 or 10 km deep, down to maximum depths (30 to 50 km?) from which basalt melts segregate and rise. Tholeiitic fluids would be released from the entire pipe; origin depths of 23 km for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and 16 km for the East Pacific Rise ... Would approximate depth to the center ot the pipe. The ultrabasic mush in this pipe is assumed to be flowing away from the hot spot at a rate determined by pipe diameter, viscosity, and horizontal pressure gradient...." Vogt (1974) estimated that flow ranged laterally outward from Iceland from 500 to 600 km. A similar study by Gorshkov and Lukashevich (1989) suggested that channels are present beneath the full length of the midocean ridge system. According to them, flow beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge would be from hot spots located beneath Antarctica in the south and Iceland in the north, with the two flows converging near the equator.
 Other midocean ridges where some type of axis-parallel flow and/or rift propagation have been postulated include the Juan de Fuca Ridge (..., 1975) and the Galapagos Rift (..., 1977). After the discovery of systematic segmentation along the midocean ridges beginning with the East Pacific Rise (..., 1982), Lonsdale, MacDonald, Fos, and others commenced a series of investigations that led to a general postulate of ridge-parallel flow in the midocean ridges (..., 1988-1989). Macdonald et al. (1988) proposed that mantle diapirs rise beneath the centers of each ridge segment, thereby accounting for the greater elevations of the central parts of such segments. From the crest, ridge-parallel lateral flow commences. Such flow halts in the depressed areas between adjacent segments because of mutual impingement.
 Sonographs of the midocean ridges show that the Macdonald et al. (1988) hypothesis is not tenable. Where the diapirs rise in the centers of the ridge segments, radial and/or annular structures should be present. Where the flows from adjacent segments impinge, compressional structures should be present. Neither structural form is observed. Instead, linear fractures and faults extend for hundreds of kilometers along strike, with interruptions only at transform faults, we traced individual fault traces through the fault zone from one ridge segment to the next, which negates the Macdonald et al. (1988) hypothesis.
 Surge-channel, or interconnected mantle-diapir systems have been reported from small oceanic basins and continental areas. A well-known example of the former is the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, where geophysical techniques and very high heat flow show the presence of a very large diapir-like body at shallow depths (..., 1988).
 Among continental examples, the Fergana Valley in Soviet Central Asia is the best documented Kuchay and Yeryemin (1990) discovered a very large pipelike body, or channel, below this large east-west-striking late Cenozoic structural depression nestled among the western ranges of the Tian Shan. In their summary (p. 45), Kuchay and Yeryemin concluded: "Interpretation and interpolation of geophysical data from the [Fergana Valley] lead to the conclusion that the base of the 'granitic' layer undergoes partial melting, as a consequence of which there forms a layer of lowered viscosity that has been identified seismically as a zone of reduced velocity above the Conrad discontinuity. It is possible to consider this zone as a 'granitic' asthenochannel, a subhorizontal layer that has a high strain rate and in which relative lateral displacement takes place between the contents of the asthenochannel and the surrounding rock layers. The absence of a gravity anomaly, which is an indication of variations in thickness and other properties within the zone of reduced velocity, suggests that the 'granitic' layer and the 'granitic' asthenochannel have the same density."

3.5.2 USE OF THE SURGE CONCEPT IN TECTONICS
We have found three parallel and presumably independent derivations of the surge- tectonics concept. The most recent of these originated with Hollister and Crawford (1986) who used "tectonic surge" to describe rapid vertical uplift in the structural core of a bilaterally deformed foldbelt (i.e., in the center of what we call a kobergen). Hollister and Crawford (1986, ...) opined that "Weakening of the crust [by] anatexis and accompanying development of melt-lubricated shear zones..." is essential to rapid vertical uplift. Paterson et al. (1989, ...) referred to this type of tectonics as surge tectonics. Tobisch and Paterson (1990) used this term in two or three areas of southeastern Australia. Their usage is close to our own.
 The third and, as far as we can determine, oldest use of the term in tectonics in recent literature was by Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff (1977). They proposed that asthenosphere surges (1) from beneath the Asian continent, (2) between North and South America, and (3) between South America and Antarctica produced the eastward- facing island arcs in the three regions. The idea was used subsequently to explain the complexities of Caribbean tectonics (..., 1990). Morris et al. (1990) used the term surge tectonics (coined by Bruce D. Martin). The paper was written during 1987-1988 and was submitted to and accepted by the Geological Society of America in 1988. Regardless, the Paterson et al. (1989) use of the term in print precedes by five months that by Meyerhoff et al. (1989). The term surge tectgonics is used in this book in the same sense that it was employed by Taner and Meyerhoff (1990).

3.6 Geotectonic Cycle of Surge Tectonics
The asthenosphere alternately expands (during times of tectonic quiescence) and contracts (during tectogenesis). Thus, when the asthenosphere is expanding, the surge channels above it, which are supplied from the asthenosphere, also are expanding; and when tectogenesis takes place, the magma in the surge channels is expelled. Tectogenesis is triggered by collapse of the lithosphere into the asthenosphere along the 30° -dipping lithosphere Benioff zones. The following is Meyerhoff et al.'s (1992b) interpretation of the approximate sequence of events during a geotectonic cycle (Fig. 3.19).
 1. The strictosphere is always contracting, presumably at a steady rate, because the Earth is cooling.
 2. The overlying lithosphere, because it is already cool, does not contract, but adjusts its basal circumference to the upper surface of the shrinking strictosphere by (1) large-scale thrusting along the lightosphere Benioff zones, and (2) normal- type faulting along the strictosphere Benioff zones. These two types of deformation, one compressive and the other tensile, are complementary and together constitute an example of the Navier-Coulomb maximum shear stress theory (..., 1962 -1979).
 3. The large-scale thrusting of the lithosphere is not a continuous process, but occurs only when the lithosphere's underlying dynamic support fails. That support is provided mainly by the softer asthenosphere and frictional resistance along the Benioff fractures. When the weight of the lithosphere overcomes the combined resistance offered by the asthenosphere and Benioff-zone friction, lithosphere collapse ensues. Because this process cannot be perfectly cyclic, it must be episodic; hence tectogenesis is episodic.
 4. During the anorogenic intervals between lithosphere collapses, the asthenosphere volume increases slowly as the strictosphere radius decreases (Fig. 3.19). The increase in asthenosphere volume is accompanied by decompression in the asthenosphere.
 5. Decompression is accompanied by rising temperature, increased magma generation, and lowered viscosity in the asthenosphere, which gradually weakens during the time intervals between collapses.
 6. Flow in the asthenosphere is predominantly eastward as a consequence of the Earth's rotation (Newton's Third Law of Motion; ..., 1977). Magma flow in the surge channels above the asthenosphere also tends to be eastward, although local barriers may divert flow in other directions for short distances. Coriolis force also must exert an important influence on asthenosphere and surge-channel flow, which by its nature is Poiseuille flow. Therefore, the flow at the channel walls is laminar and is accompanied by viscous, or backward drag. The viscous drag produces the swaths of faults, fractures, and fissures (streamlines) that are visible at the surface above all active tectonic belts. These bands or swaths are examples of Stoke's Law (one expression of Newton's Second Law of Motion).
 7. During lithosphere collapse into the asthenosphere, the continentward (hanging wall) sides of the lithosphere Benioff zones override (obduct) the ocean floor (..., 1906-1911). The entire lithosphere buckles, fractures, and founders. Enormous compressive stresses are created in the lithosphere.
 8. Both the lithosphere and the strictosphere fracture along great circles at the depth of the strictosphere's upper surface, as predicted by theory (..., 1959-1976) and demonstrated in the laboratory (..., 1956). Only two partial great circle fracture zones survive on the Earth today. These include the fairly extensive, highly active Circum-Pacific great circle and the almost defunct Tethys- Mediterranean great circle.
 9. When the lithosphere collapses into the asthenosphere, the asthenosphere- derived magma in the surge channels begins to surge intensely. Wherever the volume of the magma in the channels exceeds their volumetric capacity, and then compression in the lithosphere exceeds the strength of the lithosphere that directly overlies the surge channels, the surge-channel roofs rupture along the cracks that comprise the fault-fracture-fissure system generated in the channel by Poiseuille flow before the rupture. Rupture is bivergent, whether it forms continental rifts, foldbelts, strike-slip zones, or midocean rifts. The foldbelts develop into kobergens, some of them alpinotype and some them germanotype. The tectonic style of a tectonic belt depends mainly on the thickness and strength of the lithosphere overlying it (Fig. 3.19).
 10. Tectogenesis generally affects an entire tectonic belt and, in fact, may be worldwide; the worldwide early to late Eocene tectogenesis is an example (M-b, 1992b) This indicates that the lithosphere collapse that generates tectogenesis transmits stresses everywhere in a give belt at the same time. Thus Pascal's Law is at the core of tectogenesis. Sudden rupture and deformation of surge channels may therefore be likened to what happens when someone stamps a foot on a full tube of toothpaste. The speed or rapidity of tectogenesis, then, is related to the number of fractures participating in the event, as well as to the thickness of lithosphere involved, the size of the surge channel or surge-channel system, the volume and types of magma involved, and related factors.
 11. Once tectogenesis is completed, another geotectonic cycle or subcycle sets in, commonly within the same tectogenic belt.

3.7 Pascal's Law---the Core of Tectogenesis
Pascal's Law (or theorem) states that pressure applied to a confined liquid at any point is transmitted undiminished through the fluid in all directions and acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces and equally upon equal areas. This law applies in part to all fluids, but wholly to Newtonian fluids; it is the principle behind every hydraulic machine, notably the hydraulic press. A most important condition of Pascal's Law is that the pressure (force per unit area) acts equally upon equal areas. This condition lies at the very core of tectogenesis.

The Earth, according to our surge-tectonics hypothesis, is a very large hydraulic press. Such a press consists of three essential parts: a closed vessel, the liquid in the vessel, and a ram or piston. The collapse of the lithosphere into the asthenosphere is the activating ram or piston of tectogenesis. The asthenosphere and its overlying lithospheric surge channels---which are everywhere connected with the asthenosphere by vertical conduits---are the vessels that enclose the fluid. The fluid is magma generated in the asthenosphere. The magma fills the lithosphere channels. When the piston (lithosphere collapse) suddenly compresses the channels and the underlying asthenosphere, the pressure is transmitted rapidly and essentially simultaneously through the worldwide interconnected surge-channel network; the surge channels burst and the tectogenesis is in full swing. The compression everywhere of the asthenosphere compensates for the fact that the basaltic magma of the surge channels is non-Newtonian.

A possible objection to this simple picture of tectogenesis is that the sudden application of pressure against the surge channels would consolidate the magma in the channels, and thereby prevent the bursting of the channel roof. This would be true if the channels had no communication with the surface at the onset of tectogenesis, but this is not the case. As Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) noted, the channels are connected to the surface by swaths of belt-parallel faults, fractures, and fissures.

A second possible ofjection is that the magma in surge channels is non-Newtonian; i.e., it is too viscous to transmit the added stress to all of the interconnected parts of the surge-channel system. This objection would be valid for a tectonic model in which the added stress is applied only at a single point in the system. In a contracting Earth, however, compression in the lithosphere is omnipresent. Hence, the added stress is applied everywhere along the interconnected lithosphere channels so that the viscosity argument is invalid; the added stress is being applied at an infinite number of points in the system. As shown in Figure 3.19, the thickness of the lithosphere overlying each channel is extremely important, because the thickness determines the resulting tectonic style of the channel during tectogenesis---rift valley, germanotype foldbelt, alpinotype foldbelt, midocean rift, and so forth.

Although Pascal's Law applies to all tectonic settings, it is especially important in midocean ridge systems. The law states that pressure applied to a confined liquid acts equally on equal areas of the walls of the confining vessel. The surge channels beneath midocean ridges can be thousands of kilometers wide. Hence, they are much larger than their continental-margin and continental counterparts. Morevoer, the lithosphere above midocean ridges is only 10 to 15 km thick, less than half of the thickness found in a continent-margin/continental setting. This means that the total force acting on the walls of a midocean-ridge surge channel is vastly greater than in any other setting. Thus, during tectogenesis, midocean ridges presumably rupture throughout their lengths and across widths far greater than those of continental surge channels, thereby producing veritable magma floods on the ocean floors. If one keeps in mind the fact that the most massive Phanerozoic continental flood volcanism took place from Late Permian through Middle Jurassic time (...), such magma flooding in the oceans during the same time interval would account for the fact that the oldest basalts thus far penetrated by deep sea dirlling beneath the abyssal plains are Middle Jurassic. On the midocean ridges themselves, however, basalts older than Middle Jurassic are common (Meyerhoff et al., 1992a).

3.8 Evidence for the Existence of Surge Channels
3.8.1 SEISMIC-REFLECTION DATA   
As noted above, reflection-seismic techniques (...) have shown that the continental crust of the upper lithosphere is divisible in a very general way into an upper moderately reflective zone and a lower highly reflective zone (...). Closer scrutiny of the newly-acquired data soon revealed the presence in the lower crust of numerous cross-cutting and dipping events. When many of these cross-cutting events were preceived to be parts of lens-like bodies, various names sprang up: .... Strictly nongenetic names include lenses, lenticles, lozenges, and pods (...). Finlayson et al. (1989) found that the lenses have P-wave velocities of 7.0-7.8 km/s, commonly with a low-velocity zone in their middle. Thus we equate the lenses with the pods of "anomalous lower crust" and "anomalous upper mantle" that we discussed in a preceding section. Klemperer (1987) noted that many of the lenses are belts of high heat flow. Hyndman and Klemperer (1989) observed that the lenses generally have very high electrical conductivity.

Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) discovered that there are two types of undeformed reflective lenses, and that many of these lenses have been severely tectonized. The first type of lens is transparent in the middle (Fig. 3.29); the second type is reflective throughout (Fig. 2.11). Tectonized lenses also may have transparent interiors, or parts of interiors; many, however, are reflective throughout (Fig. 3.21). Where transparent zones are present (Fig. 3.20), bands of high heat flow, bands of microearthquakes, belts of high conductivity, and bands of faults, fractures, and fissures are present. Where a transparent layer is not present, high heat flow and conductivity, however, are commonly still present. Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) also found that lenses with transparent interiors are younger than those without transparent interiors; moreover, there is a complete spectrum of lenses from those with wholly transparent interiors to those without.

The best explanations of thes observations are that (1) the lenses with transparent interiors are active surge channels with a low-velocity zone sandwiched between two levels of 7.0 to 7.8 km/s material; (2) the lenses with reflective interiors are former surge channels now cooled and consisting wholly of 7.0 to 7.8 km/s material; and (3) the tectonized lenses are either active or former surge channels since converted into kobergens by tectogenesis.

3.8.2 SEISMIC-REFRACTION DATA
After Revelle (1958) discovered the presence of a body of 7.0-7.8 km/s material on midocean ridges (the East Pacific Rise), a similar body was discovered on the Mid- Atlantic Ridge, and the general lens shape was reported for the first time (...). Subsequently Talwani et al. (1965) combined gravity and seismic data, and detailed the lens shape of the surge channel across the entire Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Fig. 2.27). Fuchs and Landismann (1966) found a similar but much smaller lens beneath the Upper Rhine graben with a P-wave velocity of 7.6 km/s. Now such a 7.0-7.8-km/s lens is known to underlie every well-sutdied tectonic belt, regardless of tectonic origin. Figure 3.6 shows a 7.0-7.8-km/s lens under the northern Appalachians (...). Meyerhoff et al. (1992a, 1992b) summarized the worldwide evidence for the presence of such lenses under every type of tectonic belt. These same authors showed that the lenses under older tectonic belts contain no low-velocity zone, but that lenses in younger tectonic belts contain low-velocity zones.

3.8.3 SEISMOTOMOGRAPHIC DATA
Seismotomographic data, wherever detialed studies have been made, indicate that the lenses seen in seismic-refraction and seismic-reflection studies form an interconnected, reticulate network in the lithosphere. Although only one highly detailed seismotomographic study has been made on a continental scale---this in China, it leaves no room for doubt that the 7.0-7.8-km/s lenses with transparent interiors and the seismotomographically detected low-velocity channels in the lithosphere are one and the same (...). Figure 2.31 shows the active surge channels at a depth of about 50 km in southwestern China. Figure 3.9 is a seismotomographic cross section to a depth of 300 km across the Yunnan surge channel shown in Figure 2.31. Figure 3.14 is a more detailed cross section (above a depth of 65 km) of the central part of Figure 3.9. Velocity data from refraction surveys have been added. The 7.6-7.9 km/s layer below 50 km is the Yunnan surge channel shown in Figure 2.31; the low-velocity layer between 22 and 44 km (5.4-6.0 km/s) is a part of the Yunnan surge-channel complex (...). Using seismotomographic techniques, it will be possible to map active surge channels over the world with comparative ease. The reader should note that Figure 3.22 shows a seismotomographic image of the active kobergen of the Hengduqn Shan-Shaluli Shan that overlies the Yunnan surge channel, a further demonstration of the validity of our tectonic interpretation.

3.8.4 SURFACE-GEOLOGICAL DATA
Direct evidence for the existence of surge channels comes from tectonic belts themselves, and from one type of magma flood province. The latter include rift igneous rocks that crop out nearly continuously for their full lengths. Examples include the rhyodactic Sierra Madre Occidental-Sierra Madre del Sur extrusive and intrusive belt of Mexico and Guatemala, some 2,400 km long; the 1,600-km-long Sierra Nevada-Baja California batholith belt; the 4,000-km+ batholith and andesite belt of the Andes south of the equator; the 4,000-km-long Okhotsk-Chukotka silicic volcanic belt; the 5,800-km-long Wrangellia linear basaltic province extending from eastern Alaska to Oregon, which erupted in less than 5 Ma; and many other similar continental magma belts. The ocean basins are equally replete with them, ranging from the 60,000-km-long midocean ridge system through the 5,800-km-long Hawaiian- Emperor island and seamount chain to many similar belts of shorter lengths. Geochemical studies also show that most of these belts are interconnected. Another linear flood-basalt belt, which has been studied only relatively recently, is the subsurface Mid-Continent province that extends 2,400 km from Kansas through the Great Lakes to Ohio (Figs. 3.23, 3.24).

3.8.5 OTHER DATA
Other data mentioned in the preceding sections corroborate the interconnection of active surge channels. One of these is the coincidence of the 7.0-7.8-km/s lenses of the active surge channels (Figs. 2.9, 2.31, 3.6, 3.9, 3.14, 3.20) with the belts of high heat flow (Fig. 2.26) and with belts of microseismicity. Both the presence of high heat flow and microseismicity indicate that magma is moving within active surge channels.

However, an even more dramatic example is the June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake-related activity shown on Figure 3.25. This figure shows that the 7.5- magnitude earthquake was strong enough to affect areas up to 1,250 km from the epicenter (...) and provides an exampole of Pascal's Law in action. Given the importance of Pascal's Law in surge-channel systems, the fact should be noted that the viscosity of the magma in the surge channels affected by the Landers event is sufficiently low that, when the stress was applied at a single hypocentral point (Landers), the effects could still be transmitted for 1,250 km!

3.9 Geometry of Surge Channels
3.9.1 SURGE-CHANNEL CROSS SECTION
In cross sections, surge channels have a variety of shapes, and are of many sizes and depths within the lithosphere (M-a). Two models proposed for sill-and-laccolith complexes may be ideal representation of surge-channel complexes because, despite the differences in scale, the same physical principles apply. Corry (1988) published the "Christmas Tree" model shown in Figure 2.8; Bridgwater et al. (1974) published the more complex model shown in Figure 3.26. Either of these could be cross sections of surge channels. Both are multitiered with one or more magma chambers above the main chamber. Both are formed on the basis of Newton's Law of Gravity or, more specifically, the Peach-Kohler climb force (...).

Seismotomographic images are available from hundreds of surge channels in different parts of the world. They are complex structures as Figures 3.9 and 3.27 demonstrate. Figure 3.27 is a tracing of a seismotomographic image of the multitiered Yunnan surge channel (Fig. 2.31 ...). It is also quite large for a continental channel.

Figure 3.23 shows a partly deformed ("kobergenized") inactive Proterozoic surge channel that underlies the Midcontinent Rift of central North America (...). A surge-tectonic structural interpretation is shown on Figure 3.24. The figures show that the channel before deformation consisted of a large lower chamber at the Moho-, and a smaller, higher chamber at about 20 km. Kobergenic structure developed during tectogenesis (Fig. 3.24). The P-wave velocity in the channel is 7.0 to 7.2 km/s, and the top of the channel extends to within 10 km of the surface. The Midcontinent Rift was a major flood-basalt province of 1,100 Ma.

3.9.2 SURGE-CHANNEL SURFACE EXPRESSION
Study of Figures 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 2.31, 3.6, 3.9, 3.13, 3.14, 3.20, 3.23 and 3.24 might lead one to believe that surge channels are everywhere fairly simple structures expressed at the surface by a single belt of earthquake foci, high heat flow, bands of faults-fractures-fissures (streamlines), and related phenomena which, during tectogenesis, deform into a single kobergen. Although this simple picture is true of many kobergens, it is not true of all. Study of Figures 3.26 and 3.27 suggests that, during tectogenesis of the surge-channel complexes shown on these figures, two or more parallel kobergens may exist at the surface. Such a complex surface expression is in fact quite common. Well-documented examples are found in the Western Cordillera of North America, the Mediterranean-Tethys orogenic belt (including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), and the Andes, inter alia. Within the Western Cordillera, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the Andes, we have found four or more parallel kobergens side by side at the surface as documented and illustrated by Meyerhoff et al. (1992b).

3.9.3 ROLE OF THE MOHOROVIC DISCONTINUITY
The principal forces acting on the lithosphere are compression, rotation, and gravity. We have discussed the first two briefly and now endeavor to describe gravity's role in lithosphere development.

Gravity controls the depths of all magma chambers which, because the Earth cools at the asthenosphere level, have to be in the upper asthenosphere and lithosphere. The mantle above the asthenosphere is believed to be peridotite from which basalt has already been extracted (Ringwood, 1979). It has a P-wave velocity just below the Moho- greater than 7.9-8.0 km/s. The oceaenic crust above the Moho- has been assumed until very recently to have a P-wave velocity of 6.8 km/s and less; the continental crust above the discontinuity has been assumed to have a P-wave velocity of about 6.5 km/s and less.

The liquid generated by the removal of basalt from the mantle cannot be ordinary basalt, but may be akin to tholeiitic picrite (Green et al, 1979). In any case, it is less dense than the peridotite above the asthenosphere and more dense than the basalt found in deep-sea drillholes. Therefore, while in the asthenosphere, it is gravitationally unstable. Consequently Newton's Law of Gravity works to bring the magma upward to a level where it is gravitationally stable. The mechanism for this is the Peach-Kohler climb force (Weertman and Weertman, 1964; Weertman, 1971). This force compels the magma to rise through available conduits to its level of neutral buoyancy, i.e., the level where the lithosphere density and the magma density are the same (...). At this level the magma can only move horizontally.

As we have stated repeatedly, the P-wave velocity of the walls of active surge channels is in the 7.0-7.8-km/s range; that of inactive channels is 7.0-7.8 km/s throughout. In the crustal models generally accepted until the late 1980s, there was no layer having a velocity in the 7.0-7.8-km/s range. In recent years, however, a lower crustal layer has been reported in large areas of North America and elsewhere with velocities in the 7.0-7.8-km/s range (...). Mooney and Meissner (1992) in fact state that the layer is omnipresent, is ca. 3.5 km thick, and is a transition zone between the mantle and the crust.

Thus, when the postulated tholeiitic picrite magma reachs the Moho- (i.e., the zone between 8.0-km/s mantle below and 6.6-km/s above), it has reached its level of neutral buoyancy and spreads laterally. Under the proper conditions---abundant magma supply and favorable crustal structure---a surge channel can form. We suggest the possibility that the entire 7.0-7.8-km/s layer may have formed in this way. In support of this suggestion, we note that the main channel of every surge channel studied, from the Archean to the Cenozoic, is located precisely at the surface of the Moho-. This indicates that the discontinuity is very ancient, perhaps as old as the Earth itself. This fact and the great difference in P-wave velicities above and below the Moho- surface suggest in turn that the discontinuity originated during the initial cooling of the Earth. Hence, Mooney and Meissner's (1992) "transition zone" was the level of neutral buoyancy at the time the 7.0-7.8-km/s material was emplaced.

The suboceanic Moho- is some 10-15 km below sea level; its subcontinental counterpart is deeper, at about 40 km below sea level. Hence the neutral buoyancy levels of the two regimes are separated vertically by 25 to 30 km. This fact probably is closely related to the fact that surge channels underlie all continental shelf-slope breaks. Thus these breaks are transition zones between continental and oceanic regimes. MacDonald (1963, 1964) long ago stated that this transition zone must be the site of vertical faulting. Writing of the differences in the vertical distribution of radioactive heat sources under continents and ocean basins, MacDonald (1963, p.589) stated that these differences ensure "...that the boundaries between them [continents and ocean basine] become discontinuities in subsurface vertical motion. The boundary regions are thus narrow regions where faults are formed and volcanic activity is concentrated." In summary, the ocean- continent boundary is a weakness zone due to differing crustal thicknesses and compositions on either side of that boundary, and the accompanying changes in temperature regimes, specific gravities, and velocities. This weakness zone is therefore a focus for faulting and ascending magma.

It is a fact that volcanism does take place along continental mragins, not just in the "active" margins, but in the "passive" ones as well, as for example along the eastern seaboard of North America (...) and the Atlantic margin of Africa (...). In fact, a recent study of North America's eastern seaboard by Hollbrook and Kelemen (1993) shows the presence beneath the outer shelf of a linear pod of volcanic material at the Moho-. The pod has a P-wave velocity of 7.2-7.5 km/s and is at least 3,300 km long. It should be added that the above explanation does not mean that all surge channels form at ocean-continent boundaries, rather, surge channels are found in every tectonic setting, one of which is the ocean-continent boundary.

The formation of the Christmas-tree-like structures (Figs. 2.8, 3.26) at the Moho- is simply an extension of the larger scale process of magma transfer from the asthenosphere to the discontinuity. Once surge channels are established at the discontinuity, the same processes take over that brought the magma to the discontinuity in the first place, specifically, magma differentiation in the channels and the Peach-Kohler climb force (...). After lighter magmas have formed by differentiation and related processes, they rise to their own neutral buoyancy levels, forming channels above the main surge channel (Figs. 3.23, 3.27).

42
Mike Messages / MF 3/16
« on: March 18, 2017, 02:33:25 pm »
RE: Submit NCGT Discussion
Thu, March 16, 2017 2:23 pm
    Hi Mike.
- Info overload is making it a little hard for me to sort out how to proceed, but I don't see any brick walls yet. I asked Dong Choi which NCGT issues show the best evidence for Surge Tectonics, but he said I should get Art Meyerhoff's book, although it's from the early 90s. I think Meyerhoff died in 94. Dr. Choi said he was Meyerhoff's main student or something like that. I ordered Meyerhoff's book at the local library and it should be there tomorrow or Tuesday.
- I found an NCGT article from around 2004 that favors an electrical battery model for Earth and I found out Dr. Choi favors that model too and he said it helps explain the major earthquake correlation with sunspot minima. My friend, Charles Chandler, has a similar model and is working on submitting a manuscript to NCGT for publication.
- The scariest thing I read in John Casey's book, Dark Winter, is that the Sun's diameter has been measured since 1979 and is found to be losing over 2 km in radius every year. In 4,000 years it may have lost over 8,000 km in radius. I think Charles Chandler's model of the Sun is probably correct that it is powered by electrical double layers and solar flare electric discharges, instead of a nuclear furnace. If the Sun shrinks too fast, humans may need to terreform Venus and move there.
- Charles' model of the Earth has it as similar electrical double layers of high density matter in the center. Some of the NCGT people seem to favor a cold formation model of the Earth, but Charles argued that gravity alone could not have formed Earth from whatever material was available. Electrical forces must have been the primary cause.
- It seems that our discussion with NCGT may need to argue against cold formation of Earth, transgressing/regressing oceans, major vertical uplift/subsidence and radiometric dating, at least. Since they seem to be able to predict earthquakes based on detection of some kind of surges that supposedly migrate north or south along the major geanticlines etc, there must be something to the surges, but I'll have to wait till I get the book soon to see if it explains evidence for surges etc meaningfully.
- I did some more reading on the Kola Borehole yesterday and found some interesting statements. I posted much of it at http://funday.createaforum.com/1-10/k/
- The pressure was found to be 92% to 29% of the expected value for most of the first 8800 m, with the exception of the ca. 3200 m mark, where it was over twice the expected amount. Fracturing of the rock was said to be the cause of the low pressures. Below 8800 m I guess the pressure was as expected. But the temperature at 12000 m was 180 C, instead of 100 as expected. The main scientist for the project seems to say that the rock below 7000 m was sedimentary rock from weathered granite that metamorphosed back to granite. Plankton fossils were found about 6400 m deep.

-----

Thursday, March 16, 2017 7:28 PM
Hi Lloyd,
Some quick notes: the word "radiocarbon" in your post where it reads "Radiocarbon dating places the culmination of the Archean metamorphism in the Kola Peninsula at 2.7 to 2.8 billion years ago." should be changed to "radiometric" or "radioisotope", since radiocarbon reaches back only 55,000 years.  Also, metamorphosed granite is "granite gneiss", and metamorphosed sedimentary rock is just gneiss.  And this analysis from Stanford concerns the Sun's diameter (conclusion at bottom of page)  http://solar-center.stanford.edu/FAQ/Qshrink.html
- It will be interesting to learn more about electrical activity regarding Earth.  That's all new to me.  Anyone who can predict earthquakes has my respect.

---

Wed, March 22, 2017 1:36 pm
Hi Mike. I got the Surge Tectonics book from the library yesterday and I copied most of Chapter 3 onto my forum at http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/s/msg178/#msg178
- I'm copying some more from other chapters and will probably post it later today or tomorrow.
- It looks like they have pretty good evidence for the surge channels, at least from the Moho level. I don't know if there's evidence of channels below that. Charles has figured out that vertical channels from the Moho likely produce volcanism and earthquakes, but lava doesn't come from the Moho. It comes from the crust around the channel. The Moho is ionized and provides a path for ionization through the vertical channels. The tides keep the electrical circuits charged, first in one direction (up), then in the other (down), each day. Did you get a chance to read any of Charles' material?
- I hope you have time to read what I copied on Surge Tectonics. If so, I'd like to hear your comments. If the channels are real, it would be nice if you or we can determine if SD can explain them. They talk about Pascal's Law, which seems likely to be important for SD, although I don't know how well that law would apply to ionized matter within a planet. So far, I haven't noticed any mention of the Earth having formed from cold matter.

---

Thu, March 23, 2017 10:54 am
Thanks for the paper, Mike. I'll look at it soon. Meyerhoff claimed that the shrinkage of the Earth is very gradual and episodic. I read that the Earth loses maybe twice as much mass every year via hydrogen as it gains via meteors. The shrinkage and cooling is plausible, but probably not by gravity causing surge channels. Instead, Charles' model has tidal forces constantly moving electric double layers in the Earth up and down about 1 meter every day, so electric forces seem to be the cause of surge channels, but probably not below the Moho. Tidal forces are electrical too, as Charles explains. And Dong Choi agrees with electrical forces in the Earth. Meyerhoff's book doesn't seem to mention electrical forces, so Choi seems to accept an Italian geologist's ideas about that, although NCGT papers and discussions don't seem to discuss electrical forces, other than the Italian geologist's paper from about 2004. So I think the surge channels are explained by Charles' electrical model.
- The book seems to express doubt that catastrophism has had much influence on geological events or features, but I think we have plenty of evidence that it has had major influence. Charles and Gordon both accept the Shock Dynamics model in large part; they just don't think the continents would have moved apart at the speeds that you have determined. Gordon thinks it took months. Charles probably thinks at least months and maybe years. I on the other hand think it's obvious they had to move very quickly as you suggest. If they didn't move quickly enough, fluidization would have been overcome too soon by friction

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Fri, March 24, 2017, 9:42 PM
Good for you, Lloyd.  The fluid, swirling interaction of the crustal pressure wave with moving landmasses during the Shock Dynamics event is clearest in Oceania (attached image), explained at  http://www.newgeology.us/presentation13.html  It all must have been quite rapid. Are Earth's electrical forces considered by Charles to be due to the piezoelectric effect? Cheers, Mike

---

Sat, March 25/17 5:33PM
Hi Mike. Re: "Are Earth's electrical forces considered by  Charles to be due to the piezoelectric effect?"
- No. The piezoelectric effect is so minor, that I don't think he even discusses it in his model. If he were to discuss the Shock Dynamics impact more in his model, he might then need to discuss the piezoelectric effect, but he hasn't mentioned thinking about doing that. Anyway, if piezoelectricity is involved in fluidization, that seems to be the only time it would be very significant. Well, I guess during impacts too.
- Here are the main topics in his Astrophysics & Geophysics papers at http://qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=5660-6031 and I'll describe briefly what some of them explain in brackets: Introduction . Accretion [that gravity can't cause it, but static electricity must] . Filaments [that static electricity in space forms galactic filaments] . Tokamaks [that faster rotating filament collapses form ring stars] . Egg Nebula . Supernovae [that supernovas are star births, not deaths, usually, - & that successive supernovas form increasingly heavy elements]
Quasars [that quasars are ring stars] . The Sun - Motivation - Surface [that the Sun has current-free electrical double-layers] - Interior - Elements [that the layers consist mainly of 6th, 4th & 1st period elements] - Potentials [the layers are shown at http://qdl.scs-inc.us/2ndParty/Pages/17493.png ] - Conversions - Energy Budget - Radiation - Granules - Sunspots - CMEs - Arcades - Corona - Heliosphere - Cycles - Conclusion - Appendices ... The Planets - Introduction - Titius-Bode Law - Remelted Crusts [that impacts remelted crusts] - Geomagnetism [that electrical double-layers cause Earth's magnetic field] - Tidal Forces [that tides are electrical] - The Moho [that the Moho is constantly electrified by tides] - Earthquakes [that electrical forces cause them] - Volcanoes [that ohmic heating from the Moho causes eruptions]
- Seneca Guns - Miscellaneous - Discussion ... Main Sequence . Light Curves . Galaxies . Conclusion . Credits . Changes . Discussions . In Progress
- Mike, have you come up with any explanations for continental roots? I think the Surge Tectonics book says they prove that continents have not moved. I figured maybe the roots must have formed as the continents began to encounter significant friction toward the ends of the sliding. If that's the case, then Africa shouldn't have roots and Eurasia should have very little, unless the entire supercontinent had slid previously. It seems that melting often separates heavier material from lighter, so it seems that could account for the roots. Do you have a better explanation? If so, I'd like to know what it is for the NCGT discussion.

43
Mike Messages / NCGT PLAN
« on: March 16, 2017, 08:52:09 pm »
=MF: Sunday, February 26, 2017 9:37 PM
_dutchsinse on YouTube claims to predict earthquakes [with] controversy
_Apparently  he thinks energy waves spread slowly around the planet triggering faults:  youtube.com/watch?v=j4S2u1M0bTE
_Global Wrench Tectonics is just impossible.
_Submitting a discussion to NCGT journal sounds like a good idea.

=LK: Tue Feb 28, 2017 4:06 pm
_I think the thicker atmosphere before the Flood is highly probable.
_I don't think the icy canopy is necessary, since megatsunamis from an orbiting  asteroid etc should suffice to produce the Flood.

=MF: Tuesday, February 28, 2017 8:42 PM
_in SD, Siberia was forced far north in one day producing the sudden cold climate 
_"The woolly mammoths were buried in loess (wind-blown silt), commonly found up to  60 m (200 ft) thick in the lowlands of Siberia and Alaska."
_The SD event is an ideal generator of such a storm, and it is hard to imagine any  other source.
_at the 1994 conference Wycliffe Bible translator Bernard Northrup showed me his  biblical time line of events, and I found SD fit his post-Flood catastrophic  requirements.
_Regrettably, very few people know enough about geology to judge it fairly
<<So we should teach them.>>

=LK: 3/1/17; 2:41 PM
_The SD impact should have caused a lot of flooding, so is that how the Canyon  eroded?
_Do you know how to determine whether the upper strata at the Grand Canyon were  eroded during the Great Flood or during the SD event?
_Dong Choi PDF files show a map of Earth heat, mostly from the ocean ridge system,  which they say is responsible for Earth's temperature.
_http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/m/msg150/#msg150
_The map shows  Antarctica and Greenland as rather warm too
<<I need to ask Mr. Choi about that.>>
<<figure out the likely cause of those two anticlines>>

=MF: Date: Wednesday, March 1, 2017, 8:15 PM
_Uplift and block faulting of the Colorado Plateau would occur as North America  moved west during the SD event, eroding the Great Unconformity as tsunamis rushed  eastward from the coast, then depositing all the sedimentary layers above it.
_A large quantity of ocean water trapped inland of the new western mountain chain  eventually eroded the canyon either as runoff or as a consequence of the subsequent  ice age, such as dam breaching.
_You will have to rely on Dong Choi to explain his  reports.
_The anticlines map shows no apparent support for the position of the blue lines.

=LK: Date: Thu, March 02, 2017 12:14 am
_their New Madrid paper: https://larouchepac.com/sites/default/files/GCSR1- 2015NewMadridChoi%26Casey%20(8).pdf
_It references Choi 2013, so I'll check the 2013 issues

=MF: Thu, 3/2/17
_Figure 3 in the Choi and Casey paper (New Madrid earthquakes compared to solar  minimums or “solar hibernations”) is sobering if the data is accurate.

=LK: Thu 3/2/17 8:30PM
_papers from NCGT.org I posted at http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/m-82 
_I also posted Tassos' paper there about 5 myths in geology.
_theories circulating in NCGT we can address their flaws while discussing your  model there.
_they've apparently been making a lot of progress at predicting earthquakes.
_Choi mentions surges in his papers
_I think it refers to surges of energy that are detectable and the surges migrate  along those geanticlines and it's predictable where and when they'll cause serious  quakes.
_I think the geanticlines are supposed to be in the bedrock precambrian granite  etc.
_Choi says heat is a major driver of geodynamics; the continents and oceans rise  and fall over millions of years.
_They call subsidence of land oceanization
_They say the ocean floors have a lot of evidence of being continental sedimentary  rock.
_They talk about plumes coming up from the outer core.
_They favor the theory of vertical mobility over horizontal mobility

=MF: Monday, March 6, 2017, 5:35 PM
_So Choi agrees with Plate Tectonics that heat is a major driver of geodynamics?
_Supposedly the greatest remaining concentration of heat is in the core, giving  rise to alleged mantle plumes, and most of the rest is from radioactive decay in  the mantle, distributed homogeneously.
_Calculations I have seen show Earth convects 44 terawatts of heat, but only half  would be produced by these sources, suggesting residual heat is also being vented.
_I agree with those who attribute slow lithospheric motion to tidal forces rather  than heat, due mainly to the Moon but to other bodies as well.
_Oceanic transgression and regression are essential mechanisms for producing  sequence stratigraphy in Plate Tectonics and stasis theories.
_That may be easy for their supporters to accept, yet I wish they would think about  what would have to happen at depth for all this repeated fluctuation of hundreds of  feet to occur globally.
_And I agree with Tassos that Plate Tectonics, Heat Engine Earth, and the Organic  Origin of Hydrocarbon Reserves are mistaken.
_Earthquakes are firing every second around the world, usually in well-defined  zones, and the two hemispheric geanticlines don't seem to be in those zones.

=LK: Wed, March 08, 2017 1:08 am
_Surge Tectonics folks think the seafloors also are covered with sedimentary strata  and granite, at least under the basalt.
_I think my best argument is that it wouldn't be possible for just one or two kinds  of sediments to be deposited for thousands of years followed by one or two other  kinds.
_NCGT article that seems to explain Surge Tectonics at  http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/m-82/msg156/#msg156
_It describes a worldwide network of surge channels and mentions some evidence for  that.

=MF: Wednesday, March 8, 2017 9:41 PM
_Surge Tectonics rotational lag of the lithosphere relative to the mantle is  correct
_the "strictosphere" (upper mantle), and consequently Earth's radius, has not been  found to be shrinking (nor expanding)  https://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/earth20110816.html
_Without shrinking, lithosphere will not be compressed for "tectogenesis".
_The lithosphere is buoyant anyway, and would not "collapse" into denser  asthenosphere and mantle, even at Benioff zones   http://www.academia.edu/18543181/Continents_as_lithological_icebergs_the_importance _of_buoyant_lithospheric_roots
_Without shrinking, magma in channels, if they exist, will not be pumped to  "surge".
_near-surface mantle (at least) is not homogeneous but contains scattered hot or  wet pools.
_seismic tomographic images reveal a generous distribution of dense and less dense  anomalies.
_I have not seen any that support the surge channel concept.
<<If you have any such images at hand, I would like to see them.>>

=LK: Thu, March 16, 2017 2:23 pm
_Dong Choi said the best evidence for Surge Tectonics is Art Meyerhoff's book
_NCGT article around 2004 favors electrical battery model for Earth and Dr. Choi favors that model too; he said it helps explain the major earthquake correlation with sunspot minima.
_Our discussion with NCGT may need to argue against
- cold formation of Earth,
- transgressing/regressing oceans,
- major vertical uplift/subsidence and
- radiometric dating
_Since they seem to be able to predict earthquakes based on detection of some kind of surges that supposedly migrate north or south along the major geanticlines etc, there must be something to the surges, but I'll have to wait till I get the book soon to see if it explains evidence for surges etc meaningfully.
_I did some more reading on the Kola Borehole yesterday and found some interesting statements.
_I posted much of it at http://funday.createaforum.com/1-10/k/
_The pressure was found to be 92% to 29% of the expected value for most of the first 8800 m, with the exception of the ca. 3200 m mark, where it was over twice the expected amount.
_Fracturing of the rock was said to be the cause of the low pressures.
_Below 8800 m I guess the pressure was as expected.
_But the temperature at 12000 m was 180 C, instead of 100 as expected.
_The main scientist for the project seems to say that the rock below 7000 m was sedimentary rock from weathered granite that metamorphosed back to granite.
_Plankton fossils were found about 6400 m deep.

=MF: 3/16, 2017 7:28 PM
_metamorphosed granite is "granite gneiss", and metamorphosed sedimentary rock is just gneiss.
_this analysis from Stanford concerns the Sun's diameter (conclusion at bottom of page)  http://solar-center.stanford.edu/FAQ/Qshrink.html
_electrical activity regarding Earth [is] all new to me.

=LK: 3/22, 2017 1:36 pm
_Surge Tectonics book copied at http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/s/msg178/#msg178
_they have pretty good evidence for the surge channels, at least from the Moho level.
_I don't know if there's evidence of channels below that.
_Charles has figured out that vertical channels from the Moho likely produce volcanism and earthquakes, but lava doesn't come from the Moho. It comes from the crust around the channel.
_The Moho is ionized and provides a path for ionization through the vertical channels.
_The tides keep the electrical circuits charged, first in one direction (up), then in the other (down), each day.
_If the [surge] channels are real, it would be nice if you or we can determine if SD can explain them.
_They talk about Pascal's Law, which seems likely to be important for SD, although I don't know how well that law would apply to ionized matter within a planet.
_I haven't noticed any mention of the Earth having formed from cold matter.

=LK: 3/23, 2017 10:54 am
_Meyerhoff claimed that the shrinkage of the Earth is very gradual and episodic.
_I read [not in the book] that the Earth loses maybe twice as much mass every year via hydrogen as it gains via meteors.
_The shrinkage and cooling is plausible, but probably not by gravity causing surge channels.
_Instead, Charles' model has tidal forces constantly moving electric double layers in the Earth up and down about 1 meter every day, so electric forces seem to be the cause of surge channels, but probably not below the Moho.
_Tidal forces are electrical too, as Charles explains.
_And Dong Choi agrees with electrical forces in the Earth.
_Meyerhoff's book doesn't seem to mention electrical forces, so Choi seems to accept an Italian geologist's ideas about that, although NCGT papers and discussions don't seem to discuss electrical forces, other than the Italian geologist's paper from about 2004.
_I think the surge channels are explained by Charles' electrical model [& SD].
_The book seems to express doubt that catastrophism has had much influence on geological events or features, but I think we have plenty of evidence that it has had major influence.
_Charles and Gordon both accept the Shock Dynamics model in large part; they just don't think the continents would have moved apart at the speeds that you have determined.
_Gordon thinks it took months. Charles probably thinks at least months and maybe years.
_I on the other hand think it's obvious they had to move very quickly as you suggest.
_If they didn't move quickly enough, fluidization would have been overcome too soon by friction

=MF: 3/24, 2017, 9:42 PM
_The fluid, swirling interaction of the crustal pressure wave with moving landmasses during the Shock Dynamics event is clearest in Oceania (attached image), explained at  http://www.newgeology.us/presentation13.html
_Are Earth's electrical forces considered by Charles to be due to the piezoelectric effect?

=LK: 3/25/17 5:33PM
_No. The piezoelectric effect is [too] minor
_if piezoelectricity is involved in fluidization, that seems to be the only time it would be very significant ... impacts too.
_Here are the main topics in his Astrophysics & Geophysics papers at http://qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=5660-6031
_continental roots the Surge Tectonics book says prove continents have not moved.
_maybe the roots formed as the continents began to encounter significant friction toward the ends of the sliding.
_then Africa shouldn't have roots and Eurasia should have very little, unless the entire supercontinent had slid previously.
_[Maybe] melting often separates heavier material from lighter, so that could account for the roots.
_Do you have a better explanation for the NCGT discussion.

44
LK4 Continental Drift & Orogeny / PRATT/ NO PLATE TECTONICS
« on: March 16, 2017, 08:50:08 pm »
« Reply #5 on: March 05, 2017, 10:03:11 pm »

Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm Under Threat
David Pratt © 2000
http://www.newgeology.us/presentation20.html
(First published in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 307-352, 2000)

Abstract.
_-- This paper looks at the challenges confronting plate tectonics -- the ruling paradigm in the earth sciences.
_The classical model of thin lithospheric plates moving over a global asthenosphere is shown to be implausible.
_Evidence is presented that appears to contradict continental drift, seafloor spreading and subduction, and the claim that the oceanic crust is relatively young.
_The problems posed by vertical tectonic movements are reviewed, including evidence for large areas of submerged continental crust in today's oceans.
_It is concluded that the fundamental tenets of plate tectonics might be wrong.

Introduction

_The idea of large-scale continental drift has been around for some 200 years, but the first detailed theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912.
_It met with widespread rejection, largely because the mechanism he suggested was inadequate -- the continents supposedly plowed slowly through the denser oceanic crust under the influence of gravitational and rotational forces.
_Interest was revived in the early 1950s with the rise of the new science of paleomagnetism, which seemed to provide strong support for continental drift.
_In the early 1960s new data from ocean exploration led to the idea of seafloor spreading.
_A few years later, these and other concepts were synthesized into the model of plate tectonics, which was originally called "the new global tectonics."
_According to the orthodox model of plate tectonics, the earth's outer shell, or lithosphere, is divided into a number of large, rigid plates that move over a soft layer of the mantle known as the asthenosphere, and interact at their boundaries, where they converge, diverge, or slide past one another.
_Such interactions are believed to be responsible for most of the seismic and volcanic activity of the earth.
_Plates cause mountains to rise where they push together, and continents to fracture and oceans to form where they rift apart.
_The continents, sitting passively on the backs of the plates, drift with them, at the rate of a few centimeters a year.
_At the end of the Permian, some 250 million years ago, all the present continents are said to have been gathered together in a single supercontinent, Pangaea, consisting of two major landmasses: Laurasia in the north, and Gondwanaland in the south.
_Pangaea is widely believed to have started fragmenting in the early Jurassic -- though this is sometimes said to have begun earlier, in the Triassic, or even as late as the Cretaceous -- resulting in the configuration of oceans and continents observed today.
_It has been said that "A hypothesis that is appealing for its unity or simplicity acts as a filter, accepting reinforcement with ease but tending to reject evidence that does not seem to fit" (Grad, 1971, p. 636). Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff (1974b, p. 411) argued that this is "an admirable description of what has happened in the field of earth dynamics, where one hypothesis -- the new global tectonics -- has been permitted to override and overrule all other hypotheses."
_ Nitecki et al. (1978) reported that in 1961 only 27% of western geologists accepted plate tectonics, but that during the mid-1960s a "chain reaction" took place and by 1977 it was embraced by as many as 87%.
_Some proponents of plate tectonics have admitted that a bandwagon atmosphere developed, and that data that did not fit into the model were not given sufficient consideration (e.g. Wyllie, 1976), resulting in "a somewhat disturbing dogmatism" (Dott and Batten, 1981, p. 151).
_McGeary and Plummer (1998, p. 97) acknowledge that "Geologists, like other people, are susceptible to fads."
_Maxwell (1974) stated that many earth-science papers were concerned with demonstrating that some particular feature or process may be explained by plate tectonics, but that such papers were of limited value in any unbiased assessment of the scientific validity of the hypothesis.
_Van Andel (1984) conceded that plate tectonics had serious flaws, and that the need for a growing number of ad hoc modifications cast doubt on its claim to be the ultimate unifying global theory.
_Lowman (1992a) argued that geology has largely become "a bland mixture of descriptive research and interpretive papers in which the interpretation is a facile cookbook application of plate-tectonics concepts ... used as confidently as trigonometric functions" (p. 3).
_Lyttleton and Bondi (1992) held that the difficulties facing plate tectonics and the lack of study of alternative explanations for seemingly supportive evidence reduced the plausibility of the theory.
_Saull (1986) pointed out that no global tectonic model should ever be considered definitive, since geological and geophysical observations are nearly always open to alternative explanations.
_He also stated that even if plate tectonics were false, it would be difficult to refute and replace, for the following reasons: the processes supposed to be responsible for plate dynamics are rooted in regions of the earth so poorly known that it is hard to prove or disprove any particular model of them; the hard core of belief in plate tectonics is protected from direct assault by auxiliary hypotheses that are still being generated; and the plate model is so widely believed to be correct that it is difficult to get alternative interpretations published in the scientific literature.
_When plate tectonics was first elaborated in the 1960s, less than 0.0001% of the deep ocean had been explored and less than 20% of the land area had been mapped in meaningful detail.
_Even by the mid-1990s, only about 3 to 5% of the deep ocean basins had been explored in any kind of detail, and not much more than 25 to 30% of the land area could be said to be truly known (Meyerhoff et al., 1996a).
_Scientific understanding of the earth's surface features is clearly still in its infancy, to say nothing of the earth's interior.
_Beloussov (1980, 1990) held that plate tectonics was a premature generalization of still very inadequate data on the structure of the ocean floor, and had proven to be far removed from geological reality.
_He wrote: It is ... quite understandable that attempts to employ this conception to explain concrete structural situations in a local rather than a global scale lead to increasingly complicated schemes in which it is suggested that local axes of spreading develop here and there, that they shift their position, die out, and reappear, that the rate of spreading alters repeatedly and often ceases altogether, and that lithospheric plates are broken up into an even greater number of secondary and tertiary plates.
_All these schemes are characterised by a complete absence of logic, and of patterns of any kind.
_The impression is given that certain rules of the game have been invented, and that the aim is to fit reality into these rules somehow or other. (1980, p. 303)
_Criticism of plate tectonics has increased in line with the growing number of observational anomalies.
_This paper outlines some of the main problems facing the theory.

Plates in Motion?
_According to the classical model of plate tectonics, lithospheric plates creep over a relatively plastic layer of partly molten rock known as the asthenosphere (or low-velocity zone).
_According to a modern geological textbook (McGeary and Plummer, 1998), the lithosphere, which comprises the earth's crust and uppermost mantle, averages about 70 km thick beneath oceans and is at least 125 km thick beneath continents, while the asthenosphere extends to a depth of perhaps 200 km.
_It points out that some geologists think that the lithosphere beneath continents is at least 250 km thick.
_Seismic tomography, which produces three-dimensional images of the earth's interior, appears to show that the oldest parts of the continents have deep roots extending to depths of 400 to 600 km, and that the asthenosphere is essentially absent beneath them.
_McGeary and Plummer (1998) say that these findings cast doubt on the original, simple lithosphere-asthenosphere model of plate behavior.
_They do not, however, consider any alternatives.

_Despite the compelling seismotomographic evidence for deep continental roots (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1984; Dziewonski and Woodhouse, 1987; Grand, 1987; Lerner-Lam, 1988; Forte, Dziewonski, and O'Connell, 1995; Gossler and Kind, 1996), some plate tectonicists have suggested that we just happen to live at a time when the continents have drifted over colder mantle (Anderson, Tanimoto, and Zhang, 1992), or that continental roots are really no more than about 200 km thick, but that they induce the downwelling of cold mantle material beneath them, giving the illusion of much deeper roots (Polet and Anderson, 1995).
_However, evidence from seismic-velocity, heat-flow, and gravity studies has been building up for several decades, showing that ancient continental shields have very deep roots and that the low-velocity asthenosphere is very thin or absent beneath them (e.g. MacDonald, 1963; Jordan, 1975, 1978; Pollack and Chapman, 1977).
_Seismic tomography has merely reinforced the message that continental cratons, especially those of Archean and Early Proterozoic age, are "welded" to the underlying mantle, and that the concept of thin (less than 250-km-thick) lithospheric plates moving thousands of kilometers over a global asthenosphere is unrealistic.
_Nevertheless, many textbooks continue to propagate the simplistic lithosphere-asthenosphere model, and fail to give the slightest indication that it faces any problems (e.g. McLeish, 1992; Skinner and Porter, 1995; Wicander and Monroe, 1999).
_Geophysical data show that, far from the asthenosphere being a continuous layer, there are disconnected lenses (asthenolenses), which are observed only in regions of tectonic activation and high heat flow.
_Although surface-wave observations suggested that the asthenosphere was universally present beneath the oceans, detailed seismic studies show that here, too, there are only asthenospheric lenses.
_Seismic research has revealed complicated zoning and inhomogeneity in the upper mantle, and the alternation of layers with higher and lower velocities and layers of different quality.
_Individual low-velocity layers are bedded at different depths in different regions and do not compose a single layer.
_This renders the very concept of the lithosphere ambiguous, at least that of its base.
_Indeed, the definition of the lithosphere and asthenosphere has become increasingly blurred with time (Pavlenkova, 1990, 1995, 1996).
_Thus, the lithosphere has a highly complex and irregular structure.
_Far from being homogeneous, "plates" are actually "a megabreccia, a 'pudding' of inhomogeneities whose nature, size and properties vary widely" (Chekunov, Gordienko, and Guterman, 1990, p. 404).
_The crust and uppermost mantle are divided by faults into a mosaic of separate, jostling blocks of different shapes and sizes, generally a few hundred kilometers across, and of varying internal structure and strength.
_Pavlenkova (1990, p. 78) concludes: "This means that the movement of lithospheric plates over long distances, as single rigid bodies, is hardly possible.
_Moreover, if we take into account the absence of the asthenosphere as a single continuous zone, then this movement seems utterly impossible."
_ She states that this is further confirmed by the strong evidence that regional geological features, too, are connected with deep (more than 400 km) inhomogeneities and that these connections remain stable during long periods of geologic time; considerable movement between the lithosphere and asthenosphere would detach near-surface structures from their deep mantle roots.
_Plate tectonicists who accept the evidence for deep continental roots have proposed that plates may extend to and glide along the 400-km or even 670-km seismic discontinuity (Seyfert, 1998; Jordan, 1975, 1978, 1979).
_Jordan, for instance, suggested that the oceanic lithosphere moves on the classical low-velocity zone, while the continental lithosphere moves along the 400-km discontinuity.
_However, there is no certainty that a superplastic zone exists at this discontinuity, and no evidence has been found of a shear zone connecting the two decoupling layers along the trailing edge of continents (Lowman, 1985).
_Moreover, even under the oceans there appears to be no continuous asthenosphere.
_Finally, the movement of such thick "plates" poses an even greater problem than that of thin lithospheric plates.
_The driving force of plate movements was initially claimed to be mantle-deep convection currents welling up beneath midocean ridges, with downwelling occurring beneath ocean trenches.
_Since the existence of layering in the mantle was considered to render whole-mantle convection unlikely, two-layer convection models were also proposed.
_Jeffreys (1974) argued that convection cannot take place because it is a self-damping process, as described by the Lomnitz law.
_Plate tectonicists expected seismic tomography to provide clear evidence of a well-organized convection-cell pattern, but it has actually provided strong evidence against the existence of large, plate-propelling convection cells in the upper mantle (Anderson, Tanimoto, and Zhang, 1992).
_Many geologists now think that mantle convection is a result of plate motion rather than its cause, and that it is shallow rather than mantle deep (McGeary and Plummer, 1998).
_The favored plate-driving mechanisms at present are "ridge-push" and "slab-pull," though their adequacy is very much in doubt.
_Slab-pull is believed to be the dominant mechanism, and refers to the gravitational subsidence of subducted slabs.
_However, it will not work for plates that are largely continental, or that have leading edges that are continental, because continental crust cannot be bodily subducted due to its low density, and it seems utterly unrealistic to imagine that ridge-push from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge alone could move the 120°-wide Eurasian plate (Lowman, 1986).
_Moreover, evidence for the long-term weakness of large rock masses casts doubt on the idea that edge forces can be transmitted from one margin of a "plate" to its interior or opposite margin (Keith, 1993).
_Thirteen major plates are currently recognized, ranging in size from about 400 by 2500 km to 10,000 by 10,000 km, together with a proliferating number of microplates (over 100 so far).
_Van Andel (1998) writes: Where plate boundaries adjoin continents, matters often become very complex and have demanded an ever denser thicket of ad hoc modifications and amendments to the theory and practice of plate tectonics in the form of microplates, obscure plate boundaries, and exotic terranes.
_A good example is the Mediterranean, where the collisions between Africa and a swarm of microcontinents have produced a tectonic nightmare that is far from resolved.
_More disturbingly, some of the present plate boundaries, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, appear to be so diffuse and so anomalous that they cannot be compared to the three types of plate boundaries of the basic theory.
_Plate boundaries are identified and defined mainly on the basis of earthquake and volcanic activity.
_The close correspondence between plate edges and belts of earthquakes and volcanoes is therefore to be expected and can hardly be regarded as one of the "successes" of plate tectonics (McGeary and Plummer, 1998).
_Moreover, the simple pattern of earthquakes around the Pacific Basin on which plate-tectonics models have hitherto been based has been seriously undermined by more recent studies showing a surprisingly large number of earthquakes in deep-sea regions previously thought to be aseismic (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Another major problem is that several "plate boundaries" are purely theoretical and appear to be nonexistent, including the northwest Pacific boundary of the Pacific, North American, and Eurasian plates, the southern boundary of the Philippine plate, part of the southern boundary of the Pacific plate, and most of the northern and southern boundaries of the South American plate (Stanley, 1989).

Continental Drift
_Geological field mapping provides evidence for horizontal crustal movements of up to several hundred kilometers (Jeffreys, 1976).
_Plate tectonics, however, claims that continents have moved up to 7000 km or more since the alleged breakup of Pangaea.
_Measurements using space-geodetic techniques -- very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser-ranging (SLR), and the global positioning system (GPS) -- have been hailed by some workers as having proved plate tectonics.
_Such measurements provide a guide to crustal strains, but do not provide evidence for plate motions of the kind predicted by plate tectonics unless the relative motions predicted among all plates are observed.
_However, many of the results have shown no definite pattern, and have been confusing and contradictory, giving rise to a variety of ad-hoc hypotheses (Fallon and Dillinger, 1992; Gordon and Stein, 1992; Smith et al., 1994).
_Japan and North America appear, as predicted, to be approaching each other, but distances from the Central South American Andes to Japan or Hawaii are more or less constant, whereas plate tectonics predicts significant separation (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Trans-Atlantic drift has not been demonstrated, because baselines within North America and western Europe have failed to establish that the plates are moving as rigid units; they suggest in fact significant intraplate deformation (Lowman, 1992b; James, 1994).
_Space-geodetic measurements to date have therefore not confirmed plate tectonics.
_Moreover, they are open to alternative explanations (e.g. Meyerhoff et al., 1996a; Storetvedt, 1997; Carey, 1994).
_It is clearly a hazardous exercise to extrapolate present crustal movements tens or hundreds of millions of years into the past or future.
_Indeed, geodetic surveys across "rift" zones (e.g. in Iceland and East Africa) have failed to detect any consistent and systematic widening as postulated by plate tectonics (Keith, 1993).

Fits and Misfits
_A "compelling" piece of evidence that all the continents were once united in one large landmass is said to be the fact that they can be fitted together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
_Many reconstructions have been attempted (e.g. Bullard, Everett, and Smith, 1965; Nafe and Drake, 1969; Dietz and Holden, 1970; Smith and Hallam, 1970; Tarling, 1971; Barron, Harrison, and Hay, 1978; Smith, Hurley, and Briden, 1981; Scotese, Gagahan, and Larson, 1988), but none are entirely acceptable.
_In the Bullard, Everett, and Smith (1965) computer-generated fit, for example, there are a number of glaring omissions.
_The whole of Central America and much of southern Mexico are left out, despite the fact that extensive areas of Paleozoic and Precambrian continental rocks occur there.
_This region of some 2,100,000 km² overlaps South America in a region consisting of a craton at least 2 billion years old.
_The entire West Indian archipelago has also been omitted.
_In fact, much of the Caribbean is underlain by ancient continental crust, and the total area involved, 300,000 km², overlaps Africa (Meyerhoff and Hatten, 1974).
_The Cape Verde Islands-Senegal basin, too, is underlain by ancient continental crust, creating an additional overlap of 800,000 km².
_Several major submarine structures that appear to be of continental origin are ignored in the Bullard, Everett, and Smith fit, including the Faeroe-Iceland-Greenland Ridge, Jan Mayen Ridge, Walvis Ridge, Rio Grande Rise, and the Falkland Plateau.
_However, the Rockall Plateau was included for the sole reason that it could be "slotted in."
_The Bullard fit postulates an east-west shear zone through the present Mediterranean and requires a rotation of Spain, but field geology does not support either of these suppositions (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Even the celebrated fit of South America and Africa is problematic as it is impossible to match all parts of the coastlines simultaneously; for instance, there is a gap between Guyana and Guinea (Eyles and Eyles, 1993).
_Like the Bullard, Everett, and Smith (1965) fit, the Smith and Hallam (1970) reconstruction of the Gondwanaland continents is based on the 500-fathom depth contour.
_The South Orkneys and South Georgia are omitted, as is Kerguelen Island in the Indian Ocean, and there is a large gap west of Australia.
_Fitting India against Australia, as in other fits, leaves a corresponding gap in the western Indian Ocean (Hallam, 1976).
_Dietz and Holden (1970) based their fit on the 1000-fathom (2-km) contour, but they still had to omit the Florida-Bahamas platform, ignoring the evidence that it predates the alleged commencement of drift.
_In many regions the boundary between continental and oceanic crust appears to occur beneath oceanic depths of 2-4 km or more (Hallam, 1979), and in some places the ocean-continent transition zone is several hundred kilometers wide (Van der Linden, 1977).
_This means that any reconstructions based on arbitrarily selected depth contours are flawed.
_Given the liberties that drifters have had to take to obtain the desired continental matches, their computer-generated fits may well be a case of "garbage in, garbage out" (Le Grand, 1988).
_The similarities of rock types and geological structures on coasts that were supposedly once juxtaposed are hailed by drifters as further evidence that the continents were once joined together.
_However, they rarely mention the many geological dissimilarities.
_For instance, western Africa and northern Brazil were supposedly once in contact, yet the structural trends of the former run N-S, while those of the latter run E-W (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Some predrift reconstructions show peninsular India against western Antarctica, yet Permian Indian basins do not correspond geographically or in sequence to the western Australian basins (Dickins and Choi, 1997).
_Gregory (1929) held that the geological resemblances of opposing Atlantic coastlines are due to the areas having belonged to the same tectonic belt, but that the differences are sufficient to show that the areas were situated in distant parts of the belt.
_Bucher (1933) showed that the paleontological and geological similarities between the eastern Alps and central Himalayas, 4000 miles apart, are just as remarkable as those between the Argentine and South Africa, separated by the same distance.
_The approximate parallelism of the coastlines of the Atlantic Ocean may be due to the boundaries between the continents and oceans having been formed by deep faults, which tend to be grouped into parallel systems (Beloussov, 1980).
_Moreover, the curvature of continental contours is often so similar that many of them can be joined together if they are given the necessary rotation.
_Lyustikh (1967) gave examples of 15 shorelines that can be fitted together quite well even though they can never have been in juxtaposition.
_Voisey (1958) showed that eastern Australia fits well with eastern North America if Cape York is placed next to Florida.
_He pointed out that the geological and paleontological similarities are remarkable, probably due to the similar tectonic backgrounds of the two regions.

Paleomagnetic Pitfalls
_One of the main props of continental drift is paleomagnetism -- the study of the magnetism of ancient rocks and sediments.
_The inclination and declination of fossil magnetism can be used to infer the location of a virtual magnetic pole relative to the location of the sample in question.
_When virtual poles are determined from progressively older rocks from the same continent, the poles appear to wander with time.
_Joining the former, averaged pole positions generates an apparent polar wander path.
_Different continents yield different polar wander paths, and from this it has been concluded that the apparent wandering of the magnetic poles is caused by the actual wandering of the continents over the earth's surface.
_The possibility that there has been some degree of true polar wander -- i.e. a shift of the whole earth relative to the rotation axis (the axial tilt remaining the same) -- has not, however, been ruled out.
_That paleomagnetism can be unreliable is well established (Barron, Harrison, and Hay, 1978; Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1972).
_For instance, paleomagnetic data imply that during the mid-Cretaceous Azerbaijan and Japan were in the same place (Meyerhoff, 1970a)! The literature is in fact bursting with inconsistencies (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Paleomagnetic studies of rocks of different ages suggest a different polar wander path not only for each continent, but also for different parts of each continent.
_When individual paleomagnetic pole positions, rather than averaged curves, are plotted on world maps, the scatter is huge, often wider than the Atlantic.
_Furthermore, paleomagnetism can determine only paleolatitude, not paleolongitude.
_Consequently, it cannot be used to prove continental drift.
_Paleomagnetism is plagued with uncertainties.
_Merrill, McElhinny, and McFadden (1996, p. 69) state: "there are numerous pitfalls that await the unwary: first, in sorting out the primary magnetization from secondary magnetizations (acquired subsequent to formation), and second, in extrapolating the properties of the primary magnetization to those of the earth's magnetic field."
_The interpretation of paleomagnetic data is founded on two basic assumptions:
1. when rocks are formed, they are magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field existing at the time and place of their formation, and the acquired magnetization is retained in the rocks at least partially over geologic time;
2. the geomagnetic field averaged for any time period of the order of 105 years (except magnetic-reversal epochs) is a dipole field oriented along the earth's rotation axis.
_Both these assumptions are questionable.
_The gradual northward shift of paleopole "scatter ellipses" through time and the gradual reduction in the diameters of the ellipses suggest that remanent magnetism becomes less stable with time.
_Rock magnetism is subject to modification by later magnetism, weathering, metamorphism, tectonic deformation, and chemical changes.
_Moreover, the geomagnetic field at the present time deviates substantially from that of a geocentric axial dipole.
_The magnetic axis is tilted by about 11° to the rotation axis, and on some planets much greater offsets are found: 46.8° in the case of Neptune, and 58.6° in the case of Uranus (Merrill, McElhinny, and McFadden, 1996).
_Nevertheless, because earth's magnetic field undergoes significant long-term secular variation (e.g.
_a westward drift), it is thought that the time-averaged field will closely approximate a geocentric axial dipole.
_However, there is strong evidence that the geomagnetic field had long-term nondipole components in the past, though they have largely been neglected (Van der Voo, 1998; Kent and Smethurst, 1998).
_To test the axial nature of the geomagnetic field in the past, paleoclimatic data have to be used.
_However, several major paleoclimatic indicators, along with paleontological data, provide powerful evidence against continental-drift models, and therefore against the current interpretation of paleomagnetic data (see below).
_It is possible that the magnetic poles have wandered considerably with respect to the geographic poles in former times.
_Also, if in past geological periods there were stable magnetic anomalies of the same intensity as the present-day East Asian anomaly (or slightly more intensive), this would render the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis invalid (Beloussov, 1990).
_Regional or semi-global magnetic fields might be generated by vortex-like cells of thermal-magmatic energy, rising and falling in the earth's mantle (Pratsch, 1990).
_Another important factor may be magnetostriction -- the alteration of the direction of magnetization by directed stress (Jeffreys, 1976; Munk and MacDonald, 1975).
_Some workers have shown that certain discordant paleomagnetic results that could be explained by large horizontal movements can be explained equally well by vertical block rotations and tilts and by inclination shallowing resulting from sediment compaction (Butler et al., 1989; Dickinson and Butler, 1998; Irving and Archibald, 1990; Hodych and Bijaksana, 1993).
_Storetvedt (1992, 1997) has developed a model known as global wrench tectonics in which paleomagnetic data are explained by in-situ horizontal rotations of continental blocks, together with true polar wander.
_The possibility that a combination of these factors could be at work simultaneously significantly undermines the use of paleomagnetism to support continental drift.

Drift versus Geology
_The opening of the Atlantic Ocean allegedly began in the Cretaceous by the rifting apart of the Eurasian and American plates.
_However, on the other side of the globe, northeastern Eurasia is joined to North America by the Bering-Chukotsk shelf, which is underlain by Precambrian continental crust that is continuous and unbroken from Alaska to Siberia.
_Geologically these regions constitute a single unit, and it is unrealistic to suppose that they were formerly divided by an ocean several thousand kilometers wide, which closed to compensate for the opening of the Atlantic.
_If a suture is absent there, one ought to be found in Eurasia or North America, but no such suture appears to exist (Beloussov, 1990; Shapiro, 1990).
_If Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea had formed by Greenland and North America drifting apart, this would have produced hundreds of kilometers of lateral offset across the Nares Strait between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, but geological field studies reveal no such offset (Grant, 1980, 1992).
_Greenland is separated from Europe west of Spitsbergen by only 50-75 km at the 1000-fathom depth contour, and it is joined to Europe by the continental Faeroe-Iceland-Greenland Ridge (Meyerhoff, 1974).
_All these facts rule out the possibility of east-west drift in the northern hemisphere.
_Geology indicates that there has been a direct tectonic connection between Europe and Africa across the zones of Gibraltar and Rif on the one hand, and Calabria and Sicily on the other, at least since the end of the Paleozoic, contradicting plate-tectonic claims of significant displacement between Europe and Africa during this period (Beloussov, 1990).
_Plate tectonicists hold widely varying opinions on the Middle East region.
_Some advocate the former presence of two or more plates, some postulate several microplates, others support island-arc interpretations, and a majority favor the existence of at least one suture zone that marks the location of a continent-continent collision.
_Kashfi (1992, p. 119) comments: "Nearly all of these hypotheses are mutually exclusive.
_Most would cease to exist if the field data were honored.
_These data show that there is nothing in the geologic record to support a past separation of Arabia-Africa from the remainder of the Middle East."
_India supposedly detached itself from Antarctica sometime during the Mesozoic, and then drifted northeastward up to 9000 km, over a period of up to 200 million years, until it finally collided with Asia in the mid-Tertiary, pushing up the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.
_That Asia happened to have an indentation of approximately the correct shape and size and in exactly the right place for India to "dock" into would amount to a remarkable coincidence (Mantura, 1972).
_There is, however, overwhelming geological and paleontological evidence that India has been an integral part of Asia since Proterozoic or earlier time (Chatterjee and Hotton, 1986; Ahmad, 1990; Saxena and Gupta, 1990; Meyerhoff et al., 1991).
_There is also abundant evidence that the Tethys Sea in the region of the present Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt was never a deep, wide ocean but rather a narrow, predominantly shallow, intracontinental seaway (Bhat, 1987; Dickins, 1987, 1994c; McKenzie, 1987; Stöcklin, 1989).
_If the long journey of India had actually occurred, it would have been an isolated island-continent for millions of years -- sufficient time to have evolved a highly distinct endemic fauna.
_However, the Mesozoic and Tertiary faunas show no such endemism, but indicate instead that India lay very close to Asia throughout this period, and not to Australia and Antarctica (Chatterjee and Hotton, 1986).
_The stratigraphic, structural, and paleontological continuity of India with Asia and Arabia means that the supposed "flight of India" is no more than a flight of fancy.
_A striking feature of the oceans and continents today is that they are arranged antipodally: the Arctic Ocean is precisely antipodal to Antarctica; North America is exactly antipodal to the Indian Ocean; Europe and Africa are antipodal to the central area of the Pacific Ocean; Australia is antipodal to the small basin of the North Atlantic; and the South Atlantic corresponds -- though less exactly -- to the eastern half of Asia (Gregory, 1899, 1901; Bucher, 1933; Steers, 1950).
_Only 7% of the earth's surface does not obey the antipodal rule.
_If the continents had slowly drifted thousands of kilometers to their present positions, the antipodal arrangement of land and water would have to be regarded as purely coincidental.
_Harrison et al. (1983) calculated that there is 1 chance in 7 that this arrangement is the result of a random process.

Paleoclimatology
_The paleoclimatic record is preserved from Proterozoic time to the present in the geographic distribution of evaporites, carbonate rocks, coals, and tillites.
_The locations of these paleoclimatic indicators are best explained by stable rather than shifting continents, and by periodic changes in climate, from globally warm or hot to globally cool (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a; Meyerhoff et al., 1996b).
_For instance, 95% of all evaporites -- a dry-climate indicator -- from the Proterozoic to the present lie in regions that now receive less than 100 cm of rainfall per year, i.e. in today's dry-wind belts.
_The evaporite and coal zones show a pronounced northward offset similar to today's northward offset of the thermal equator.
_Shifting the continents succeeds at best in explaining local or regional paleoclimatic features for a particular period, and invariably fails to explain the global climate for the same period.
_In the Carboniferous and Permian, glaciers covered parts of Antarctica, South Africa, South America, India, and Australia.
_Drifters claim that this glaciation can be explained in terms of Gondwanaland, which was then situated near the south pole.
_However, the Gondwanaland hypothesis defeats itself in this respect because large areas that were glaciated during this period would be removed too far inland for moist ocean-air currents to reach them.
_Glaciers would have formed only at its margins, while the interior would have been a vast, frigid desert (Meyerhoff, 1970a; Meyerhoff and Teichert, 1971).
_Shallow epicontinental seas within Pangaea could not have provided the required moisture because they would have been frozen during the winter months.
_This glaciation is easier to explain in terms of the continents' present positions: nearly all the continental ice centers were adjacent to or near present coastlines, or in high plateaus and/or mountainlands not far from present coasts.
_Drifters say that the continents have shifted little since the start of the Cenozoic (some 65 million years ago), yet this period has seen significant alterations in climatic conditions.
_Even since Early Pliocene time the width of the temperate zone has changed by more than 15° (1650 km) in both the northern and southern hemispheres.
_The uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau appears to have been a key factor in the Late Cenozoic climatic deterioration (Ruddiman and Kutzbach, 1989; Manabe and Broccoli, 1990).
_To decide whether past climates are compatible with the present latitudes of the regions concerned, it is clearly essential to take account of vertical crustal movements, which can bring about significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns by altering the topography of the continents and ocean floor, and the distribution of land and sea (Dickins, 1994a; Meyerhoff, 1970b; Brooks, 1949).

Biopaleogeography
_Meyerhoff et al. (1996b) showed in a detailed study that most major biogeographical boundaries, based on floral and faunal distributions, do not coincide with the partly computer-generated plate boundaries postulated by plate tectonics.
_Nor do the proposed movements of continents correspond with the known, or necessary, migration routes and directions of biogeographical boundaries.
_In most cases, the discrepancies are very large, and not even an approximate match can be claimed.
_The authors comment: "What is puzzling is that such major inconsistencies between plate tectonic postulates and field data, involving as they do boundaries that extend for thousands of kilometers, are permitted to stand unnoticed, unacknowledged, and unstudied" (p. 3).
_The known distributions of fossil organisms are more consistent with an earth model like that of today than with continental-drift models, and more migration problems are raised by joining the continents in the past than by keeping them separated (Smiley, 1974, 1976, 1992; Teichert, 1974; Khudoley, 1974; Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a; Teichert and Meyerhoff, 1972).
_It is unscientific to select a few faunal identities and ignore the vastly greater number of faunal dissimilarities from different continents which were supposedly once joined.
_The widespread distribution of the Glossopteris flora in the southern continents is frequently claimed to support the former existence of Gondwanaland, but it is rarely pointed out that this flora has also been found in northeast Asia (Smiley, 1976).
_Some of the paleontological evidence appears to require the alternate emergence and submergence of land dispersal routes only after the supposed breakup of Pangaea.
_For example, mammal distribution indicates that there were no direct physical connections between Europe and North America during Late Cretaceous and Paleocene times, but suggests a temporary connection with Europe during the Eocene (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Continental drift, on the other hand, would have resulted in an initial disconnection with no subsequent reconnection.
_A few drifters have recognized the need for intermittent land bridges after the supposed separation of the continents (e.g. Tarling, 1982; Briggs, 1987).
_Various oceanic ridges, rises, and plateaus could have served as land bridges, as many are known to have been partly above water at various times in the past.
_It is also possible that these land bridges formed part of larger former landmasses in the present oceans (see below).

Seafloor Spreading and Subduction
_According to the seafloor-spreading hypothesis, new oceanic lithosphere is generated at midocean ridges ("divergent plate boundaries") by the upwelling of molten material from the earth's mantle, and as the magma cools it spreads away from the flanks of the ridges.
_The horizontally moving plates are said to plunge back into the mantle at ocean trenches or "subduction zones" ("convergent plate boundaries").
_The melting of the descending slab is believed to give rise to the magmatic-volcanic arcs that lie adjacent to certain trenches.

Seafloor Spreading
_The ocean floor is far from having the uniform characteristics that conveyor-type spreading would imply (Keith, 1993).
_Although averaged surface-wave data seemed to confirm that the oceanic lithosphere was symmetrical in relation to the ridge axis and increased in thickness with distance from the axial zone, more detailed seismic research has contradicted this simple model.
_It has shown that the mantle is asymmetrical in relation to the midocean ridges and has a complicated mosaic structure independent of the strike of the ridge.
_Several low-velocity zones (asthenolenses) occur in the oceanic mantle, but it is difficult to establish any regularity between the depth of the zones and their distance from the midocean ridge (Pavlenkova, 1990).
_Boreholes drilled in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans have shown the extensive distribution of shallow-water sediments ranging from Triassic to Quaternary.
_The spatial distribution of shallow-water sediments and their vertical arrangement in some of the sections refute the spreading mechanism for the formation of oceanic lithosphere (Ruditch, 1990).
_The evidence implies that since the Jurassic, the present oceans have undergone large-amplitude subsidences, and that this occurred mosaically rather than showing a systematic relationship with distance from the ocean ridges.
_Younger, shallow-water sediments are often located farther from the axial zones of the ridges than older ones -- the opposite of what is required by the plate-tectonics model, which postulates that as newly-formed oceanic lithosphere moves away from the spreading axis and cools, it gradually subsides to greater depths.
_Furthermore, some areas of the oceans appear to have undergone continuous subsidence, whereas others underwent alternating subsidence and elevation.
_The height of the ridge along the Romanche fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic is 1 to 4 km above that expected by seafloor-spreading models.
_Large segments of it were close to or above sea level only 5 million years ago, and subsequent subsidence has been one order of magnitude faster than that predicted by plate tectonics (Bonatti and Chermak, 1981).
_According to the seafloor-spreading model, heat flow should be highest along ocean ridges and fall off steadily with increasing distance from the ridge crests.
_Actual measurements, however, contradict this simple picture: ridge crests show a very large scatter in heat-flow magnitudes, and there is generally little difference in thermal flux between the ridge and the rest of the ocean (Storetvedt, 1997; Keith, 1993).
_All parts of the Indian Ocean display a cold and rather featureless heat-flow picture except the Central Indian Basin.
_The broad region of intense tectonic deformation in this basin indicates that the basement has a block structure, and presents a major puzzle for plate tectonics, especially since it is located in a "midplate" setting.
_Smoot and Meyerhoff (1995) have shown that nearly all published charts of the world's ocean floors have been drawn deliberately to reflect the predictions of the plate-tectonics hypothesis.
_For example, the Atlantic Ocean floor is unvaryingly shown to be dominated by a sinuous, north-south midocean ridge, flanked on either side by abyssal plains, cleft at its crest by a rift valley, and offset at more or less regular 40- to 60-km intervals by east-west-striking fracture zones.
_New, detailed bathymetric surveys indicate that this oversimplified portrayal of the Atlantic Basin is largely wrong, yet the most accurate charts now available are widely ignored because they do not conform to plate-tectonic preconceptions.
_According to plate tectonics, the offset segments of "spreading" oceanic ridges should be connected by "transform fault" plate boundaries.
_Since the late 1960s, it has been claimed that first-motion studies in ocean fracture zones provide overwhelming support for the concept of transform faults.
_The results of these seismic surveys, however, were never clear-cut, and contradictory evidence and alternative explanations have been ignored (Storetvedt, 1997; Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Instead of being continuous and approximately parallel across the full width of each ridge, ridge-transverse fracture zones tend to be discontinuous, with many unpredicted bends, bifurcations, and changes in strike.
_In places, the fractures are diagonal rather than perpendicular to the ridge, and several parts of the ridge have no important fracture zones or even traces of them.
_For instance, they are absent from a 700-km-long portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between the Atlantis and Kane fracture zones.
_There is a growing recognition that the fracture patterns in the Atlantic "show anomalies that are neither predicted by nor ... yet built into plate tectonic understanding" (Shirley, 1998a, b).
_Side-scanning radar images show that the midocean ridges are cut by thousands of long, linear, ridge-parallel fissures, fractures, and faults.
_This strongly suggests that the ridges are underlain at shallow depth by interconnected magma channels, in which semi-fluid lava moves horizontally and parallel with the ridges rather than at right-angles to them.
_The fault pattern observed is therefore totally different from that predicted by plate tectonics, and it cannot be explained by upwelling mantle diapirs as some plate tectonicists have proposed (Meyerhoff et al., 1992a).
_A zone of thrust faults, 300-400 km wide, has been discovered flanking the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over a length of 1000 km (Antipov et al., 1990).
_Since it was produced under conditions of compression, it contradicts the plate-tectonic hypothesis that midocean ridges are dominated by tension.
_In Iceland, the largest landmass astride the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the predominant stresses in the axial zone are likewise compressive rather than extensional (Keith, 1993).
_Earthquake data compiled by Zoback et al. (1989) provide further evidence that ocean ridges are characterized by widespread compression, whereas recorded tensional earthquake activity associated with these ridges is rarer.
_The rough topography and strong tectonic deformation of much of the ocean ridges, especially in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, suggest that, instead of being "spreading centers," they are a type of foldbelt (Storetvedt, 1997).
_The continents and oceans are covered with a network of major structures or lineaments, many dating from the Precambrian, along which tectonic and magmatic activity and associated mineralization take place (Gay, 1973; Katterfeld and Charushin, 1973; O'Driscoll, 1980; Wezel, 1992; Anfiloff, 1992; Dickins and Choi, 1997).
_The oceanic lineaments are not readily compatible with seafloor spreading and subduction, and plate tectonics shows little interest in them.
_GEOSAT data and SASS multibeam sonar data show that there are NNW-SSE and WSW-ENE megatrends in the Pacific Ocean, composed primarily of fracture zones and linear seamount chains, and these orthogonal lineaments naturally intersect (Smoot, 1997b, 1998a, b, 1999).
_This is a physical impossibility in plate tectonics, as seamount chains supposedly indicate the direction of plate movement, and plates would therefore have to move in two directions at once! No satisfactory plate-tectonic explanation of any of these megatrends has been proposed outside the realm of ad-hoc "microplates," and they are largely ignored.
_The orthogonal lineaments in the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Tasmanian Sea are also ignored (Choi, 1997, 1999a, c).

Age of the Seafloor
_The oldest known rocks from the continents are just under 4 billion years old, whereas -- according to plate tectonics -- none of the ocean crust is older than 200 million years (Jurassic).
_This is cited as conclusive evidence that oceanic lithosphere is constantly being created at midocean ridges and consumed in subduction zones.
_There is in fact abundant evidence against the alleged youth of the ocean floor, though geological textbooks tend to pass over it in silence.
_The oceanic crust is commonly divided into three main layers: layer 1 consists of ocean floor sediments and averages 0.5 km in thickness; layer 2 consists largely of basalt and is 1.0 to 2.5 km thick; and layer 3 is assumed to consist of gabbro and is about 5 km thick.
_Scientists involved in the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) have given the impression that the basalt (layer 2) found at the base of many deep-sea drillholes is basement, and that there are no further, older sediments below it.
_However, the DSDP scientists were apparently motivated by a strong desire to confirm seafloor spreading (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Of the first 429 sites drilled (1968-77), only 165 (38%) reached basalt, and some penetrated more than one basalt.
_All but 12 of the 165 basalt penetrations were called basement, including 19 sites where the upper contact of the basalt with the sediments was baked (Meyerhoff et al., 1992a).
_Baked contacts suggest that the basalt is an intrusive sill, and in some cases this has been confirmed, as the basalts turned out to have radiometric dates younger than the overlying sediments (e.g. Macdougall, 1971).
_101 sediment-basalt contacts were never recovered in cores, and therefore never actually seen, yet they were still assumed to be depositional contacts.
_In 33 cases depositional contacts were observed, but the basalt sometimes contained sedimentary clasts, suggesting that there might be older sediments below.
_Indeed, boreholes that have penetrated layer 2 to some depth have revealed an alternation of basalts and sedimentary rocks (Hall and Robinson, 1979; Anderson et al., 1982).
_Kamen-Kaye (1970) warned that before drawing conclusions on the youth of the ocean floor, rocks must be penetrated to depths of up to 5 km to see whether there are Triassic, Paleozoic, or Precambrian sediments below the so-called basement.
_Plate tectonics predicts that the age of the oceanic crust should increase systematically with distance from the midocean ridge crests.
_Claims by DSDP scientists to have confirmed this are not supported by a detailed review of the drilling results.
_The dates exhibit a very large scatter, which becomes even larger if dredge hauls are included.
_On some marine magnetic anomalies the age scatter is tens of millions of years (Meyerhoff et al., 1992a).
_On one seamount just west of the crest of the East Pacific Rise, the radiometric dates range from 2.4 to 96 million years.
_Although a general trend is discernible from younger sediments at ridge crests to older sediments away from them, this is in fact to be expected, since the crest is the highest and most active part of the ridge; older sediments are likely to be buried beneath younger volcanic rocks.
_The basalt layer in the ocean crust suggests that magma flooding was once ocean-wide, but volcanism was subsequently restricted to an increasingly narrow zone centered on the ridge crests.
_Such magma floods were accompanied by progressive crustal subsidence in large sectors of the present oceans, beginning in the Jurassic (Keith, 1993; Beloussov, 1980).
_The numerous finds in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans of rocks far older than 200 million years, many of them continental in nature, provide strong evidence against the alleged youth of the underlying crust.
_In the Atlantic, rock and sediment age should range from Cretaceous (120 million years) adjacent to the continents to very recent at the ridge crest.
_During legs 37 and 43 of the DSDP, Paleozoic and Proterozoic igneous rocks were recovered in cores on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Bermuda Rise, yet not one of these occurrences of ancient rocks was mentioned in the Cruise Site Reports or Cruise Synthesis Reports (Meyerhoff et al., 1996a).
_Aumento and Loncarevic (1969) reported that 75% of 84 rock samples dredged from the Bald Mountain region just west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge crest at 45°N consisted of continental-type rocks, and commented that this was a "remarkable phenomenon" -- so remarkable, in fact, that they decided to classify these rocks as "glacial erratics" and to give them no further consideration.
_Another way of dealing with "anomalous" rock finds is to dismiss them as ship ballast.
_However, the Bald Mountain locality has an estimated volume of 80 km³, so it is hardly likely to have been rafted out to sea on an iceberg or dumped by a ship! It consists of granitic and silicic metamorphic rocks ranging in age from 1690 to 1550 million years, and is intruded by 785-million-year mafic rocks (Wanless et al., 1968).
_Ozima et al. (1976) found basalts of Middle Jurassic age (169 million years) at the junction of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone (30°N), an area where basalt should theoretically be extremely young, and stated that they were unlikely to be ice-rafted rocks.
_Van Hinte and Ruffman (1995) concluded that Paleozoic limestones dredged from Orphan Knoll in the northwest Atlantic were in situ and not ice rafted.
_In another attempt to explain away anomalously old rocks and anomalously shallow or emergent crust in certain parts of the ridges, some plate tectonicists have argued that "nonspreading blocks" can be left behind during rifting, and that the spreading axis and related transform faults can jump from place to place (e.g. Bonatti and Honnorez, 1971; Bonatti and Crane, 1982; Bonatti, 1990).
_This hypothesis was invoked by Pilot et al. (1998) to explain the presence of zircons with ages of 330 and 1600 million years in gabbros beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Kane fracture zone.
_Yet another way of dealing with anomalous rock ages is to reject them as unreliable.
_For instance, Reynolds and Clay (1977), reporting on a Proterozoic date (635 million years) near the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, wrote that the age must be wrong because the theoretical age of the site was only about 10 million years.
_Paleozoic trilobites and graptolites have been dredged from the King's Trough area, on the opposite side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to Bald Mountain, and at several localities near the Azores (Furon, 1949; Smoot and Meyerhoff, 1995).
_Detailed surveys of the equatorial segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have provided a wide variety of data contradicting the seafloor-spreading model, including numerous shallow-water and continental rocks, with ages up to 3.74 billion years (Udintsev, 1996; Udintsev et al., 1993; Timofeyev et al., 1992).
_Melson, Hart, and Thompson (1972), studying St. Peter and Paul's Rocks at the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge just north of the equator, found an 835-million-year rock associated with other rocks giving 350-, 450-, and 2000-million-year ages, whereas according to the seafloor-spreading model the rock should have been 35 million years.
_Numerous igneous and metamorphic rocks giving late Precambrian and Paleozoic radiometric ages have been dredged from the crests of the southern Mid-Atlantic, Mid-Indian, and Carlsberg ridges (Afanas'yev et al., 1967).
_Precambrian and Paleozoic granites have been found in several "oceanic" plateaus and islands with anomalously thick crusts, including Rockall Plateau, Agulhas Plateau, the Seychelles, the Obruchev Rise, Papua New Guinea, and the Paracel Islands (Ben-Avraham et al., 1981; Sanchez Cela, 1999).
_In many cases, structural and petrological continuity exists between continents and anomalous "oceanic" crusts -- a fact incompatible with seafloor spreading; this applies, for example, in the North Atlantic, where there is a continuous sialic basement, partly of Precambrian age, from North America to Europe.
_Major Precambrian lineaments in Australia and South America continue into the ocean floors, implying that the "oceanic" crust is at least partly composed of Precambrian rocks, and this has been confirmed by deep-sea dredging, drilling, and seismic data, and by evidence for submerged continental crust (ancient paleolands) in the present southeast and northwest Pacific (Choi, 1997, 1998; see below).

Marine Magnetic Anomalies
_Powerful support for seafloor spreading is said to be provided by marine magnetic anomalies -- approximately parallel stripes of alternating high and low magnetic intensity that characterize much of the world's midocean ridges.
_According to the Morley-Vine-Matthews hypothesis, first proposed in 1963, as the fluid basalt welling up along the midocean ridges spreads horizontally and cools, it is magnetized by the earth's magnetic field.
_Bands of high intensity are believed to have formed during periods of normal magnetic polarity, and bands of low intensity during periods of reversed polarity.
_They are therefore regarded as time lines or isochrons.
_As plate tectonics became accepted, attempts to test this hypothesis or to find alternative hypotheses ceased.
_Correlations have been made between linear magnetic anomalies on either side of a ridge, in different parts of the oceans, and with radiometrically-dated magnetic events on land.
_The results have been used to produce maps showing how the age of the ocean floor increases steadily with increasing distance from the ridge axis (McGeary and Plummer, 1998, Fig. 4.19).
_As shown above, this simple picture can be sustained only by dismissing the possibility of older sediments beneath the basalt "basement" and by ignoring numerous "anomalously" old rock ages.
_The claimed correlations have been largely qualitative and subjective, and are therefore highly suspect; virtually no effort has been made to test them quantitatively by transforming them to the pole (i.e. recalculating each magnetic profile to a common latitude).
_In one instance where transformation to the pole was carried out, the plate-tectonic interpretation of the magnetic anomalies in the Bay of Biscay was seriously undermined (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Agocs, Meyerhoff, and Kis (1992) applied the same technique in their detailed, quantitative study of the magnetic anomalies of the Reykjanes Ridge near Iceland, and found that the correlations were very poor; the correlation coefficient along strike averaged 0.31 and that across the ridge 0.17, with limits of +1 to -1.
_Linear anomalies are known from only 70% of the seismically active midocean ridges.
_Moreover, the diagrams of symmetrical, parallel, linear bands of anomalies displayed in many plate-tectonics publications bear little resemblance to reality (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974b; Beloussov, 1970).
_The anomalies are symmetrical to the ridge axis in less than 50% of the ridge system where they are present, and in about 21% of it they are oblique to the trend of the ridge.
_In some areas, linear anomalies are present where a ridge system is completely absent.
_Magnetic measurements by instruments towed near the sea bottom have indicated that magnetic bands actually consist of many isolated ovals that may be joined together in different ways.
_The initial, highly simplistic seafloor-spreading model for the origin of magnetic anomalies has been disproven by ocean drilling (Pratsch, 1986; Hall and Robinson, 1979).
_First, the hypothesis that the anomalies are produced in the upper 500 meters of oceanic crust has had to be abandoned.
_Magnetic intensities, general polarization directions, and often the existence of different polarity zones at different depths suggest that the source for oceanic magnetic anomalies lies in deeper levels of oceanic crust not yet drilled (or dated).
_Second, the vertically alternating layers of opposing magnetic polarization directions disprove the theory that the oceanic crust was magnetized entirely as it spread laterally from the magmatic center, and strongly indicate that oceanic crustal sequences represent longer geologic times than is now believed.
_A more likely explanation of marine magnetic anomalies is that they are caused by fault-related bands of rock of different magnetic properties and have nothing to do with seafloor spreading (Morris et al., 1990; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Tuezov, 1990; Pratsch, 1986; Grant, 1980).
_The fact that not all the charted magnetic anomalies are formed of oceanic crustal materials further undermines the plate-tectonic explanation.
_In the Labrador Sea some anomalies occur in an area of continental crust that had previously been defined as oceanic (Grant, 1980).
_In the northwestern Pacific some magnetic anomalies are likewise located within an area of continental crust -- a submerged paleoland (Choi, Vasil'yev, and Tuezov, 1990; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Bhat, 1992).
_Magnetic-anomaly bands strike into the continents in at least 15 places and "dive" beneath Proterozoic or younger rocks.
_Furthermore, they are approximately concentric with respect to Archean continental shields (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1972, 1974b).
_These facts imply that instead of being a "taped record" of seafloor spreading and geomagnetic field reversals during the past 200 million years, most oceanic magnetic anomalies are the sites of ancient fractures, which partly formed during the Proterozoic and have been rejuvenated since.
_The evidence also suggests that Archean continental nuclei have held approximately the same positions with respect to one another since their formation -- which is utterly at variance with continental drift.

Subduction
_Benioff zones are distinct earthquake zones that begin at an ocean trench and slope landward and downward into the earth.
_In plate tectonics, these deep-rooted fault zones are interpreted as "subduction zones" where plates descend into the mantle.
_They are generally depicted as 100-km-thick slabs descending into the earth either at a constant angle, or at a shallow angle near the earth's surface and gradually curving around to an angle of between 60° and 75°.
_Neither representation is correct.
_Benioff zones often consist of two separate sections: an upper zone with an average dip of 33° extending to a depth of 70-400 km, and a lower zone with an average dip of 60° extending to a depth of up to 700 km (Benioff, 1954; Isacks and Barazangi, 1977).
_The upper and lower segments are sometimes offset by 100-200 km, and in one case by 350 km (Benioff, 1954, Smoot, 1997a).
_Furthermore, deep earthquakes are disconnected from shallow ones; very few intermediate earthquakes exist (Smoot, 1997a).
_Many studies have found transverse as well as vertical discontinuities and segmentation in Benioff zones (e.g. Carr, Stoiber, and Drake, 1973; Swift and Carr, 1974; Teisseyre et al., 1974; Carr, 1976; Spence, 1977; Ranneft, 1979).
_The evidence therefore does not favor the notion of a continuous, downgoing slab.
_Plate tectonicists insist that the volume of crust generated at midocean ridges is equaled by the volume subducted.
_But whereas 80,000 km of midocean ridges are supposedly producing new crust, only 30,500 km of trenches exist.
_Even if we add the 9000 km of "collision zones," the figure is still only half that of the "spreading centers" (Smoot, 1997a).
_With two minor exceptions (the Scotia and Lesser Antilles trench/arc systems), Benioff zones are absent from the margins of the Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
_Many geological facts demonstrate that subduction is not taking place in the Lesser Antilles arc; if it were, the continental Barbados Ridge should now be 200-400 km beneath the Lesser Antilles (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Kiskyras (1990) presented geological, volcanological, petrochemical, and seismological data contradicting the belief that the African plate is being subducted under the Aegean Sea.
_Africa is allegedly being converged on by plates spreading from the east, south, and west, yet it exhibits no evidence whatsoever for the existence of subduction zones or orogenic belts.
_Antarctica, too, is almost entirely surrounded by alleged "spreading" ridges without any corresponding subduction zones, but fails to show any signs of being crushed.
_It has been suggested that Africa and Antarctica may remain stationary while the surrounding ridge system migrates away from them, but this would require the ridge marking the "plate boundary" between Africa and Antarctica to move in opposite directions simultaneously (Storetvedt, 1997)!
_If up to 13,000 kilometers of lithosphere had really been subducted in circum-Pacific deep-sea trenches, vast amounts of oceanic sediments should have been scraped off the ocean floor and piled up against the landward margin of the trenches.
_However, sediments in the trenches are generally not present in the volumes required, nor do they display the expected degree of deformation (Storetvedt, 1997; Choi, 1999b; Gnibidenko, Krasny, and Popov, 1978; Suzuki et al., 1997).
_Scholl and Marlow (1974), who support plate tectonics, admitted to being "genuinely perplexed as to why evidence for subduction or offscraping of trench deposits is not glaringly apparent" (p. 268).
_Plate tectonicists have had to resort to the highly dubious notion that unconsolidated deep-ocean sediments can slide smoothly into a Benioff zone without leaving any significant trace.
_Moreover, fore-arc sediments, where they have been analyzed, have generally been found to be derived from the volcanic arc and the adjacent continental block, not from the oceanic region (Pratsch, 1990; Wezel, 1986).
_The very low level of seismicity, the lack of a megathrust, and the existence of flat-lying sediments at the base of oceanic trenches contradict the alleged presence of a downgoing slab (Dickins and Choi, 1998).
_Attempts by Murdock (1997), who accepts many elements of plate tectonics, to publicize the lack of a megathrust in the Aleutian trench (i.e. a million or more meters of displacement of the Pacific plate as it supposedly underthrusts the North American plate) have met with vigorous resistance and suppression by the plate-tectonics establishment.
_Subduction along Pacific trenches is also refuted by the fact that the Benioff zone often lies 80 to 150 km landward from the trench; by the evidence that Precambrian continental structures continue into the ocean floor; and by the evidence for submerged continental crust under the northwestern and southeastern Pacific, where there are now deep abyssal plains and trenches (Choi, 1987, 1998, 1999c; Smoot 1998b; Tuezov, 1998).
_If the "Pacific plate" is colliding with and diving under the "North American plate", there should be a stress buildup along the San Andreas Fault.
_The deep Cajon Pass drillhole was intended to confirm this but showed instead that no such stress is present (C. W. Hunt, 1992).
_In the active island-arc complexes of southeast Asia, the arcs bend back on themselves, forming hairpin-like shapes that sometimes involve full 180° changes in direction.
_This also applies to the postulated subduction zone around India.
_How plate collisions could produce such a geometry remains a mystery (Meyerhoff, 1995; H. A. Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1977).
_Rather than being continuous curves, trenches tend to consist of a row of straight segments, which sometimes differ in depth by more than 4 km.
_Aseismic buoyant features (e.g. seamounts), which are frequently found at the juncture of these segments, are connected with increased deep-earthquake and volcanic activity on the landward side of the trench, whereas theoretically their "arrival" at a subduction zone should reduce or halt such activity (Smoot, 1997a).
_Plate tectonicists admit that it is hard to see how the subduction of a cold slab could result in the high heat flow or arc volcanism in back-arc regions or how plate convergence could give rise to back-arc spreading (Uyeda, 1986).
_Evidence suggests that oceanic, continental, and back-arc rifts are actually tensional structures developed to relieve stress in a strong compressional stress system, and therefore have nothing to do with seafloor spreading (Dickins, 1997).
_An alternative view of Benioff zones is that they are very ancient contraction fractures produced by the cooling of the earth (Meyerhoff et al., 1992b, 1996a).
_The fact that the upper part of the Benioff zones usually dips at less than 45° and the lower part at more than 45° suggests that the lithosphere is under compression and the lower mantle under tension.
_Furthermore, since a contracting sphere fractures along great circles (Bucher, 1956), this would account for the fact that both the circum-Pacific seismotectonic belt and the Alpine-Himalayan (Tethyan) belt lie on approximate circles.
_Finally, instead of oceanic crust being absorbed beneath the continents along ocean trenches, continents may actually be overriding adjacent oceanic areas to a limited extent, as is indicated by the historical geology of China, Indonesia, and the western Americas (Storetvedt, 1997; Pratsch, 1986; Krebs, 1975).

Uplift and Subsidence
Vertical Tectonics
_Classical plate tectonics seeks to explain all geologic structures primarily in terms of simple lateral movements of lithospheric plates -- their rifting, extension, collision, and subduction.
_But random plate interactions are unable to explain the periodic character of geological processes, i.e. the geotectonic cycle, which sometimes operates on a global scale (Wezel, 1992).
_Nor can they explain the large-scale uplifts and subsidences that have characterized the evolution of the earth's crust, especially those occurring far from "plate boundaries" such as in continental interiors, and vertical oscillatory motions involving vast regions (Ilich, 1972; Beloussov, 1980, 1990; Chekunov, Gordienko, and Guterman, 1990; Genshaft and Saltykowski, 1990).
_The presence of marine strata thousands of meters above sea level (e.g. near the summit of Mount Everest) and the great thicknesses of shallow-water sediment in some old basins indicate that vertical crustal movements of at least 9 km above sea level and 10-15 km below sea level have taken place (Spencer, 1977).
_Major vertical movements have also taken place along continental margins.
_For example, the Atlantic continental margin of North America has subsided by up to 12 km since the Jurassic (Sheridan, 1974).
_In Barbados, Tertiary coals representing a shallow-water, tropical environment occur beneath deep-sea oozes, indicating that during the last 12 million years, the crust sank to over 4-5 km depth for the deposition of the ooze and was then raised again.
_A similar situation occurs in Indonesia, where deep-sea oozes occur above sea level, sandwiched between shallow-water Tertiary sediments (James, 1994).
_The primary mountain-building mechanism in plate tectonics is lateral compression caused by collisions -- of continents, island arcs, oceanic plateaus, seamounts, and ridges.
_In this model, subduction proceeds without mountain building until collision occurs, whereas in the noncollision model subduction alone is supposed to cause mountain building.
_As well as being mutually contradictory, both models are inadequate, as several supporters of plate tectonics have pointed out (e.g. Cebull and Shurbet, 1990, 1992; Van Andel, 1998).
_The noncollision model fails to explain how continuous subduction can give rise to discontinuous orogeny, while the collision model is challenged by occurrences of mountain building where no continental collision can be assumed, and it fails to explain contemporary mountain-building activity along such chains as the Andes and around much of the rest of the Pacific rim.
_Asia supposedly collided with Europe in the late Paleozoic, producing the Ural mountains, but abundant geological field data demonstrate that the Siberian and East European (Russian) platforms have formed a single continent since Precambrian times (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_McGeary and Plummer (1998) state that the plate-tectonic reconstruction of the formation of the Appalachians in terms of three successive collisions of North America seems "too implausible even for a science fiction plot" (p. 114), but add that an understanding of plate tectonics makes the theory more palatable.
_Ollier (1990), on the other hand, states that fanciful plate-tectonic explanations ignore all the geomorphology and much of the known geological history of the Appalachians.
_He also says that of all the possible mechanisms that might account for the Alps, the collision of the African and European plates is the most naive.
_The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau were supposedly uplifted by the collision of the Indian plate with the Asian plate.
_However, this fails to explain why the beds on either side of the supposed collision zone remain comparatively undisturbed and low-dipping, whereas the Himalayas have been uplifted, supposedly as a consequence, some 100 km away, along with the Kunlun mountains to the north of the Tibetan Plateau.
_River terraces in various parts of the Himalayas are almost perfectly horizontal and untilted, suggesting that the Himalayas were uplifted vertically, rather than as the result of horizontal compression (Ahmad, 1990).
_Collision models generally assume that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau began during or after the early Eocene (post-50 million years), but paleontological, paleoclimatological, paleoecological, and sedimentological data conclusively show that major uplift could not have occurred before earliest Pliocene time (5 million years ago) (Meyerhoff, 1995).
_There is ample evidence that mantle heat flow and material transport can cause significant changes in crustal thickness, composition, and density, resulting in substantial uplifts and subsidences.
_This is emphasized in many of the alternative hypotheses to plate tectonics (for an overview, see Yano and Suzuki, 1999), such as the model of endogenous regimes (Beloussov, 1980, 1981, 1990, 1992; Pavlenkova, 1995, 1998).
_Plate tectonicists, too, increasingly invoke mantle diapirism as a mechanism for generating or promoting tectogenesis; there is now abundant evidence that shallow magma chambers are ubiquitous beneath active tectonic belts.
_The popular hypothesis that crustal stretching was the main cause of the formation of deep sedimentary basins on continental crust has been contradicted by numerous studies; mantle upwelling processes and lithospheric density increases are increasingly being recognized as an alternative mechanism (Pavlenkova, 1998; Artyushkov 1992; Artyushkov and Baer, 1983; Anfiloff, 1992; Zorin and Lepina, 1989).
_This may involve gabbro-eclogite phase transformations in the lower crust (Artyushkov 1992; Haxby, Turcotte, and Bird, 1976; Joyner, 1967), a process that has also been proposed as a possible explanation for the continuing subsidence of the North Sea Basin, where there is likewise no evidence of large-scale stretching (Collette, 1968).
_Plate tectonics predicts simple heat-flow patterns around the earth.
_There should be a broad band of high heat flow beneath the full length of the midocean rift system, and parallel bands of high and low heat flow along the Benioff zones.
_Intraplate regions are predicted to have low heat flow.
_The pattern actually observed is quite different.
_There are criss-crossing bands of high heat flow covering the entire surface of the earth (Meyerhoff et al., 1996a).
_Intra-plate volcanism is usually attributed to "mantle plumes" -- upwellings of hot material from deep in the mantle, presumably the core-mantle boundary.
_The movement of plates over the plumes is said to give rise to hotspot trails (chains of volcanic islands and seamounts).
_Such trails should therefore show an age progression from one end to the other, but a large majority show little or no age progression (Keith, 1993; Baksi, 1999).
_On the basis of geological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, Sheth (1999) argued that the plume hypothesis is ill-founded, artificial, and invalid, and has led earth scientists up a blind alley.
_Active tectonic belts are located in bands of high heat flow, which are also characterized by several other phenomena that do not readily fit in with the plate-tectonics hypothesis.
_These include: bands of microearthquakes (including "diffuse plate boundaries") that do not coincide with plate-tectonic predicted locations; segmented belts of linear faults, fractures, and fissures; segmented belts of mantle upwellings and diapirs; vortical geological structures; linear lenses of anomalous (low-velocity) upper mantle that are commonly overlain by shallower, smaller low-velocity zones; the existence of bisymmetrical deformation in all foldbelts, with coexisting states of compression and tension; strike-slip zones and similar tectonic lines ranging from simple rifts to Verschluckungszonen ("engulfment zones"); eastward-shifting tectonic-magmatic belts; and geothermal zones.
_Investigation of these phenomena has led to the development of a major new hypothesis of geodynamics, known as surge tectonics, which rejects both seafloor spreading and continental drift (Meyerhoff et al., 1992b, 1996a; Meyerhoff, 1995).
_Surge tectonics postulates that all the major features of the earth's surface, including rifts, foldbelts, metamorphic belts, and strike-slip zones, are underlain by shallow (less than 80 km) magma chambers and channels (known as "surge channels").
_Seismotomographic data suggest that surge channels form an interconnected worldwide network, which has been dubbed "the earth's cardiovascular system."
_Surge channels coincide with the lenses of anomalous mantle and associated low-velocity zones referred to above, and active channels are also characterized by high heat flow and microseismicity.
_Magma from the asthenosphere flows slowly through active channels at the rate of a few centimeters a year.
_Horizontal flow is demonstrated by two major surface features: linear, belt-parallel faults, fractures, and fissures; and the division of tectonic belts into fairly uniform segments.
_The same features characterize all lava flows and tunnels, and have also been observed on Mars, Venus, and several moons of the outer planets.
_Surge tectonics postulates that the main cause of geodynamics is lithosphere compression, generated by the cooling and contraction of the earth.
_As compression increases during a geotectonic cycle, it causes the magma to move through a channel in pulsed surges and eventually to rupture it, so that the contents of the channel surge bilaterally upward and outward to initiate tectogenesis.
_The asthenosphere (in regions where it is present) alternately contracts during periods of tectonic activity and expands during periods of tectonic quiescence.
_The earth's rotation, combined with differential lag between the more rigid lithosphere above and the more fluid asthenosphere below, causes the fluid or semifluid materials to move predominantly eastward.
_This explains the eastward migration through time of many magmatic or volcanic arcs, batholiths, rifts, depocenters, and foldbelts.

The Continents
_It is a striking fact that nearly all the sedimentary rocks composing the continents were laid down under the sea.
_The continents have suffered repeated marine inundations, but because sediments were mostly deposited in shallow water (less than 250 m), the seas are described as "epicontinental."
_Marine transgressions and regressions are usually attributed mainly to eustatic changes of sea level caused by alterations in the volume of midocean ridges.
_Van Andel (1994) points out that this explanation cannot account for the 100 or so briefer cycles of sea-level changes, especially since transgressions and regressions are not always simultaneous all over the globe.
_He proposes that large regions or whole continents must undergo slow vertical, epeirogenic movements, which he attributes to an uneven distribution of temperature and density in the mantle, combined with convective flow.
_Some workers have linked marine inundations and withdrawals to a global thermal cycle, bringing about continental uplift and subsidence (Rutland, 1982; Sloss and Speed, 1974).
_Van Andel (1994) admits that epeirogenic movements "fit poorly into plate tectonics" (p. 170), and are therefore largely ignored.
_Van Andel (1994) asserts that "plates" rise or fall by no more than a few hundred meters -- this being the maximum depth of most "epicontinental" seas.
_However, this overlooks an elementary fact: huge thicknesses of sediments were often deposited during marine incursions, often requiring vertical crustal movements of many kilometers.
_Sediments accumulate in regions of subsidence, and their thickness is usually close to the degree of downwarping.
_In the unstable, mobile belts bordering stable continental platforms, many geosynclinal troughs and circular depressions have accumulated sedimentary thicknesses of 10 to 14 km, and in some cases of 20 km.
_Although the sedimentary cover on the platforms themselves is often less than 1.5 km thick, basins with sedimentary thicknesses of 10 km and even 20 km are not unknown (C. B. Hunt, 1992; Dillon, 1974; Beloussov, 1981; Pavlenkova, 1998).
_Subsidence cannot be attributed solely to the weight of the accumulating sediments because the density of sedimentary rocks is much lower than that of the subcrustal material; for instance, the deposition of 1 km of marine sediment will cause only half a kilometer or so of subsidence (Holmes, 1965; Jeffreys, 1976).
_Moreover, sedimentary basins require not only continual depression of the base of the basin to accommodate more sediments, but also continuous uplift of adjacent land to provide a source for the sediments.
_In geosynclines, subsidence has commonly been followed by uplift and folding to produce mountain ranges, and this can obviously not be accounted for by changes in surface loading.
_The complex history of the oscillating uplift and subsidence of the crust appears to require deep-seated changes in lithospheric composition and density, and vertical and horizontal movements of mantle material.
_That density is not the only factor involved is shown by the fact that in regions of tectonic activity vertical movements often intensify gravity anomalies rather than acting to restore isostatic equilibrium.
_For example, the Greater Caucasus is overloaded, yet it is rising rather than subsiding (Beloussov, 1980; Jeffreys, 1976).
_In regions where all the sediments were laid down in shallow water, subsidence must somehow have kept pace with sedimentation.
_In eugeosynclines, on the other hand, subsidence proceeded faster than sedimentation, resulting in a marine basin several kilometers deep.
_Examples of eugeosynclines prior to the uplift stage are the Sayans in the Early Paleozoic, the eastern slope of the Urals in the Early and Middle Paleozoic, the Alps in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and the Sierra Nevada in the Triassic (Beloussov, 1980).
_Plate tectonicists often claim that geosynclines are formed solely at plate margins at the boundaries between continents and oceans.
_However, there are many examples of geosynclines having formed in intracontinental settings (Holmes, 1965), and the belief that the ophiolites found in certain geosynclinal areas are invariably remnants of oceanic crust is contradicted by a large volume of evidence (Beloussov, 1981; Bhat, 1987; Luts, 1990; Sheth, 1997).

The Oceans
_In the past, sialic clastic material has been transported to today's continents from the direction of the present-day oceans, where there must have been considerable areas of land that underwent erosion (Dickins, Choi, and Yeates, 1992; Beloussov, 1962).
_For instance, the Paleozoic geosyncline along the seaboard of eastern North America, an area now occupied by the Appalachian mountains, was fed by sialic clasts from a borderland ("Appalachia") in the adjacent Atlantic.
_Other submerged borderlands include the North Atlantic Continent or Scandia (west of Spitsbergen and Scotland), Cascadia (west of the Sierra Nevada), and Melanesia (southeast of Asia and east of Australia) (Umbgrove, 1947; Gilluly, 1955; Holmes, 1965).
_A million cubic kilometers of Devonian micaceous sediments from Bolivia to Argentina imply an extensive continental source to the west where there is now the deep Pacific Ocean (Carey, 1994).
_During Paleozoic-Mesozoic-Paleogene times, the Japanese geosyncline was supplied with sediments from land areas in the Pacific (Choi, 1984, 1987).
_When trying to explain sediment sources, plate tectonicists sometimes argue that sediments were derived from the existing continents during periods when they were supposedly closer together (Bahlburg, 1993; Dickins, 1994a; Holmes, 1965).
_Where necessary, they postulate small former land areas (microcontinents or island arcs), which have since been either subducted or accreted against continental margins as "exotic terranes" (Nur and Ben-Avraham, 1982; Kumon et al., 1988; Choi, 1984).
_However, mounting evidence is being uncovered that favors the foundering of sizable continental landmasses, whose remnants are still present under the ocean floor (see below).
_Oceanic crust is regarded as much thinner and denser than continental crust: the crust beneath oceans is said to average about 7 km thick and to be composed largely of basalt and gabbro, whereas continental crust averages about 35 km thick and consists chiefly of granitic rock capped by sedimentary rocks.
_However, ancient continental rocks and crustal types intermediate between standard "continental" and "oceanic" crust are increasingly being discovered in the oceans (Sanchez Cela, 1999), and this is a serious embarrassment for plate tectonics.
_The traditional picture of the crust beneath oceans being universally thin and graniteless may well be further undermined in the future, as oceanic drilling and seismic research continue.
_One difficulty is to distinguish the boundary between the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle in areas where high- and low-velocity layers alternate (Orlenok, 1986; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Bhat, 1992).
_For example, the crust under the Kuril deep-sea basin is 8 km thick if the 7.9 km/s velocity layer is taken as the crust-mantle boundary (Moho), but 20-30 km thick if the 8.2 or 8.4 km/s layer is taken as the Moho (Tuezov, 1998).
_Small ocean basins cover an area equal to about 5% of that of the continents, and are characterized by transitional types of crust (Menard, 1967).
_This applies to the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the Japan Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean, the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, and the marginal (back-arc) basins along the western side of the Pacific (Beloussov and Ruditch, 1961; Ross, 1974; Sheridan, 1974; Choi, 1984; Grant, 1992).
_In plate tectonics, the origin of marginal basins, with their complex crustal structure, has remained an enigma, and there is no basis for the assumption that some kind of seafloor spreading must be involved; rather, they appear to have originated by vertical tectonics (Storetvedt, 1997; Wezel, 1986).
_Some plate tectonicists have tried to explain the transitional crust of the Caribbean in terms of the continentalization of a former deep ocean area, thereby ignoring the stratigraphic evidence that the Caribbean was a land area in the Early Mesozoic (Van Bemmelen, 1972).
_There are over 100 submarine plateaus and aseismic ridges scattered throughout the oceans, many of which were once subaerially exposed (Nur and Ben-Avraham, 1982; Dickins, Choi, and Yeates, 1992; Storetvedt, 1997).
_They make up about 10% of the ocean floor.
_Many appear to be composed of modified continental crust 20-40 km thick -- far thicker than "normal" oceanic crust.
_They often have an upper 10-15 km crust with compressional-wave velocities typical of granitic rocks in continental crust.
_They have remained obstacles to predrift continental fits, and have therefore been interpreted as extinct spreading ridges, anomalously thickened oceanic crust, or subsided continental fragments carried along by the "migrating" seafloor.
_If seafloor spreading is rejected, they cease to be anomalous and can be interpreted as submerged, in-situ continental fragments that have not been completely "oceanized."
_Shallow-water deposits ranging in age from mid-Jurassic to Miocene, as well as igneous rocks showing evidence of subaerial weathering, were found in 149 of the first 493 boreholes drilled in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
_These shallow-water deposits are now found at depths ranging from 1 to 7 km, demonstrating that many parts of the present ocean floor were once shallow seas, shallow marshes, or land areas (Orlenok, 1986; Timofeyev and Kholodov, 1984).
_From a study of 402 oceanic boreholes in which shallow-water or relatively shallow-water sediments were found, Ruditch (1990) concluded that there is no systematic correlation between the age of shallow-water accumulations and their distance from the axes of the midoceanic ridges, thereby disproving the seafloor-spreading model.
_Some areas of the oceans appear to have undergone continuous subsidence, whereas others experienced alternating episodes of subsidence and elevation.
_The Pacific Ocean appears to have formed mainly from the Late Jurassic to the Miocene, the Atlantic Ocean from the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Eocene, and the Indian Ocean during the Paleocene and Eocene.
_In the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, modified continental crust (mostly 10-20 km thick) underlies not only ridges and plateaus but most of the ocean floor; only in deep-water depressions is typical oceanic crust found.
_Since deep-sea drilling has shown that large areas of the North Atlantic were previously covered with shallow seas, it is possible that much of the North Atlantic was continental crust before its rapid subsidence (Pavlenkova, 1995, 1998; Sanchez Cela, 1999).
_Lower Paleozoic continental rocks with trilobite fossils have been dredged from seamounts scattered over a large area northeast of the Azores.
_Furon (1949) concluded that the continental cobbles had not been carried there by icebergs and that the area concerned was a submerged continental zone.
_Bald Mountain, from which a variety of ancient continental material has been dredged, could certainly be a foundered continental fragment.
_In the equatorial Atlantic, shallow-water and continental rocks are ubiquitous (Timofeyev et al., 1992; Udintsev, 1996).
_There is evidence that the midocean ridge system was shallow or partially emergent in Cretaceous to Early Tertiary time.
_For instance, in the Atlantic subaerial deposits have been found on the North Brazilian Ridge (Bader et al., 1971), near the Romanche and Vema fracture zones adjacent to equatorial sectors of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Bonatti and Chermak, 1981; Bonatti and Honnorez, 1971), on the crest of the Reykjanes Ridge, and in the Faeroe-Shetland region (Keith, 1993).
_Oceanographic and geological data suggest that a large part of the Indian Ocean, especially the eastern part, was land ("Lemuria") from the Jurassic until the Miocene.
_The evidence includes seismic and palynological data and subaerial weathering which suggest that the Broken and Ninety East Ridges were part of an extensive, now sunken landmass; extensive drilling, seismic, magnetic, and gravity data pointing to the existence an Alpine-Himalayan foldbelt in the northwestern Indian Ocean, associated with a foundered continental basement; data that continental basement underlies the Scott, Exmouth, and Naturaliste plateaus west of Australia; and thick Triassic and Jurassic sedimentation on the western and northwestern shelves of the Australian continent which shows progradation and current direction indicating a western source (Dickins, 1994a; Udintsev, Illarionov, and Kalinin, 1990; Udintsev and Koreneva, 1982; Wezel, 1988).
_Geological, geophysical, and dredging data provide strong evidence for the presence of Precambrian and younger continental crust under the deep abyssal plains of the present northwest Pacific (Choi, Vasil'yev, and Tuezov, 1990; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Bhat, 1992).
_Most of this region was either subaerially exposed or very shallow sea during the Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic, and first became deep sea about the end of the Jurassic.
_Paleolands apparently existed on both sides of the Japanese islands.
_They were largely emergent during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic-Paleogene, but were totally submerged during Paleogene to Miocene times.
_Those on the Pacific side included the great Oyashio paleoland and the Kuroshio paleoland.
_The latter, which was as large as the present Japanese islands and occupied the present Nankai Trough area, subsided in the Miocene, at the same time as the upheaval of the Shimanto geosyncline, to which it had supplied vast amounts of sediments (Choi, 1984, 1987; Harata et al., 1978; Kumon et al., 1988).
_There is also evidence of paleolands in the southwest Pacific around Australia (Choi, 1997) and in the southeast Pacific during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Choi, 1998; Isaacson, 1975; Bahlburg, 1993; Isaacson and Martinez, 1995).
_After surveying the extensive evidence for former continental land areas in the present oceans, Dickins, Choi, and Yeates (1992) concluded:
_We are surprised and concerned for the objectivity and honesty of science that such data can be overlooked or ignored. ...
_There is a vast need for future Ocean Drilling Program initiatives to drill below the base of the basaltic ocean floor crust to confirm the real composition of what is currently designated oceanic crust.
_(p. 198)

Conclusion
_Plate tectonics -- the reigning paradigm in the earth sciences -- faces some very severe and apparently fatal problems.
_Far from being a simple, elegant, all-embracing global theory, it is confronted with a multitude of observational anomalies, and has had to be patched up with a complex variety of ad-hoc modifications and auxiliary hypotheses.
_The existence of deep continental roots and the absence of a continuous, global asthenosphere to "lubricate" plate motions, have rendered the classical model of plate movements untenable.
_There is no consensus on the thickness of the "plates" and no certainty as to the forces responsible for their supposed movement.
_The hypotheses of large-scale continental movements, seafloor spreading and subduction, and the relative youth of the oceanic crust are contradicted by a substantial volume of data.
_Evidence for significant amounts of submerged continental crust in the present-day oceans provides another major challenge to plate tectonics.
_The fundamental principles of plate tectonics therefore require critical reexamination, revision, or rejection.

45
LK4 Continental Drift & Orogeny / REQUIREMENTS OF PLATE TECTONICS
« on: March 16, 2017, 08:45:26 pm »
204 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 2, June 2016. www.ncgt.org
Critical analysis of the plate tectonics model and causes of horizontal tectonic movements
Arkady Pilchin
Universal Geosciences & Environmental Consulting Company
205 Hilda Ave., #1402
Toronto, Ontario, M2M 4B1, Canada.
arkadypilchin@yahoo.ca
- Abstract: The main problems of the plate tectonics model are discussed in the paper. It is shown that the idea of mantle-wide convection, as well as convection within any thick mantle layer, violates the laws of physics and is therefore impossible. Analysis of the forces postulated for the model reveals that their values are very low and would be incapable of forming and supporting any significant tectonic processes (e.g., obduction, orogeny, uplifting of lithospheric block, subduction, and others). There is no clear definition of the forces operating in plate tectonics and movement of plates; and even their application is incorrect, as they violate physical laws by ignoring friction and strength limits. Formation of a new oceanic lithosphere in spreading centers violates physical laws, because it is not possible to have a plate which would independently form all its main layers of the oceanic lithosphere over tens to hundreds of millions of years in underwater conditions, building up in ~1 cm long, 50 km thick and thousands of kilometers wide increments each year, all to combine into a thousands of kilometers long solid oceanic plate, separated into its layers. There are inconsistencies between the total lengths of mid-ocean ridges (total length of the mid-ocean ridge system is ~80,000 km and the continuous mountain range is 65,000 km) and the total length of trenches (30,000-40,000 km) on the sea floor, but according to the plate tectonics model the total length of trenches should be twice as long as that of mid-ocean ridges (~130,000-160,000 km). There is also data indicating the impossibility for subduction to take place around the Atlantic (except a few locations) and Arctic oceans. Any oceanic lithosphere plate (slab) with a thickness of ~50 km is composed of three main layers: brittle upper layer with a temperature less than ~573 K; elastic middle layer with temperatures within the range of ~573-873 K; and plastic lower layer with a temperature of over ~873 K, and cannot be considered rigid. Analysis of possible density of subducting slabs shows that under any circumstances the average density of an oceanic lithosphere plate cannot be greater than rocks of the upper mantle, and formation of negative buoyancy should therefore not be possible; even transformation of the entire crust of any region into eclogite would be insufficient to form a negative buoyancy of even 0.01 g/cm3. It is shown that the subduction process requires presence of gigantic external force. An oceanic plate has an average geothermal gradient of ~50-86 K/km, and a temperature of about 1573 K (or 1603 K) at the point of contact between its lithosphere and asthenosphere, so it cannot technically be considered cold. There are also numerous questions in the model unanswered thus far. Formation of UHP rocks cannot be accomplished within a subduction zone under lithostatic pressures alone. Analysis of causes for the formation of significant overpressure shows that only the decomposition of rocks (foremost the serpentinization of peridotite) can generate such giant forces capable of horizontally moving oceanic plates. It is clear that the plate tectonics model is inconsistent as a model, violates numerous physical laws, and is based on a large number of false postulates and assumptions.

Table 1. Some key postulates, assumptions, and requirements of the plate tectonics model. Postulate; Assumption or Requirement; Reference
_The Earth's surface consists of number of rigid plates (e.g., 12 plates): Morgan, 1968
_Plates move relative to each other with a speed of ~1–10 cm yr−1: Richter, 1973a
_Rigidity of lithospheric plates is one of the fundamental tenets of plate tectonics: Solomon et al., 1975; Anderson, 2007a
_Mantle convection with large convection cells is the main cause of plate motion*: Chapple and Tullis, 1977; Anderson, 1989
_Mantle convection is the driver of the Earth’s tectonic system: Holmes, 1931, 1944
_Thermal convection in some form is the only source of sufficient energy: McKenzie, 1969
_The energy for convection is provided by the decay of radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium, as well as the cooling and crystallization of Earth: Anderson, 1989
_Sea floor spreading is related to mid-ocean ridges and the formation of oceanic crust and upper mantle in them: Hess 1962; Dietz 1961
_Formation of new oceanic crust/lithosphere within mid-ocean ridges requires the consumption of the lithosphere in subduction zones (e.g., within trenches and island arcs): McKenzie, 1969
_Subduction commonly involves convergence and underthrusting of adjacent lithospheric plates, but may involve downfolding within a single plate: White et al., 1970
_A peak subduction rate is about 5 cm per year: Mahatsente and Ranalli, 2004
Slabs sink into the mantle because they are cold and dense: Anderson, 2007a
_The cooler subducting lithosphere is heavier than the underlying mantle, and it drags the attached plate: Elsasser, 1967; Cruciani et al., 2005
_Plate tectonics is driven by negative buoyancy of the outer shell: Richardson, 1992; Anderson, 2001
_To start the subduction process, an oceanic plate must be negatively buoyant: McKenzie, 1969; Elsasser, 1969
_To generate negative buoyancy, the subducting plate must contain significant amount of eclogite: Anderson, 2007a
_Initiation of plate movement is directed by the plate boundary and plate body forces, of which the main ones are: basal drag, ridge push, slab pull, trench suction, and collisional resistance: Richardson, 1992
_Plate tectonics is a far-from-equilibrium self-organized system: Anderson, 2001, 2002a, 2007a; Stern, 2007
_Self-sustaining subduction occurs when the negative buoyancy within a subduction zone is sufficiently large: Gurnis et al., 2004
* - in a number of cases some postulates, assumptions and requirements represent amalgamations of postulates, assumptions and requirements (e.g., about convection, sea floor spreading, subduction, negative buoyancy

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