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Updates / Re: UPDATES
« Last post by Admin on March 23, 2019, 07:43:56 pm »

Can Flood Geology Explain the Fossil Record?
1. Precambrian: Pre-Flood
2. Cambrian: Heavy rain ...; Erosion, deposition of ocean sediments; formation of Precam/Cam. unconformity
3. Ordovician: Rising water; coarse to fine grading of sediments
4. Silurian: High water; deposition of thick shale & limestone
5. Devonian: Tidal & wave action; cyclothems; rhythmic deposition
6. MS-PA: Water covers all land; formation of coal; lowland forest burial
7. Permian: Rain stops, wind blows; cross-bedded sandstones
8. Triassic: Mountains rise; moving continents
9. Jurassic: Waters start to recede; Mountain-building
10. Cretaceous: Major erosion of new mountains; guyots
11. Paleocene: Fossilization of reptiles; coal formation; upland forest burial
12. Eocene-Oligocene: Water continues to recede; fossilization of mammals; continental margin sediment; less dense strata
13. Miocene: Major volcanism
14. Pliocene: Localized sediments & valley fills
15. Pleistocene: Post-Flood erosion; glaciation
16. Recent:
_... the Palaeozoic cannot represent submarine deposition and the Permo-Mesozoic the transgression of pre-Flood seas over the land because the Palaeozoic itself represents that transgression — the marine deposits of that era lie over continental deposits, not Precambrian ocean floors.
_ The Lower Cambrian quartzite above the unconformity also shows evidence of rapid deposition.60 In Scotland there are two unconformities below the Cambrian. The earlier separates the Lewisian gneiss from the overlying Stoer and Torridon Groups; the later unconformity comes between these and the Cambrian quartzite. In Arizona, similarly, there is an unconformity between the Vishnu Schist and the overlying Unkar and Chuar Groups (consisting of limestone, shale, sandstone and conglomerate) and a second between these and the Tapeats Sandstone ('The Great Unconformity').61 The two regions bear close comparison. The Torridonian Sandstone testifies, in its 'fluid evulsion structures', to sediment dumping on a massive scale, just as do similar features in the Unkar Group. These deposits above the metamorphosed rocks of the Precambrian — regularly thousands of metres thick — constitute the rocks which were eroded when the fountains of the deep broke open. The horizontal surface of trans-gression at the later unconformity marks the violent incoming of the sea some weeks later. Ager remarks that an unfossiliferous quartzite lying conformably below fossiliferous Lower Cambrian and unconformably above a great variety of Precambrian rocks — exactly the situation in Scotland — occurs 'very commonly around the world'. Indeed, 'It is not only the quartzite, but the whole deepening succession that tends to turn up almost everywhere, i.e. a basal conglomerate, followed by the orthoquartzite, followed by glauconitic sandstones, followed by marine shales and thin limestones. '62 The lateral persistence of this succession is striking enough. What is yet more striking is that it represents an overall grading of particle sizes, from very coarse at the bottom to very fine at the top. This is the sort of 'upward-fining' pattern which one often finds in a series of beds, such as a cyclothem. In other words, the whole succession has the unity characteristic of a single episode of erosion and deposition, during which material is eroded by fast-moving currents, held in suspension, and then water-sorted as current velocity wanes — as a result, for example, of the water becoming deeper. Commonly a coarse lithology prevails at the bottom of the Cambrian succession (conglomerates and sandstones), a fine lithology at the top (limestone and dolomite), while shales, silts and mudstones occur in-between.63  Widespread carbonate deposition continues until the end of the Lower Ordovician, after which a surface of erosion marks an unconformity over much of North America.64 Marking the end of one continuous sequence, this would seem to represent, so far as North America is concerned, the virtual completion of transgression over the continent, followed by a steep increase in bioturbation as current strength and sedimentation rates decreased.65 
_Except over the Transcontinental Arch, Cambrian rocks are found throughout the North American interior. Those regions where they are absent were either source areas for deposition elsewhere or eroded subsequently; there is no evidence of any pristine topography. By the Upper Ordovician the process was complete: the sea had spread eastwards and westwards across most, probably all,74 of the continent — after the entire Precambrian land surface had been broken up, inundated and redeposited. If we adopt Austin's own estimate of the speed of transgression, upwards of two metres per second, 500 miles would have been covered in 4-5 days. If we halve this rate in order to take account of higher elevations inland, the whole continent could have been transgressed within four weeks. Cambrian rocks, often with an unconformity at their base, are of worldwide occurrence, making it possible that by the Upper Ordovician every part of the earth was deluged. 
_ ...  there is no trace of a vegetated terrestrial surface at that time anywhere. The spores and woody plant material recovered from Cambrian strata76"79 occur in sedimentary deposits and are not therefore in their original locations. ...  it seems clear that the Upper Precambrian to Lower Ordovician transgression must be placed within the first 150 days of the Genesis record. Accordingly, all Cambrian deposits must be Flood deposits, and wherever they are found, the land must be already under water. At that point the possibility of pristine land surfaces comes to an end, until a new surface emerges out of the Flood. ... In reality, although extensive regions may once have been underwater shelves, in general the continents of today are undoubtedly fragments of the supercontinent before the Flood. It follows, therefore, that the Lower Palaeozoic marine animals fossilised in, say, Iowa, hundreds of miles inland from the pre-Flood shore, must have been transported enormous distances (Figure 5). Because the whole Earth was under water well before the end of the Lower Palaeozoic, it is impossible to explain assemblages after the Lower Palaeozoic — including terrestrial assemblages — as originating from nearby provinces which had not yet been inundated.
_Did Animals Escape to Higher Ground? ... The Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian deposits exposed on the Earth today are marine and igneous deposits overlying a Precambrian basement, and that basement is the scoured remains of the primeval supercontinent. Strata at the pre-Flood boundary do not represent the surfaces of pre-Flood sea bottoms, while none of today's ocean floors are older than Mesozoic. The Atlantic Ocean, for instance, originated in the Jurassic, when 'Pangaea' rifted apart and new seafloor spread out from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.94 ... Terrestrial animals are totally absent from strata of the Lower Palaeozoic because they were obliterated: 'In seven days I will send rain upon the earth . . . and every living thing that I have made I will blot out from the face of the ground.' (Genesis 7:4)
_Again, it is important to keep in mind the violence of events during the first six weeks of the Flood. In still waters the corpses of most terrestrial animals will float on the surface, and a few will sink to the bottom. In turbulent waters bodies which are heavier than water take longer to sink, and in the meantime are subject to processes which rapidly reduce them to nothing: physical dismemberment through continual buffeting, consumption by scavengers and predators (sharks, marine reptiles, carnivorous fish), abrasion and pulverisation in churning sediments, chemical and bacterial decomposition. In the conditions of the first 40 days — beginning with the stripping of the original land surface to depths of thousands of metres — it is difficult to imagine that any remains of land animals could have survived in recognizable form. With its widespread volcanism and metamorphism, the Upper Precambrian record suggests that land animals were annihilated almost instantly, by processes other than drowning and decay.
_ The advantage of the fishes, which also would have been borne along by the currents, was that they could swim away once the currents slackened and their sediment loads began to settle. It is this circumstance which explains why they scarcely ever appear in Cambrian strata. Fish that were already dead when the currents slackened would tend to have been buried higher up than the invertebrates because of their greater buoyancy. The mass burials of fish which, in the Palaeozoic, occur in Devonian strata were mostly the result of shoals being overwhelmed by epicontinental landslides while they were still alive. Since the conditions most favourable for such burials were shallow waters near emerging land, they are evidence that by the early Devonian the Flood was already waning.98
_...  temporary surfaces were being colonised during the Flood itself, sometimes by creatures that had come into existence during the Flood. It is unlikely to be the case that a broken brachiopod in some Silurian deposit was spawned on a preFlood seafloor and then transported hundreds of miles to its burial place; it might have been spawned on an Ordovician surface which was several months later eroded away, by the same powerful currents that broke its shell.
_There were in fact earlier orogenies, notably the stupendous Caledonian and Variscan orogenies of the Palaeozoic, and these were followed by a period of relative stability during the Triassic, Jurassic and much of the Cretaceous. In the Mesozoic there is no juncture where the whole Earth could be said to have been thenceforth under water. That juncture is to be found only in the Ordovician, whereas as we shall consider presently, dry-land structures occur all through the Mesozoic: subaerially deposited basalts, aeolian red beds, root beds, bird and animal tracks, dinosaur nests and so on. Nor is there a juncture still higher in the Mesozoic where it is possible to claim that the first surfaces began to emerge from the water. That juncture is to be found much earlier at the end of the Silurian.
_The Coal Measures Coal does not occur in the geological column until the Upper Devonian. On northern continents it is most abundant in the Upper Carboniferous, on southern continents (the original Gondwana) it abounds in the Permian, and in both cases the deposits are nearly all located on the then continental margins. A second concentration of coal deposits begins in the Cretaceous and climaxes in the Tertiary (see Figure 3). Since this pattern of distribution is worldwide and can hardly be fortuitous, it requires an explanation.
_The answer, so far as the Permo-Carboniferous is concerned, must be that the measures represent forests of aquatic vegetation — thick platforms of interlocking roots and entangled debris, covering thousands of squares of miles —which were grounded as the waters continued to drain off the land after the Flood year. Successive currents washed the vegetation (including flotsam) into deepening offshore basins, while prograding sediments from the land spread out under the water and thereby anchored the forests.120 ... Soon after a raft of vegetation became anchored in shallow-water sediments, the progressive sinking of the sediments pulled the vegetation below water level in advance of the next prograding cycle. Such processes clearly require time. Within the 800 m thick succession of Pennsylvanian deposits in the Eastern Interior Basin of Illinois and Indiana no less than 51 separate delta advances have been distinguished.121 Together with other evidences of time in the Upper Carboniferous, the cyclothems cannot be satisfactorily explained as the deposits of a few months.
_It is noteworthy that in many places Devonian strata constitute the uppermost rocks of the Appalachian Plateau.125 Elsewhere the record ends with the Lower or Upper Carboniferous, for example in Virginia, Indiana and Tennessee. Far from showing increasing inundation, the Devonian was the time when the Appalachian Mountains began to be uplifted — a process which continued into the Triassic. Drainage off the emergent slopes resulted in the formation of coarse-grained meander-belts below, above and at the same level as the coalfields immediately west of the Appalachians, until the conditions for sedimentary deposition in the area ceased.126 Similar drainage channels have been reported from the British coalfields.127
Updates / Re: UPDATES
« Last post by Admin on March 23, 2019, 04:09:43 pm »
Large cratonic basins likely of impact origin
… Phase change problem. The mechanism of phase change seems to be the only viable uniformitarian mechanism for basin subsidence. For instance, if basalt or gabbro subside, the lithostatic pressure increases and the rock can change to eclogite, which is 15% denser with 15% less volume. The required pressure is that of the lower crust and upper mantle. So if basalt and gabbro can subside to about 40–60 km depth, this phase transformation can potentially occur and the basin will subside more. This is a reasonable idea, except where does the initial subsidence come from? Furthermore, the phase transformation from gabbro to eclogite requires water,18 and there is rarely any significant water at the depth of the lower crust and upper mantle.
_Properties of basins. … Thick sedimentary rocks
Basins are almost always filled with sedimentary rocks, which are sometimes extremely thick. Some depths will be given in the examples of basins below, but other basins not mentioned are the East Barents Basin in the Barents Sea, north of Norway, that has about 20 km of sedimentary rocks; the West Siberian Basin with about 8 km of sedimentary rocks; the Tarim Basin of central Asia with 15 km of sedimentary rocks; and the Paranà Basin in South America with about 7 km of sedimentary rocks.21
_Little deformation during sedimentation. An examination of those rocks reveals that the sediments underwent little deformation when deposited in the basin.13,22 Figure 1 shows sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup, which are typically undeformed within the bedding planes and formations, but the whole supergroup is deformed as a single unit, suggesting that deformation occurred after the whole supergroup was deposited.
_The crust is commonly thinned in basins. It has been discovered by seismic and gravity anomaly methods that the crust below a basin is commonly thinned. Artyushkov states: “Considerable thinning of the crystalline crust occurs under most deep basins located on continents.”15 Along with a thinned crust, the Moho, the boundary between the crust and mantle, is commonly raised (see figure 2).
_Some basins uplifted and deformed. Another significant observation on basins applies to sedimentary basins in which the sedimentary rocks are uplifted and folded by compression and differential vertical tectonics.22 Practically all uplift occurs after the sediments have been deposited and turned to sedimentary rock. During uplift, the sedimentary rocks are folded and faulted with the top eroded. Such uplifted sedimentary rocks form many of the mountain ranges of the world today and would not impress anyone that they were once in a deep basin.
_In the case of an impact origin, no subsidence is needed to form the basin; an instant circular ‘hole’ in the ground is blasted out. Subsidence or uplift may occur after the basin is filled with sediments.
_... the Flood impact submodel postulates thousands of impacts occurred early in the Flood. One major effect of such a large amount of impacts is to blast a huge amount of debris up into the air in the form of ejecta. All this sediment would end up in the floodwater and would eventually be deposited. A second major effect of so many impacts is that powerful currents would develop, sometimes interfering with each other. So, the combination of powerful currents and a huge amount of sediment would be rapid sedimentation in deep basins where currents are expected to be weaker and allow sedimentation. So, early Flood impact craters are expected to rapidly fill with sediments, since the crater acts like a sediment trap (see figure 8a). Sedimentation was likely so rapid that the sediments were little deformed by subsequent movements of the crater bottom and walls.
_Large basins of North America
There are five large basins on the stable craton of North America that I will briefly discuss. These basins are the Belt, Williston, Illinois, Michigan, and Hudson Bay Basins.
_Two basins of note on other continents. … The South Caspian Basin. … The Congo Basin.
_The two largest recognized Precambrian impact features, the Vredefort and Sudbury impact structures, have been eroded anywhere from 5 to 10 km.70 In a Flood setting, with thousands of impacts in a short time, turbulent currents would be expected to create significant erosion that also would destroy shatter cones, PDFs, and other impact features.
_Discussion. ... There are hundreds of cratonic basins that could be discussed, some of which have been discussed elsewhere.74 ... Tectonics, erosion, and sedimentation during the Genesis Flood are expected to destroy much of the evidence for impact craters. But, cratonic basins would be one of the most obvious evidences of large, modified impact craters.

Updates / Re: UPDATES
« Last post by Admin on March 23, 2019, 03:28:13 pm »
What do impacts accomplish in the first hour?
Larger impact craters on Earth, although almost destroyed, might however have thinned the crust and raised the Moho. The amount of crustal thinning and the height of the Moho above the average are the main factors that determine the type and size of the gravity anomaly. …  The final crater shape is usually set within about 400 to 800 seconds.21
Planetary-scale properties can be changed. …  Moreover, the rebound is now thought to overshoot the original ground surface and reach many kilometres higher (figure 7).26 During the rebound, the rock acts like a fluid, but it is unknown how this happens, although there are a number of mechanisms attempting to explain this phenomenon.30 Based on the standard ratio of impact depth to diameter, the large and very large impacts on the moon should have blasted well down into the moon’s mantle. However, mantle rocks exposed from impacts on the moon’s surface are extremely rare.31 The conundrum of the missing mantle rocks implies that the transient crater depth was much shallower than expected. Basins on Mars between 275 and 1,000 km in diameter are also shallower with less crustal thinning than expected.32 The puzzle is especially evident in an analysis of possibly the largest impact basin in the solar system, the South PoleAitken Basin on the moon. The diameter is 2,500 km, but there are no mantle rocks. None of the mantle was tapped during such a huge impact,33 and very little basalt flowed into this crater.
_Impacts in water. Impacts in water of course are different from those that strike land. If the impact is small compared to the depth of water, there will be little cratering on the bottom.41 For asteroids with diameters about the depth of the water or greater, the water will have little or no effect on the cratering process. The rebound of the centre of the crater immediately after impact would mostly be a pulse of water shooting high into the air.
_The most significant effect of impacts striking water is that a fair amount of water will be blasted up into the air42 and large tsunamis will result. In the excavation of an oceanic crater, a thin layer of water is ejected from the rim almost straight up, which soon collapses and plunges onto the water surface (figure 8 ). So impacts cause water to shoot high into the atmosphere at both the rim and the centre of the impact. Could this be what is described in the Bible as “on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open” (Genesis 7:11b)?  Much water is also vaporized during transport to the upper atmosphere: “Another important difference between continental and oceanic impacts is the vaporization of water expanding as a vapor cloud in the upper atmosphere. Earth’s climate and atmospheric circulation may be severely perturbed by the injection of a large amount of vapor … .”43 The above statement was made assuming one impact. However, with multiple impacts occurring simultaneously during the very early Flood, a huge amount of water vapor, and probably also liquid water, would be injected into the atmosphere and above.44 The liquid and vapor would be spread all around the earth by the upper winds and general circulation of the earth, whatever that was before the Flood, and fall as torrential worldwide rain early in the Flood. Such a rainfall would tend to slow up as the number of impacts decreased early in the Flood. But, it would still take many days before all the water fell out of the atmosphere by gravity. Such an impact mechanism can easily explain the 40 days and night[ s] of heavy rain over the earth.
_Impacts in water cause tsunamis. The size of the tsunami wave is related to the projectile diameter, but it will be different than a tsunami resulting from a large earthquake. Tsunamis would move at hundreds of m/sec away from the impact, and as they move through deep water they are large swells that may not even be detected on board a ship. It is only in shallow water that a tsunami builds up to a giant wave. Impacts cause two groups of tsunamis: one from the pushing outward of water at the rim and the other from the collapse of the central uplift, which will follow the rim wave (figure 8 ). Impact tsunamis decay much faster than earthquake-­induced waves. There are two reasons for this weaker tsunami for the same amount of energy. First, a resurge flow returning water back into the crater would diminish the strength of the tsunami waves and also help fill up the crater with debris.45 Second, since impact tsunamis are much larger, the breaking of the wave in shallow water starts on the edge of the continental shelf and not near the beach.46 Breaking so far from shore dissipates much of its energy, and the roll up on land would be much less than expected.
non­random distribution of large impacts on the moon ... would suggest that the largest impacts hit the near side before the moon barely rotated one quarter of its axis. ... the straightforward interpretation of the observations indicates that the very large impacts struck the moon quickly before it could rotate much.48 [One 4th of 29 days = 7+ days.]
... if over 36,000 impacts occurred during the one­year Flood and mostly at the beginning, the bombardment would be much more complicated. There would be additional geophysical and geological effects, such as some areas of Earth becoming saturated from multiple, simultaneous impacts; interference from tsunami waves and atmospheric winds from different asteroids; large areas of the earth losing variable amounts of its crust; massive volcanism; etc. The concept of so many impacts striking quickly is a major challenge to understand within a Flood model. Nevertheless I am compelled to try, and any mistakes I make can be corrected by other creationists. The idea of more than 36,000 craters greater than 30 km in diameter, all occurring within one year, is a shocking idea to many creationists. But I believe the deduction is sound, based on what we observe on other solid solar system bodies, especially on the moon. I might add that over the years a number of creationists have proposed that impacts initiated the Flood or at least triggered catastrophic plate tectonics (CPT), which caused the Flood. Carl Froede Jr has conveniently referenced those creationist papers.67 There certainly was enough energy to cause a Flood, produce the sediments, create basins, cause vertical tectonics, etc. Tens of thousands of impacts would help level high pre­Flood terrain by blasting mountains to pieces, but other mountains would form as a result of the central uplift and the uplifted rim. The debris would tend to fill up low terrain, contributing to the leveling of the earth. For a planet with so much water, such a leveling would have the net effect of flooding the entire earth. This could be the reason why the floodwater covered all the land by Day 150.

Updates / UPDATES
« Last post by Admin on March 17, 2019, 08:48:08 pm »

Where is the Flood/post-Flood Boundary? (Mesozoic host sediments are post-Flood)

The fossil record - Becoming more random all the time
The reality of the geologic column is predicated on the belief that fossils have restricted ranges in rock strata. In actuality, as more and more fossils are found, the ranges of fossils keep increasing. I provide a few recent examples of this, and then show that stratigraphic-range extension is not the exception but the rule. The constant extension of ranges simultaneously reduces the credibility of the geologic column and organic evolution, and makes it easier for the Genesis Flood to explain an increasingly-random fossil record.

Reliable data disconfirm a late Cenozoic post-Flood boundary
post-Flood boundary lies deeper, likely at or near the K-Pg boundary

SOURCES + OUTLINE / Creation Science Sites
« Last post by Admin on February 23, 2019, 02:45:50 pm »

Creation Research Society

Creation Ministries International

Creation Science Articles

Institute for Creation Research

Center for Scientific Creation

SOURCES + OUTLINE / Catastrophist Video Channels
« Last post by Admin on February 17, 2019, 11:39:05 am »
Cosmic Tusk

Antonio Zamora's Younger Dryas Impact etc Channel

Brien Foerster's Ancient Tech Channel

Mystery History's Ancient Tech Channel

Phenomenal Travel Videos (Advanced Ancient Tech)

Ancient Architects Channel

CMI Creation Station

Northwest Creation Network

Bright Insight's Catastrophism & Ancient Tech Channel

Ancient Amnesia

The Electric View

Thunderbolts Project


Disclosed TruthTV

Charles Kos

Pangaea Republic


All Things Human

Randall Carlson's Catastrophist GeoCosmic REX Channel

Sacred Geometry International

LK4 Continental Drift & Orogeny / ICE AGE
« Last post by Admin on January 18, 2019, 09:57:50 pm »

Only one glaciation, Michael Oard

What caused the Ice Age?

Non-glacial landforms indicate thin Scandinavian and British-Irish Ice Sheets

Do Greenland ice cores show over one hundred thousand years of annual layers?

Are the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets old?

Updates / THOTH
« Last post by Admin on January 01, 2019, 06:40:32 pm »
Thoth from

The Ship of Heaven [Aeon Journal]
... be understood apart from the basic character of the enclosed sun. Illuminated by the solar orb, Saturn's celestial dwelling presented a brightly lit half, so that as the Earth turned on its axis, earthbound observers saw two revolving semicircles of light and shadow moving in a vast pathway around the stationary orb of Saturn. Hence, our model implies that the ship was part and parcel of the sun god's enclosure. In the Egyptian Pyramid Texts, King Unas announces, "I revolve round heaven like Ra, I sail round heaven like Thoth." (23) While Ra's image is the enclosed sun, the common symbol of Thoth is the crescent-enclosure. Allowing the one image to explain the other, we see that Unas does not here engage in two separate acts, but in a single act depicted in two different ways: to revolve within the Aten is to sail in the crescent ship of Thoth. "I stand up in thy enclosure, O Maa; I sail round about," reads the Book of the Dead. (24) From such

The Hermes Connection [Aeon Journal]
... the Hindu Siva (Shiva). A revitalization of the hermetic legends in Egypt was brought to full fruition by Seti the Great of the Tanitic Dynasty-- in the second half of the 7th century B.C., according to the historical reconstruction of Velikovsky. Seti's royal name was taken from the dark god Set, another Saturnian image or avatar, whom Wallis Budge claimed was equated with Hermes/Mercury, (12) although this identification stems from the late Ptolemaic period. Seti's formalized regnal association was with the comparable Egyptian deity Thoth (12a), who is equated with Hermes. (13) Thus, Velikovsky's historiographic analysis is supported by this association. A comparison of a "dark god" with other ancient attributes pertaining to a bright effulgence presents a duality often encountered in myth. In Roman lore, for example, the Siva-like god of beginnings and endings, who was secondary only to Jupiter (Zeus), was the two-faced Janus Bifrons who also wore the broad-brimmed hat, the petasus. This Janus evolved into a solar deity and became associated

The Evolution of the Cosmogonic Egg [Aeon Journal]
... is accompanied by thunder and the shrieking wind. This is the "voice" of God. Somewhere above the sky a mighty **** reaches an orgasm that shakes the heaven...As saliva can be seen mixed with breath during forceful human speech, so the "speaking" of the divine **** is accompanied by a powerful blast of wind, the holy, creative spirit, bearing the "spittle" of semen. This "spittle" is the visible "speech" of God... (49) In fact the Egyptian Thoth, whom the theologians of Hermopolis accepted as "the true universal Demiurge," was believed to have "accomplished the work of creation by the sound of his voice alone." It was he, according to this particular theology, who was responsible for the hatching of the world-egg. (50) But since, as we have elsewhere seen, (51) the Word was synonymous with light-- and the sources really say nothing about the fructifying rain-- so must the Seed have been. The "mighty

Thanatos and Anastasis [Aeon Journal]
... by Set and the right to the throne of Egypt...Osiris was vindicated, and he was pronounced Ôjustified,' that is, Ôtrue,' or Ôrighteous of voice'" (Pyr. 316-318 ). (46) Once the verdict in favor of Osiris was delivered-- from that time forward the idea of truth was associated with [him and he became the god of truth, and of those who spoke the truth. Moreover, Osiris, having been declared true of word, or true of voice, by Thoth, went up into heaven, and reigned there as king. He also became judge of the dead [and had the power and the knowledge necessary for "weighing" [the words of men when they should be tried at the last judgment. (47) Though Jesus was ultimately crucified, Pilate could find no fault with him and "washed his hands of this innocent man's blood." Later, Jesus was even termed the "Sun of Righteousness." (48 ) Jesus and Osiris both came to preside over

Sothis and the Morning Star in the Pyramid Texts [Aeon Journal]
... the movements of the planet Venus. This view is almost certainly incorrect and has had a retarding influence upon a proper understanding of ancient Egyptian religious development. Also undermined by this new understanding of Sothis as Venus is the logic behind the identifications of other celestial bodies mentioned in the Pyramid Texts, including S3h and Horus as the Morning Star. Indeed, we would suggest a thorough reevaluation of all astral identifications in the most ancient Egyptian texts, including such apparently obvious celestial bodies as those typically assigned to Ra (the Sun), Thoth (the Moon), and the circumpolar stars. Until now the study of the most ancient texts has been governed by a uniformitarian approach to the ancient cosmos; namely, the belief that the currently most prominent celestial bodies must have been uppermost in the ancients' minds as well. The latter belief is demonstrably erroneous. A new approach to the ancient traditions is warranted, one free from preconceptions based upon the current arrangement of the solar system. The key to these researches, as always, must be the comparative method

Astral Kingship [Aeon Journal]
... Sed festival ceremony...served to neutralize the forces threatening peace" in the minds of the Egyptian populace who retained "the faint memory of past struggles" involving the unification of Egypt and feared a disintegration of that political stabilization and peace. (117) This purely sociological and earthbound interpretation of the Sed festival, on the part of Montet, falls flat, however. Furthermore, he may have misconstrued the significance of an Old Kingdom Egyptian text which referred to the divinities Horus, Set, Osiris Khenti-irty, Isis, Nephthys and Thoth as a single entity within the framework of the Sed festival. In one chapter of the Pyramid Texts, the same deities are invoked, reviled and most strongly urged to return to their place of origin and the king is forbidden to welcome them. (118 ) Montet found it "difficult to understand why [such popular gods should have been treated so harshly." If these deities were originally planetary gods then it is not at all difficult to understand why they were entreated to "return to their place of origin.

Velikovsky and the Problem of Planetary Identification [Aeon Journal]
... Jupiter. (2) The one exception, of course, was Athena, whom Velikovsky identified with the planet Venus, rather than with the Moon as per the majority of classical writers. Here we must concur with Velikovsky's judgment, although one can only shudder at the thought of what course Velikovsky's work might have taken had he retained the lunar identification of Athena. Extrapolating from the Greek sources, Velikovsky identified the ancient Egyptian gods with the planetary regents of their Greek counterparts. Ra, accordingly, was identified with the sun; Thoth with Mercury; Hathor with Venus; and Horus with Jupiter. (3) The same strategy was also employed with regard to the pantheons of Mesopotamia and India. That there are problems with Velikovsky's approach to the ancient sources has been shown by Cardona, Mewhinney, and others. (4) These writers have documented that Velikovsky's research occasionally suffered from his penchant for drawing far-reaching conclusions from a minimum of hard evidence. Cardona, for example, in his series "Child of Saturn," has expressed doubt about Velikovsky's thesis

From Myth to a Physical Model [Aeon Journal]
... the general tradition, the hero comes forth as the outflow of the heart, which is what the myths mean when they identify the hero as the externalized "will" or "desire" of the creator-king-- the Demiurge (c.f., the Greek Eros: in numerous sources one notes that the will or outflow of the creator's heart took form as the warrior hero). In the case of Egyptian symbolism the relationship can be confirmed in every major variant of the warrior hero, from Shu, to Horus, to Thoth. The heart from which the hero is born is the great goddess. Venus-Eye I believe it was O.G.S. Crawford who first drew scholars' attention to the widespread pictographs and symbolic images of what he called "the Eye Goddess." But the planet Venus he never mentioned, so he missed the key. It is incredible how frequently one encounters the identity of the planet Venus or Venus-goddess as eye or Great Eye. Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, the Americas, Polynesia-- it is everywhere. But no one

Morning Star* [Aeon Journal]
... point, Horus additionally received the epithet Heru-ahai, that is simply Horus the Pillar. (267) But because Mars, due to its eccentric orbit, was seen from Earth to periodically move down this pillar away from the encircling band, often visualized as an encircling wall, Horus was also lauded as "he who is south of [i.e., below the wall." (268 ) One last item I wish to mention, because we have to draw the line somewhere, is that in a somewhat late myth, Thoth decreed that Horus Behutet should thenceforth be called Light-giver. (269) I mention this because a near-identical name-- Light Bringer or Light Bearer, that is Lucifer-- was one of the Latin names for the Morning Star. THE DUAT When we saw Horus described as the god, or chief, of the Netherworld, the word translated as "Netherworld" by Mercer is "D3t," and/or "Dw3t," which I shall here simply render as "Dua" and "Duat."

The Crescent II [The Saturn Myth] [Books]
... enclosure." (25) Is there any direct statement that the enclosure depicted in the sign is the ship's pathway? The Egyptians called the band Aten or khu (" glory," "halo"): "Hail to you who sails in his Khu, who navigates a circle within his Aten," reads the Book of the Dead. (26) Clearly, the subject is the crescent-enclosure. In the Pyramid Texts, King Unas announces, "I revolve round heaven like Re, I sail round heaven like Thoth." While Re's image is the Aten, the common symbol of Thoth is the crescent-enclosure. Allowing the one image to explain the other, we see that Unas does not here engage in two separate acts, but in a single act depicted in two different ways: to revolve within the Aten is to sail in the crescent-ship of Thoth. (27) The circle of the Aten is the "brow" of Re, and it is on Re's brow that the texts locate the ship: "I fly up and

The Crescent [The Saturn Myth] [Books]
... . Of the black and white brothers the world knows no older example than the Egyptian pair Horus and Set. In fig. 67 the heads of Horus and Set appear upon one body, looking to the right and left. The black head of Set contrasts sharply with the light head of Horus, emphasizing the pair's role as "the two opponent gods." Closely related to Horus and Set are the twins Isis and Nephthys, often portrayed back to back (fig. 67). The Egyptian pairs Shu and Tefnut, Thoth and Maat, Sekhet and Neith all reveal a similar underlying character. In the Book of the Dead the pictograph of the two "portions" of Horus and Set is the sign, the band of the Aten. (21) The clear implication is that the sun-god's enclosure possesses two twin-like divisions, one light, the other dark. Moreover, if the circle of the Aten is half light, half dark, surely one cannot ignore the related sign, the crescent-enclosure, which appears to provide a literal illustration of the

The Great Father [The Saturn Myth] [Books]
... Ani is the hair of Nu. The face of Osiris Ani is the face of Re. The eyes of Osiris Ani are the eyes of Hathor. The ears of Osiris Ani are the ears of Ap-uat. The lips of Osiris Ani are the lips of Anpu... (24) In almost the same words, the Papyrus of Nu joins the divinities Osiris, Ptah, Anpu, Hathor, Horus, Isis, and others to the body of Re. (25) In the Memphite theology Atum, Horus, Thoth, and the company of gods became the limbs of Ptah. (26) Syncretization of this sort, though appearing absurd to us today, actually helped to preserve the original idea against the eroding forces of cultural assimilation. Faced with a growing number of competing deities, the priests proclaimed: there was only one great god in the beginning, whose body encompassed a circle of subordinate deities. In a subsequent development of the myth, the Heaven Man passed into a mythical-philosophical explanation of our Earth and the material universe as a

The Dawn of Astronomy: A Study of the Temple-Worship and Mythology of the Ancient Egyptians [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... Osiris (as a Mummy) 26 Plan of the Temple of Rameses II. in the Memnonia at Thebes 159 Osiris seated 27 Plan of Temples at Medînet-Habû 164 Various Forms of Bes-- as Warrior, Musician, and Buffoon 28 The Bent Axis of the Temple of Luxor 165 Khons-Lunus, Thoth-Lunus, the Goddess Sesheta 29 The Laying of the Foundation Stone Ceremonial 174 The Weighing of the Soul by Horus and Anubis, in Presence of Osiris 30 Plan of the Temples at Karnak, showing their Orientations to face p. 183 183 Thoth and Sesheta writing the Name of Rameses II. on the Fruit of the Persea 31 Plan of Denderah 192 Cleopatra as the Goddess Isis 32 Ruins of the Mamisi (Place of Birth) or Temple of Isis at Denderah 195 Isis (seated). 33 Ceremonial Procession in an Egyptian Temple 199 The Rising Sun Horus between Isis and Nephthys 34 Orientation of the Temple of Hathor at Denderah 202 The Goddess Nu-t 35 Capital, with Masks of Hathor with Cow's Ears 216 The Goddess Nu-t represented Double 36 The Cow of Isis 217 Various

Chapter III: the Astroxomical Basis of the Egyptiax Pantheon [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... suggests that the former was imported. In the form of Typhon the goddess Taurt is represented as a hippopotamus, while for Anubis the emblem is a jackal. In all illustrations of funeral ceremonies the above-mentioned figure largely. In the Book of the Dead we find that in the representations of the judgment of the dead, besides Osiris we have Anubis. both responsible for the weighing of the soul. With the moon we find two gods connected-- Thoth-lunus and Khons-lunus-- though the coimection is not a very obvious one. Thoth is also associated with the Egyptian year, and is variously represented, all forms, however, are based upon the ibis. For the stars generally we find a special goddess, Sesheta. Khons-Lunus Thoth-lumus The Godess Sesheta Thoth as the sacred scribe and Sesheta as the star-goddess are often represented together engaged in writing. Associated with the phenomena of morning and evening we find the following divinities. The attributes stated are those now generally accepted. This is a subject which will occupy us in the sequel. The Weighing of the Soul

Chapter XVII: the Building Inscriptions [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... temple of Hathor at Denderah. The Alignment of the Temple of Hathor at Dexderah The inscriptions state that the king while stretching the cord had his glance directed to the ak of the constellation of the Thigh-- the old name of the constellation which we now recognise as the Great Bear-- and on this line was built the new temple, "as had been done there before." The actual inscription has been translated as follows:-- "The living God, the magnificent son of Asti [a name of Thoth, nourished by the sublime goddess in the temple, the sovereign of the country, stretches the rope in joy. With his glance towards the ak [the middle? of the Bull's Thigh constellation, he establishes the temple-house of the mistress of Denderah, as took place there before." At another place the king says: "Looking to the sky at the course of the rising stars [and recognising the ak of the Bull's Thigh constellation, I establish the corners of the temple of Her Majesty." Here

Chapter XXII: Star-Cults (Continued) -- Amen-t and Khons [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... reference is different-- we have the generic name of the triad in one case, the specific name of the member of the triad in the other. As this is the first time a setting star has been in question, it is well to point out that in this case the ancient Egyptians no longer typified the star as a goddess but as a god-- and, more than this, as a dying god; for Khons is always represented as a mummy-- the Osiris form. Egyptologists state that both Thoth and Khons were moon-gods. Perhaps the lunar attributes were assigned prior to the establishment of sun-worship. I shall show, subsequently, that the temples now being considered find their place in continuous series stretching back in the case of Amen-t to 3750 B.C., and in the case of Khons to possibly long anterior date. In the case of Amen-t and Khons, therefore, where we are free from the difficulties connected with the interchange of the titles of Isis and Hathor at Denderah, the star-cults stand out much more clearly,

Chapter XXXVI: General Conclusions As to the North and South Races [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)]
... know it did, about 3700 B.C., for one beginning at the summer solstice. In the above list I have indicated Osiris as a Moon-god. Many inscriptions might be quoted similar to the following one:-- "Salute a te, Hesiri, il signore dell eternitá. Quando tu sei in Cielo, tu apparisci come sole, et tu rinnuovi la tua forma comme Luno." [2 It has also to be borne in mind that the complicated headdress, including the goat's horns, is represented in connection with Thoth Chnemu and Osiris. [3 Later he was unquestionably a sun-god, but this would be certain to happen if the southern intruders worshipped the moon in the first line. Further, if in later times he represented both sun and moon, as he certainly did, it is not probable that he did so from the beginning. All the special symbolism refers to him as a Moon-god; he is certainly a Moon-god in the myth of Iris and Osiris, for he was cut into fourteen pieces, the number of days of

As the Cross of the Cardinal Points [Migration of Symbols (Book)]
... (Plate II). But the cardinal points still retained their importance. The sky goddess Nut was depicted bending over the earth, usually, but not always, with her head to the west and her loins to the east; her arms and legs were the four pillars of the sky. Similarly the legs of the Celestial cow of Nut and Hathor represented the four quarters. The four Horuses of the horizon were guardians of the four' quarters, or Osiris or Horus presided over the south, Set over the north, Thoth over the west and Sapdi over the east. At an earlier period, as has been indicated, Osiris was the "first of the Westerners" and Re the god of the East. In the Pyramid Texts, 204-6, Set is King of the South and Horus King of the North. 9 Dr. S. Birch has translated an Egyptian "magical text", which refers to four mansions, each four stories high, situated at Abydos, and gives the explanation: There are four mansions of life. Osiris

The Genesis of Israel and Egypt [SIS C&C Review]
... of both Egypt and Mesopotamia. In summary then Abraham and Menes share at least three outstanding features. a. Both were credited with initiating civilised life and being cultural innovators. b. Both were believed to have introduced new forms of religious worship including, almost certainly, flesh sacrifice. c. Both were associated with circumcision and were linked to a phallic cult. A further consideration adds yet more weight to the argument. Abraham, as well as Menes, are clearly related, in terms of general character, to the god Thoth/Hermes. Amongst the Egyptians, Thoth was regarded as the patron of learning and it was believed he bequeathed civilisation to mankind. It was said that he invented language, writing and medicine. The Greeks regarded Thoth (whom they associated with their own Hermes) as one of the oldest gods. He had a frivolous and impetuous nature and, it was suggested, could be destructive. It was said he assisted the Three Fates in the invention of writing, astronomy, the musical scale, the arts of boxing and ...

Egyptian Chronology - The Multiple Name Factor [SIS C&C Workshop]
... of one nome differing sensibly from those of another.'[4. Changes in religious practices and emphasis among gods also almost certainly occurred over time. The Ptolemies are known as a matter of policy to have supported the Egyptian priesthoods and temples. Hence any given Ptolemaic king probably received different Egyptian titularies or 'names' in dedications or other inscriptions in the various temples or other structures which he built, repaired, or otherwise supported in different parts of Egypt. If a Ptolemy endowed a temple that was primarily devoted to the god Thoth would the priests of that temple describe the king as a son of Thoth or a son of Ra? If he also supported another temple whose priests considered Ra as supreme, would these priests call him the son of Ra or the son of Thoth? Furthermore, if these names were basically religious and symbolic in nature, should we be surprised that the same names or minor variants of them were used in the inscriptions of many different Ptolemaic rulers who provided upkeep or financed additions to the same temples? All male Ptolemaic rulers

Shoshenq I and the Traditions of New Kingdom Kingship in Egypt [SIS C&C Review]
... Memphis, Shedsunefertem, was previously identified wrongly as an embalming table dedicated under Shoshenq I for the Apis Bull [3; however, like other fragments of his works, this was ultimately, after several phases of reuse, buried in the foundations of a later structure. At el-Hiba, between Beni Suef and el-Minya, Shoshenq I constructed a temple against the west side of the great mudbrick fortress built over a century earlier by the Theban High Priests Pinudjem and Menkheperre. This temple is dedicated to local aspects of Amun, Sekhmet and Thoth and the scenes and inscriptions were completed by Shoshenq I's successor, Osorkon I. This monument was built of an inferior quality limestone, probably quarried locally, and the walls have been eroded severely by the effects of dampness. It is nevertheless a rare example of an original building of this period. None of the monuments mentioned above is precisely dated within Shoshenq I's reign. At Karnak, however, where the grandest and best preserved of his building projects is to be found, we know that the work was not begun until

Velikovsky's "The Tomb of Ahiram" [SIS C&C Review]
... the left-hand side.- These gangs of workmen are very well documented, and the census lists which were taken at the beginning and end of each shift are very well documented as well. That is one source of information for the length of the year. Q: What happened to the other five days? Jones: They were festival days. At Deir el-Medineh there were five festival days for the five main gods they worshipped: Pharaoh Mentuhotep II, Pharaoh Amenhotep I, the god Bes, the goddess Hathor and the god Thoth. The other source of information on the length of the year is the ushabti figures, which are workman substitutes buried along with the funerary equipment of a good Egyptian burial. A set of these ushabti figures always comprises 360 figures plus a number of overseer figures, which provides one worker for each day of the year, or a gang of 10 for each of the 36 "weeks": this is another indication of the number of days in the year. Actual textual information is very difficult to assess, because we

Exodus [SIS C&C Review]
... refers to the slaughtering of the FIRST BORN (eldest) sons of Whose Name is Hidden. This was the pseudonym of the dragon Apepi [11, the great comet of myth. The eldest was also known as the First Born God, the epithet of Horus, son of Osiris. In hymn 393 of the Pyramid Texts the sky is overcast, the stars are darkened, the celestial expanses shake (or explode) and the bones of the earth tremble... etc. Warshawky made a connection between the Judgement of Thoth and Moses receiving the Law on Mount Sinai and went on to suggest that the punishment of Seth, the Bull, being ridden by Osiris, is the same story as Balaam riding a donkey [12. As a result, Warshawky claimed the Pyramid Texts must have been written after the Exodus- either the Exodus preceded the Old Kingdom or the Texts were written after the end of the Middle Kingdom. The Exodus story has as its background a human migration from one land to another, involving what became known as Palestine.

Edfu Books (Advert) [SIS C&C Review]
... and that the Israelites were paid a large tribute by Ahmose I to leave Egypt- which they used to fabricate the Tabernacle and the Ark of the Covenant. A further revelation, that springs directly from this quotation, is that the biblical Mt Sinai is most probably the Great Pyramid of Giza. If this were the case, then the circling of the 'mountains' around Sinai was in fact a ceremonial circumnavigation of Giza- a ritual that is preserved to this day by the circling of the Ka'ba in Mecca. By Ralph Ellis Thoth, Architect of the Universe Takes a radical look at the henges of Britain and the pyramids of Giza, and concludes that they were both designed to represent maps of the Earth- and each of these ancient maps comes complete with outlines of continents and lines of latitude correctly marked. The diagrams that demonstrate this are simple copies of these great monuments, but viewed from an unusual perspective. K2, Quest of the Gods Taking this idea one step further, K2 QotG identifies the precise location on the surface of the Earth that

The Exodus in the Pyramid Texts? [SIS C&C Workshop]
... the Hymn is a description of the killing of Horus the Child by Seth, and also a description of the plague of the "killing of the first born". The killing of the first born in heaven "caused" the plague on earth to be called as such. Velikovsky took great pains to rewrite bechor as bekhor, "first born" as ''chosen''.(11) I think the word may derive from the Egyptian b'ik hor (the Greek Harpocrates) and have both meanings. The "judgement of Thoth" the Hebrews saw as the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai, the punishment of Seth being ridden by Osiris as the story of Balaam and his donkey. The planet involved seems to be Venus. If I am correct, then the Hymn was written after the Exodus and this would imply that also most of the Pyramid Texts were written after the Exodus. Therefore, either the Exodus must be moved back to the Old Kingdom or the Pyramid Texts must have been written after the Middle Kingdom. The alternative that the

Alan Alford's The Phoenix Solution [SIS Internet Digest]
... Sirius symbols of the exploded planet? Did Orion mark the gateway to the heavenly Duat and the 'body of Nut'? The Nine Bows and the Shemsu-Hor as planets of the original solar system. Part Three: New Horizons. 10: THE METAPHYSICAL PYRAMID: The Double-Lion god in the Egyptian Duat, the etymology of Ta-Meri- ancient land of creation, rebirth and ascension. The two horizons or 'mountains' of the Duat. A new theory on the satellite pyramids- did they literally represent planetary satellites? The cosmic identity of Thoth, and why he was called Hermes Trismegistus? Why Egyptian sarcophagi were designed to be empty. 11: SECRETS OF ABYDOS AND GIZA: Two exploded planets in Egyptian and Mesopotamian mythology. How numerical symbolism was used to represent planetary gods in ancient Egypt. 12: KHUFU- SON OF A SATANIC GOD: A reappraisal of the Egyptian 4th Dynasty. Decoding the symbolic meaning of Sneferu's two giant pyramids at Dahshur. Evidence for Khufu being an evil tyrant and literally a 'satanic' king. Was Khufu imprisoned inside the Great Pyramid

A Critical Re-appraisal of the Book of Genesis, Part Two [SIS C&C Workshop]
... p.169. 46. Ibid., p.170. 47. Note: Before the Babel incident of Genesis chapter 11, Scripture informs us: "Now the whole earth had one language and few words" (11:1). 48. The Babylonians have a legend of a god-like being, Oannes, whom they believed to have been the original instructor of mankind. An old Babylonian account says that "for six days he instructed Alorus." The place occupied by Oannes in Babylonian stories is, in Egyptian tradition taken by Thoth. The Egyptian maintained that it was Thoth, "the lord of wisdom," who taught mankind to write. 49. Ginzberg, op. cit., p.195. 50. Wiseman, op. cit. [45, p.66. Occasional Publications Series A list of the titles complete with prices is now being prepared. Members seeking further information should contact Derek Shelley-Pearce at the address given on page 1. \cdrom\pubs\journals\workshop\w1987no2\03book.htm

Letters [SIS C&C Workshop]
... . From there, via Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, it is only a matter of island hopping to Queensland. b. In the early 1960s, British Museum scientists (no referenec given) discovered that, from about 1,000BC onwards, eucalyptus resin was employed in the embalming of the dead, among other uses. As such a commodity could only have been obtained in those times from New Guinea or Australia, did Egyptians make regular expeditions that far afield? c. The Gympie 'Ape Man' bears a resemblance to Thoth, depicted as a squatting ape prior to 1,000BC. Mr Gilmour claims to see a symbol, between the squatting legs of the 'Ape Man', identical to the Egyptian hieroglyph for a papyrus flower, Thoth's symbol as the god of writing. If I have not strained credulity too far already, may I now direct the reader's attention to an article in Nexus magazine (PO Box 30, Mapleton, Queensland 4560), April/May 1994, by Paul White? In it, he claims to have been

It's Time to Get Serious About Manetho [SIS C&C Review]
... same gentleman known by modern historians as Ramesses III? What if modern scholarship misread Manetho from the very outset? Manetho Revisited The work of the Manetho must be part of the basic toolkit for any budding Egyptologist, yet modern textbooks appear disturbingly light on information. According to a 1902 publication, 'This distinguished man was born at Sebennytus, the Thebneteret of the hieroglyphic inscriptions, and he flourished in the reigns of Ptolemy Lagus and Ptolemy Philadelphus; his name seems to be the Greek form of the Egyptian Ma'en-Tehuti, i.e. 'gift of Thoth'... He is described as a 'high priest and scribe', and bore a reputation for great learning, and he was undoubtedly admirably fitted to draw up, in Greek, the history of Egypt... He divided the kings of Egypt into thirty dynasties... Now the principal versions of the King List of Manetho are four in number, and they are found in the famous 'Chronography', which was drawn up about the end of the VIIIth century of our era by George the Monk,

Pharaoh Seti the Great and His Foreign Connections [Kronos]
... that the Greek predilection for geometric explanations of nature, their use of the "Golden Section" in pottery, sculpture, and temple alike, and even the dualism between "sensible and intelligible worlds"-- nearly definitive of Plato's system-- are as much stamped with the seals of ancient Egypt as were the doors of Egyptian tombs. All of this still leaves unaddressed the revised chronology. In this case, there are two significant pieces of Greek evidence: The Greek emphasis upon Hermes, identical in all respects to Egypt's Thoth, and the cosmological Timaeus of Plato, which contains definitive related passages to the Egyptian Book of Gates and to the theology of Heliopolis. Specialists in Egyptology know that the Book of Gates is peculiar in literary history. Thus we are not merely indicating some generic Egyptian characteristic, such as reverence for Osiris. On the Egyptian side, two matching pieces of evidence emerge: The Book of Gates inscribed on Seti's alabaster sarcophagus and also, with very minor variations, in his cenotaph at Abydos. There is also the curious story

Pharaoh Seti the (Great and His Foreign Connections - II [Kronos]
... and Neugebauer, in his Egyptian Astronomical Texts, I, try to make sense of the thing, but there is much to be said for the notion that it is not even a clock for any ordinary purpose. Neugebauer's account is worth further discussion in a later part of this series. (6) Finally, on the West side of the roof, one will find the "Dramatic Texts", usually supposed to deal with the "mysteries" involved in the relations between the principal gods of the Egyptians. Horus, Thoth, Isis, Osiris, Set, Nephthys, Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, and Nut figure strongly in these mysteries; there is a family history to unravel, and Pharaoh's relation to it or identity with it. LIVING DESCENDENTS OF SETI'S CENOTAPH The present Dalai Lama of Tibet- the Fourteenth- is, for Tibetan Buddhists, an incarnation of Chenrezi- a timeless spirit, some of whose bodies are entombed in the Potala at Lhasa. Many Occidentals may find this belief quaint and absurd. Buddhists acquainted with the

"Let There be Light" [Kronos]
... " Why would it be said that the Sun was as resplendent as the Sun? But why, then, did the ancients themselves confuse Saturn with the Sun?-- for there is no doubt that the later Egyptians, who passed the fallacy on to the Greeks, looked upon Ra as the embodiment of the solar energy. The answer to this riddle, as to many others of similar kind, is best illustrated by the story of Thamus, a mythological king of Egypt, who, with the following words, reproached Thoth for having invented writing:" 'Most ingenious Theuth [Thoth... one man has the ability to beget arts but the ability to judge of their usefulness or harmfulness... belongs to another; and now you, who are the father of letters, have been led by your affection to ascribe to them a power the opposite of that which they really possess. For this invention will produce forgetfulness in the minds of those who learn to use it, because they will not practice their memory. Their trust in

Mercury [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... Sinai refers to Sin, the Moon, so the name of Mount Nebo in Moab where Moses died (2) was called already in that early time by the name of the planet Mercury. Later in the seventh and sixth centuries before the present era, this god was much venerated, especially by the Chaldeans and other peoples of Mesopotamia, as the names of Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar prove. (3) In earlier times Mercury was known to the Sumerians as Enki. (4) Equally pronounced was the position of Thoth, the planet Mercury of the Egyptian pantheon, the theophoric part of the name Thutmose. (5) For the northern peoples, Mercury was Odin. (6) It is characteristic that in many astronomical texts Mercury, the Greek Hermes, the Babylonian Nebo, the Egyptian Thoth, is portrayed as the planet-god which had in his dominion the physiological capacity of memory in man, (7) as well as that of speech. According to Augustine, ? speech is Mercury.? (8 ) Direct information that confirms

Deification of the Planets [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... the Moon, but prima facie with the planets. Marduk, the great god of the Babylonians, was the planet Jupiter; so was Amon of the Egyptians, Zeus of the Greeks and Jupiter of the Romans. (1) It was much superior to Shamash-Helios, the Sun. Why was it revered by all peoples? Why was the planet Mars chosen to be the personification of the god of war? Why did Kronos of the Greeks, Saturn of the Romans, play a part in hundreds of myths and legends? Thoth of the Egyptians, Nebo and Nergal of the Babylonians, Mithra and Mazda of the Persians, Vishnu and Shiva of the Hindus, Huitzilopochtli and Quetzalcoatl of the Mexicans, were personifications of planets; innumerable hymns were dedicated to them and adventures and exploits ascribed to them. ? The life of our planet has its real source in the Sun,? wrote E. Renan. ? All force is a transformation of the Sun. Before religion had gone so far as to proclaim that God must be placed in the absolute and

'KA', AND EGYPTIAN MAGIC [Quantavolution Website]
... soldiers with weapons pointing the wrong way, cut bowstrings and so on, together with magic words and instructions for use. There is also a story of a wax model of a crocodile being thrown into a river, turning into a real one, and seizing a man. Magical rites and incantations were used to install souls in animals, to cure illnesses, to provide a home for the dead person by preserving the khat, or physical body, and to raise the dead. The means for achieving all this is the god Thoth. He is referred to as the god who made Osiris victorious, just as the Greek Hermes is referred to as the slayer of the monster Argos. (Horus is called the Lord of the Divine Staff whereby all the gods have been made victorious, and Hermes Trismegistos, Thrice Great Hermes, is a name of Thoth). He was the "son of Aner, coming forth from the two Aners?" Egyptian aner is a stone. (Budge). The ibis is a bird renowned for its skill in

... skies. Again Seth is taking the onus for Horus' action, while Zeus is doing his own job. The next phase, perhaps upon the occasion of the destruction of planet "Apollo" and the major displacement of Mercury, sees, in Egypt, Seth and Horus battling, and in Greece, a revolt of the giants against the Olympians led by Zeus. This set of events, then, would occur over a thousand years later than the death of Osiris and would mark the appearance of Mercury, Hermes, or Thoth as a new great god-- that is, a god who is threatening the Earth with destruction. The last battle against Typhon will be described below on the occasion of the Venusian catastrophes. There Seth is Typhon. THE BONDS OF SATURN AND JUPITER The primeval clouds that had gathered around the pulsing electric axis between Sun and Super-Uranus had furnished atmosphere to the magnetic tube in which the planets grew and moved. The flow and the magnetic field diminished, but the skies were not fully open until Jovean times. Remnant gases

... ; the Jewish legend says that it was a temporary moratorium on births for all people. Even birth control policies in America have been declared forms of infanticide and genocide by religious and racial minority leaders and writers. Egypt was a heavily regulated, bureaucratic state. There is something to be made of Moses' name. It is clearly Egyptian, meaning "child" or "son" [8 and lacks the surname or prefix as, for example, in the pharaoh's name, Thoth-Moses, or "Child of the God, Thoth" (Mercury, Hermes). A variant theory says Moses means the "born one" in Egyptian, which is only a clumsy version of "child." Buber says: "That Moses bears an Egyptian name, no matter whether it means 'born, child (of somebody)' or something like 'seed of the pond, of the water,' is part of the historical character of the situation; he seems to derive from a largely Egyptianized section of the people." [9 Some say the Hebrew

... the other great cats. Wine was thought to be the blood of those who had perished in battles in the sky. Radiation was attributed to the five planets visible to the naked eye, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The eye was thought to be a source of radiation. Axe, hoe, spear and arrow were symbols of lightning and radiation. Seven is an important number, being five plus the sun and moon. The Cretan goddess is concerned, like Artemis, with both animals and radiation. Thoth, the Egyptian god of electricity who was equated with the Greek Hermes and the Roman Mercury, was active in the sky. He restarted Ra's boat when it had stopped. This Egyptian story is in harmony with accounts from elsewhere, such as the record of phenomena at the battle of Beth Horon after the Exodus, during the invasion of Palestine by the Hebrews under Joshua [Joshua X: 13. The tholos tomb, a burial chamber approached by a passage, the dromos, may be an imitation of the column rising

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 19: LIFE [Quantavolution Website]
... reversal of the Mycenean dipas, cup, or heaven. Hittite tipas is a cup, and also means 'heaven'. The Latin lanx, lanc-, dish, may be El, the one above, and ankh, life. FIVES Greek pimpremi, burn, may have a connection with the five planets that were held to radiate divine force. The Cumbrian and Welsh, i. e. Gallic, word pimp, used by shepherds counting sheep, means five. The draughts board was said to have been invented by Thoth. Alexander the Great also claimed to be the inventor. Greek pessos is a 'man' at draughts. Etruscan pes is five. The squares on the board may represent areas of the sky, and the Egyptians called the 'men' dancers. At Carthage there was an important body of five magistrates called the pentarchy. At Rome the term quinqueviratus meant a body of five officials. CAULDRONS The phenomenon described by Jeremiah as a seething pot facing the north may have had some influence on the design of ancient pottery as well as

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 22: SACRED BIRDS [Quantavolution Website]
... associated with Horus. The object appearing in Egyptian art and hieroglyphics and called the utchat, or udjat, was the eye of Horus or of Ra. The osprey, a bird of prey like the eagle, was in Latin sanqualis. As with the eagle, the Romans watched its flight. The name may incorporate sankh; the radiation of the god was thought to give life. The buteo, falcon, was watched for its flight. The ibis, which had great skill in killing snakes, was associated with the god Thoth, who was equated with the Greek Hermes and was the Egyptian electrical god par excellence. Latin ardea is a heron. It was noted for the long crest on its head. Of the two elements of the word, ar is clearly the fire. Dea is rather less obvious, but Hebrew dea, knowledge, is an attractive possibility. Ardea was the name of an Etruscan city near Rome, capital of the Rutuli. The peacock was sacred to Juno. Its Latin name was pavo. Perhaps the pattern on its

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 24: THE NORTH [Quantavolution Website]
... is light. Hungarian kivilagit means to illuminate. The Illyrians may even have been the people of the great light, since the root ur means great. Perhaps Yggdrasil is the steed [means of travel, of the light of the frightener, or the light of the frightener's steed. The name of the actual horse of Odin was Sleipnir. In Greek myth, the father of Eros, love, was Poros, the passage to the sky. This suggests a link with Dionysus and Hermes. Hermes was the Greek equivalent of Thoth, and Dionysus was one of the deities who controlled the thunderbolt. The Greeks were aware of the connection between a deity of the thunderbolt and sexual passion. Tall trees such as the pine [Greek elate, the sycamore and the cypress may be associated with the poros. Greek hule means wood [as a material. If reversed, hule becomes eluh, the final h being pronounced more like ch, as in the Scottish word loch. Egyptian ucha is a pillar. Hule, wood, is probably the tree of

... bits of the residue of a large planet, long ago exploded [103. The time of the "asteroidal explosion" is recent (Van Flandern) even under long-time reckoning; it is very recent if placed in the context of Greek legend. In this context, several events coincide and relate to the larger theory of Solaria Binaria. Apollo has a younger brother, mischievous Hermes (Mercury), who is a swift, winged messenger of Zeus (Jupiter) and the gods, who is connected with electricity (especially as Thoth, in Egypt), the creator of illusions (mental problems), and is god of thieves, travelers, and healing. He, too, becomes a great god, known to many- East Indians, Mexicans, Teutons, and others. Though Yahweh reflects Jupiter, he also has qualities of Thoth; Moses was probably a devotee of Thoth, and acts towards Yahweh as Hermes towards Zeus (de Grazia, 1983a). Astronomically, Mercury would have been next to Apollo, would have acquired atmosphere and debris

... No rulers would ever conduct any kind of discussions in which plagues were the topic, without watching the sky; they were talking of gods and the gods had one true home and one main realm- the sky. This had been true since the days of creation, thousands of years before, by ancient reckoning in many cultures. The Pharaoh did not dispute the existence of Yahweh, indeed he reasoned and behaved as a typical sceptical and sophisticated ruler: "Maybe their god, which is not unlike our gods, Amen, Thoth, and Horus, has gotten something going for them." His obduracy, of which the Bible makes much, is to a certain degree rational and prompted by his knowing full well that the Hebrew complaint was almost entirely political and economic. It was Moses' scientific renown, coupled with the increasingly terrible natural manifestations, that prompted the Pharaoh to conduct the negotiations on Moses' religious grounds. He wanted any information (and so did his advisers) that would help cope with the deteriorating general situation caused by a raging

GODS FIRE: [Quantavolution Website]
... himself to his people and, it is important to stress, to their enemies. The limitations of space on the kapporeth or coverpiece of the Ark define in part the sculpture. Unlike the winged lions and bulls, griffins and other animals fashioned as cherubim in Assyria and elsewhere, the Ark's cherubim were probably two-footed with unisexual human features [25. A later Assyrian assemblage (Figure 11) is similar. So are two figures from Egypt, showing two winged goddesses hovering protectively over idols of Osiris, in one case, and Thoth in the other [26. The cherubim could not be seated or squatting, because they were facing Yahweh, but would stand with faces elevated, says the legend [27. Figure 12 may convey some notion of their appearance, in accord with legend and with the Bible. It may be seen that their wings would be spread wide as a covering of the box so that, in effect, two platform levels would be created, one on the ample but separated pair of wings and again on the lid of the

LIVING WITH ELECTRICITY [Quantavolution Website]
... goose, Greek 'chen', was known to the Egyptians as 'chenchenur', the great cackler. At Rome, geese were sacred to Juno; they gave warning of the Gauls' night attack on the Capitol. In the 1939 -1945 war, pheasants in country districts of England gave reliable early warning of the approach of German aircraft. We have already met the hoopoe with its erectile crest. The ibis was a symbol to the Egyptians of the electrical god, because of its skill at killing snakes, and to the ibis Thoth owes the shape of his head. Thoth armed the gods for their victory over Set. The ichneumon, or mongoose, was sacred to the Egyptians because of a similar skill, that of finding crocodile eggs, and the mongoose is known for its ability to catch snakes. The jackal is sab in Egyptian. I suggest that this may be related to the Latin 'sapere', to be wise. Anubis was the jackal-headed god. Ambitious politicians and military men copied the priestly practice of dressing up in the skins of animals

... and cites all of his sources. It is not so easy to explain the parallels between Velikovsky and Beaumont. Velikovsky never mentioned or cited Beaumont. Could Velikovsky have read and forgotten Beaumont's books? His method of proof is entirely different; practically everything-- style, format, language, method, and evidence-- is different; only the conclusions are the same. And I should stress that when Deg came into possession of the Beaumont materials, he found them mostly unusable for methodological and theoretical reasons; Beaumont's stress upon Thoth, however, helped convince Deg that a catastrophic age ought to be assigned to the god Hermes and the Planet Mercury. Moreover, with regard to both Velikovsky and de Grazia, too many of Beaumont's conclusions are the same as theirs to explain them as sheer coincidence. I guess that either in the 1920's or 1930's when V. was in Palestine, the books, published in England and dealing with matters of interest to the Near East, made an appearance in the bookstores and were seen by V. A second possibility

GODS FIRE: [Quantavolution Website]
... , as many surmised. It denotes a young ox, an ox in the full vigour of its youth." [30 The only reason I can offer for this modification of the universal cow-bull theme is that the Israelites knew that the comet was a young body in the sky. It had not been known to them for long. The bison and bull, always with a divine celestial connection, had been worshipped and were sacred since time immemorial [31. Zeus, the thunderbolter, assumed the image of the bull. Thoth (or Hermes or Mercury) took the image of a ram, afterwards. Figure 7. Moses' Tablets and Golden Calf Heretics. La Somme le Roy, ca. A. D. 1295 British museum Add. MS 54180, folio 5v) Zeus, it will be recalled, had fathered and mothered Athene who was the Greek planet Venus. The new heavenly body, the Messiah, would take the form of a calf. The Venus connection is obvious, with Baal, then, being Venus. And for

A FIRE NOT BLOWN: CHAPTER 27: GLOSSARY [Quantavolution Website]
... only thing that depended on the gods. Much depended in the mind of the ancients on the arrival or departure, presence or absence, of objects in the sky, especially new arrivals. Much depended, too, on the power of heroes who had divine ancestry, on divine inspiration and on radiation. libation As well as the Malatya relief which shows a god holding his thunderbolt over the cup at a libation ceremony, there is a reference to libation in the Book of the Dead which is amenable to an electrical interpretation: Thoth dwells within his hidden places and performs the ceremonies of libation unto the god who reckoneth millions of years, and he maketh a way through the firmament." [Budge's translation, p. 392 magh Hebrew for a Persian priest. Cf. Latin magnus, great. The Sibyl became maior videri, bigger in appearance, as the god Apollo inspired her. manna Egyptian bener, sweet, may be related to the Latin Venus, Vener-. mouse Greek mus, sminthos. Smintheus was one of the epithets of Apollo
Updates / Re: Mathis on Velikovsky +
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Evidence for the Extreme Youth of Venus [SIS C&C Review]
From: SIS Chronology& Catastrophism Review (1994) "Proceedings of the 1993 Cambridge Conference"

_Evidence for the Extreme Youth of Venus, Wal Thornhill
_"The purpose of the Universe is the perpetual astonishment of mankind."- Arthur C. Clarke "Person who say it cannot be done should not interrupt person doing it."- spurious Chinese proverb
_The planet Venus is the brightest object in the sky- after the Sun and the Moon. Astronomers repeatedly refer to it as Earth's 'twin' [1. They should not- for twins are always born close together in time and there is no evidence to support their assumption that the two planets are of the same age. I will show instead that Venus has the hallmarks of a recent genesis. What do I mean by 'recent'? By recent I mean too recent to be measured in millions, let alone billions of years: more likely the event occurred within human memory and its age can be measured in thousands of years. What is meant by 'genesis'? At least it means the final chapters of the interaction between an errant, cometary Venus and other planets of the Solar System and its final settlement into a highly regular, planetary orbit about the Sun. At most it hints at the parturition of one of the gas giant planets to form the new planet Venus. The implications of such a late and spectacular event in the Solar System are profound. It will be difficult to contemplate by those who have built the current cosmogonic consensus. That consensus is built upon ad hoc additions to centuries-old ideas. It relies on gravity as the aggregating force acting over millions of years upon widely dispersed material to form the Solar System. Clearly, in the current steady state of the Solar System, gravitational theory seems to predict planet orbits accurately. Not only does the clockwork certainty make life easier for the mathematicians but it also makes the world seem safe. However, reality has a way of being much more complex than mathematical models: there is evidence, in particular from the behaviour of comets, that non-gravitational forces are also at work in the Solar System. Establishing a very recent and drastic change in the Solar System would cause reverberations in every field of study. As a recent example, scientists have pointed to the hellish surface conditions on Venus and have warned that the Earth could suffer the same fate as a result of rapacious human activity. Such an argument assumes that the genesis of Venus was similar to that of Earth but that the two evolved very differently. A quite different interpretation would result from the youthful Venus theory: that the Earth's biosphere seems to have a remarkable capacity to recover from catastrophe attendant upon a recent rearrangement of the inner Solar System. In turn, this would indicate that the biosphere, even now, may not be in a steady state, which has been suggested on theoretical grounds [2. Venus, Earth's twin? If Venus is a newcomer to its present orbit in the inner Solar System, it is necessary to dismiss the oft-quoted idea of it being a twin of Earth. This idea arose from their relative proximity in the inner Solar System and almost equal size and mass. Couple these facts with the nebular theory of planet formation (from a disk of gas and dust encircling the proto-sun) and we have Earth being formed at nearly the same time and from almost the same materials as Venus. The mean distances of the two planets from the centre of the Sun differ by about 25%, which would lead to an expected initial difference in composition of the same order. Then why does Venus have almost no water and Earth an abundance? Why does Venus have a much higher content of primordial inert gases? The astronomer V. A. Firsoff wrote: "I once described Earth and Venus as 'non-identical twins'. It used to be thought that their differences were more apparent than real. But in the words of Sherlock Holmes, 'Eliminate the impossible and what is left, however improbable, is the truth'. And it would be hard to find a more improbable planet than Venus." [3 Predictably, planetary geologists take the 'Earth's twin' approach and are thereby forced to make the faintly absurd pronouncement: 'The overall impression is that Venus is a dynamic world that has been shaped by processes fundamentally similar to those that have taken place on the Earth, but often with dramatically different results' [4. This can only be true if one accepts qualifiers like 'somehow' and 'mysteriously' as scientific descriptions of processes on Venus. More likely it indicates that our ideas of the relationship between geological cause and effect on the Earth may be wrong. Dr S. R. Taylor, a planetologist of the Australian National University Research School of Earth Sciences, summed up a lecture titled 'Venus:- a twin planet?' [5 by stating: "You are not looking at a twin planet to the Earth at all; there are very many substantial differences....the differences are so great it makes you wonder whether you could ever produce a twin of the Earth in some other solar system when you can't do it in your own." Venus, the improbable planet So, what is now known about Venus? The following sections give a brief summary of the space age findings and the accepted interpretations:-
_1. Magnetosphere
_A planet's magnetosphere is the region in space surrounding the planet where its magnetic field dominates. Under the influence of the solar wind it is compressed on the sunward side of the planet and stretches away behind the planet like a comet's tail. The dynamo theory of planetary magnetic fields supposes that they are generated by an internal dynamo created by fluid motions in a metallic outer core. The early Mariner spacecraft provided a surprise when they found an extensive 'cometary' magnetotail stretching behind Venus [6 along the Sun-Venus line. It is longer than that found for any other planet. The 'scale length' of the tail is about 700, compared to Earth's less than 300. [The scale length is the {} of Earth, the tail wake stretches for 3000 Earth radii (R E) and the magnetosphere varies between 10 and 15 R E. Atmospheric ions are stripped away from Venus in its tail. Venus appears to have no intrinsic magnetic field. This finding was unexpected because the dynamo theory would predict a small field for Venus, given its slow rotation and molten core. (The dynamo theory also fails to explain why slowly rotating Mercury has a magnetic field. That planet is not believed to have a molten core). The magnetic flux of the solar wind appears to interact directly with the ionosphere of Venus. This was not anticipated either, and is unlike all other planets in the solar family. Spikes in the Pioneer Venus orbiter magnetometer readings were interpreted as twisted magnetic field lines wrapped around each other like ropes. Alternatively, the magnetic field spikes may be induced in the ionosphere by electric current flows in the solar wind. Another major surprise is the presence of an ionosphere on the night side of Venus. Ionospheres are thought to be created by dissociation of atoms in the upper atmosphere by the action of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It was thought that the long Venusian night would be long enough for recombination to take place and for the ionosphere there to disappear.
_2. Rotation
_Venus has a retrograde axial rotation period of 243 days. It is assumed, because it so different to the Earth's rotation rate, that it must have been similar at some time in the past and then drastically modified as a result of a of a very large collision. There is no generally accepted theory to explain planetary rotation or axial tilt. Strangely, Venus always presents the same hemisphere to the Earth at times of inferior conjunction.
_3. Isotopic anomalies
_Three isotopes of argon are considered important in investigations of planetary atmospheres. 40 Ar is produced by the decay of radioactive potassium( 40 K) in the planet's rocks and is outgassed into the atmosphere over time. Venus has only of the amount of 40 Ar found in the Earth's atmosphere. The other isotopes, 36 Ar and 38 Ar are thought to be primordial gases, present when the planet formed. 36 Ar appears in proportions up to 100 times that found on Earth or Mars. Since it cannot be created after a planet's formation, if Venus was formed in the way the Earth and Mars were it should have an equal or lower concentration. There is also about 45 times more neon and 3 times more krypton in the atmosphere of Venus. Its atmosphere shows a deuterium to hydrogen ratio of about 100 times that of the Earth which, it is argued, might be consistent with the loss of oceans of water and the preferential outgassing of the lighter hydrogen. But such a mechanism does not easily remove the last vestiges of water to leave such a dry atmosphere. The isotopic abundances do not follow the expected pattern for planet formation from a nebula. For example, Venus, being nearer the Sun than Earth and Mars, should have lost more 36 Ar to the early, strong solar wind than those planets.
_4. Atmosphere
_None of the the characteristics of the Venusian atmosphere were predicted by prevailing cosmogonic theories. Venus has a planet-wide cloud cover and massive atmosphere which is remarkably uniform in temperature and pressure at all latitudes and in both day and night hemispheres. With a gravity 90% of the Earth's and being closer to the Sun, Venus would be expected to have retained less volatiles and hence have a thinner (not thicker) atmosphere than the Earth. The Venusian atmospheric composition is shown below. Atmosphere Earth Venus 77% nitrogen 21% oxygen 1% water vapour 97% carbon dioxide 2% nitrogen 1% oxygen Ammonia (0.1 percent) was detected by the Soviet probe, Venus 8, at the height of the clouds. Hydrocarbons of many sorts showed up in the initial evaluation of the mass spectrometer on board the Pioneer atmospheric probes but were discounted as lingering instrumental residues [7. Clouds occupy several discrete layers, at heights typically 46, 47-49, 50-55, and 56-62 kilometres above the surface (clouds on Earth rarely top 15km altitude), with the uppermost, yellowish, cirrus-like haze made from droplets of concentrated sulphuric acid. Since sulphuric acid does not account for the yellowish colour of the clouds, this deduction is suspect. It is this uppermost layer that is responsible for the markings visible in UV images. It has also been found that a major constituent of large cloud particles is chlorine. The highly reflective upper haze effectively hides lower levels rather like a veil in bright sunlight hides a bride's face. The clouds below are not as opaque as earthly clouds but are more akin to photochemical smog. Investigators had expected that only 2% of the total incident sunlight would reach the surface and that the atmosphere would be super-refractive. Neither is the case: it is surprisingly bright at the surface and pictures by Veneras 9 and 10 showed the horizon 200-300m distant. Cloud movements show a 4 day rotation period of the upper atmosphere at the equator which declines to 2 days towards the poles. This is explained by a constant wind velocity on a reducing perimeter as the upper atmosphere spirals up to the poles. However, with a rotation period of the planet of 243 days retrograde and sluggish surface winds, the upper atmospheric movement is incomprehensible. The negligible variation in surface temperature is explained theoretically in astronomical textbooks by slow winds in the dense lower atmosphere of 1 to 2 metres/sec from the poles to the equator [8. There are three reasons why this explanation is unsound: i). Since the planet is now the same temperature overall there is no heat engine to drive the lower atmosphere. ii). Moving patterns detected in two specific windows for infrared radiation through the carbon dioxide atmosphere indicate that the lower clouds are patchy and move at velocities up to 250kph [9. iii). Winds at the surface are slow (about 6kph) and always in the direction of rotation, not from pole to equator. In 1972, a 'breathing' phenomenon was discovered in the Venusian atmosphere [10. It is as if the cloud cover is acting like the lid on a kettle of boiling water; the infrared CO> 2 lines swing through a four day cycle akin to a relaxation oscillation which builds up slowly during each cycle and then collapses. This indicates that the cloud deck moves up and down through 1 km over the entire planet. Such a phenomenon requires considerable energy input- which is difficult to account for on a very slowly rotating planet if solar energy is the only source. The 'breathing' has been confirmed by the Magellan orbiter which underwent variable atmospheric braking at the lowest point of its orbit, with a 4 day cycle. Explanations of the Venusian atmosphere have required large numbers of assumptions and special conditions to be imposed on the hypothetical early solar nebula and the activity of the proto-sun. Many anomalies remain.
_5. Heat balance
_The rocks of the Earth contain radioactive uranium, thorium and potassium-40 which in the process of decay provide energy to heat up the planet's interior. The potassium/uranium ratio is about the same on Venus as on the Earth. It is therefore assumed, on the grounds that the two planets are twins, that the internal heat production is the same. The very high surface temperature of Venus of 750 K or 900 F is usually explained by the 'greenhouse effect' of CO 2, or even the 'runaway greenhouse effect', first suggested by Fred Hoyle in 1955 and worked out in detail in the late 1960s by Ingersoll and Pollack of Caltech. Such explanations also rely on the assumption that both Venus and Earth have had largely parallel development (twins again) and that therefore something went seriously wrong with the atmospheric evolution on Venus. Firsoff noted:  "Earth's seas are not boiling hot, despite the total greenhouse effect of water and average sunlight stronger than at the ground level of Venus. Nor is it at all clear how such a condition could have become established" [11 Venus receives 1.9 times more solar radiation than Earth but its clouds reflect about 80% of that sunlight, so that Venus actually absorbs less solar energy than the Earth. Solar radiation measured at the surface is 10-20W/m 2 (compare this with 340W/m 2 at the Earth's surface in the tropics). Even with the maximum greenhouse effect, the effective surface temperature of Venus should be low enough to freeze water [12. What is being asked of the 'runaway greenhouse effect' is equivalent to expecting a well-insulated oven to reach a temperature sufficient to melt lead by having only the pilot light switched on! The humorous but sadly apt inversion, 'I'll see it when I believe it', seems to apply to the interpretation of results relayed to Earth from all four Pioneer lander probes as their radiometers began to give anomalous results as they descended through the atmosphere. "Taken at face value, the anomalies suggest that parts of the atmosphere are transmitting about twice the energy upwards that is available from solar radiation at the same level." [13 Despite the obvious interpretation that the laws of thermodynamics are not being violated and that, simply, Venus is intrinsically hot and still cooling, the investigators are able to blandly state in the same paragraph: "In spite of these difficulties in interpreting some of the observations, the greenhouse effect, coupled with global dynamics, is now well established as the basic explanation of the high surface temperature." On the night side of Venus where sunlight reflected from the uppermost haze cannot dazzle the observer, it is possible to see surprisingly deeply into the planet's atmosphere. The only illumination is the infrared radiation from the planet's hot surface which is almost sufficiently intense to be seen as a very dull red glow. Cloud patterns picked out in infrared are intense enough to be seen during inferior conjunction (in broad daylight) from Earth using a suitably equipped 20cm telescope. The emissivity of the surface at the Magellan radar wavelength, which corresponds to surface electrical properties and surface temperature, correlates strongly with altitude. There are some exceptions to this pattern. High altitude temperatures are often much lower than would be expected on the basis of the adiabatic lapse rate of minus 9 K/km. The conventional view is that the higher emissivity is largely due to the surface chemical composition being different in the highlands. The greenhouse effect would have the surface temperature conforming to the lapse rate. Figure 1. A typical Venusian sinuous rille. The scale bar= 10km. They tend to grow narrow and shallow towards their termini. They are widely distributed in the equatorial regions.
_6. Lightning
_"The most striking [the pun seems unintended observations made by the Galileo spacecraft during its flyby of Venus was evidence of lightning." [14 The surprise is curious. Earlier reports of lightning were discounted, it seems, because they did not fit the pattern of earthly lightning. The Venera spacecraft found 'continuous lightning activity from 32km down to about 2km altitude, with discharges as frequent as an amazing 25 per second' [15. The highest recorded rate on Earth is 1.4/sec during a severe blizzard [16. The Pioneer lander recorded 1000 radio impulses. Thirty-two minutes after landing, Venera 11 detected a very loud (82 decibel) noise which was believed to be thunder. Garry Hunt suggested at the time that:'... the Venusians may well be glowing from the nearly continuous discharges of those frequent lightning strokes' [17. A 'mysterious glow' was detected coming from the surface at a height of 16km by 2 Pioneer probes as they descended on the night hemisphere. The glow increased on descent and may have been caused by a form of St. Elmo's fire and/or chemical reactions in the atmosphere, close to the surface. Lightning is poorly understood. The mechanism of charging of storm clouds remains a mystery. Because lightning is conventionally associated with violent vertical cloud movement on Earth, it was a surprise when investigators found strong evidence of lightning in the quiescent atmosphere of Venus. 'On Venus the clouds tend to resemble fogbanks,.... You don't see much lightning in fog.' [18
_7. Volcanism
_Venus seems to have about 4 times more sulphuric acid in its atmosphere than Earth. It also has minute concentrations of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These findings suggest lively, recent volcanic activity on the planet. There are between 100,000 and 200,000 small basaltic domes (averaging a few hundred metres high and 2km across), rather like underwater sea mounts. Some appear to have explosively erupted, judging by radar-bright deposits or 'plumes' of material broadening away from them. Venus apparently has very fluid lavas. Venusian sinuous rilles have been identified (Figure 1) in large numbers. These rilles are thought to be due to erosional processes involving very hot, fluid lavas. Smooth basaltic plains and lava flows, relatively unmarked by craters, make up 80% of the planet's surface- indicating its extreme youthfulness. There are 430 volcanoes of 19km or more diameter and tens of thousands of small ones. There is an enigma in that there are relatively few craters which have been encroached upon by lava. This would suggest that the craters, most of which look very new, are of more recent origin than the global lava flows. There is no satisfactory explanation for a resurfacing event which involved the entire planet. The word 'resurfacing' itself assumes there once existed an older cratered terrain- but, again, there is no evidence for that. There are many curious features on Venus which are attributed to upwelling lava. For example, there are large circular domes (750 metres high and averaging 25km diameter), often arranged in a chain, with craters and a complex pattern of 'fractures' on top. See Figure 2. These objects are interpreted as a thick lava flow which welled up through openings on level ground, although it is difficult to understand why they should all be so near perfect circles. Such circularity requires too many special conditions to be plausible. The lava orifice would need to be circular, the surface dead level with no obstructions, and the lava viscosity and cooling rate within very narrow limits. Compare the domes with the lobate structure of a true lava flow in Figure 3. The dome fractures are thought to be caused by the cracking of solidified surface lava by further outflows. It is strange that the fractures seem to be of relatively uniform width on widely separated domes. Also some 'fractures' in the surrounding plain appear to climb the wall of a dome and continue across the top (see Figure 2). Small craters appear on top of  the domes, generally in the centre and even smaller craters seem to populate the fractures. The surrounding plain is unmarked by craters, with the notable exception being along the floors of fractures. Figure 2. Seven circular 'domes' averaging 25km in diameter with maximum heights of 750m in Alpha Regio. North is at the top. The linear features are termed 'fractures'. Note the small craters populating the floors of some of them. The long channel in the southeast has a secondary channel along its floor. Figure 3. Multiple eruptions appear in this volcanic structure, located on the plains between Artemis Chasma and Imdr Regio. The central dome structure is 100km wide and about 450m thick on average. Note the usual uneven, lobate form.
_8. Cratering
_Craters are randomly distributed on Venus with some areas of higher or lower density. Surprisingly, most are in pristine condition. As expected, most craters are described in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's images as 'meteorite impact craters' and their features as 'typical..., including rough (bright) material around the rim, terraced inner walls, and central peaks.' [19 The central peaks are termed 'rebound' peaks. The largest craters may show concentric rings. Venus has a relatively low crater count which is attributed to both a global volcanic resurfacing event and the planet's thick atmosphere acting as a shield against small meteors. However, small craters do exist and are found populating the floors of the numerous linear 'fractures', which argues against their formation by impact. The insistence on describing craters as impact-generated is more due to the fact that it is geologists making such pronouncements and that they have difficulty matching the craters with volcanoes observed on Earth. Significantly, astronomers tend to ascribe the craters to volcanic activity, which indicates that neither group feel comfortable with an explanation based on processes with which they are familiar. Two characteristics of so-called impact craters which beg explanation are their near-perfect circularity and the melted floors of large, recent craters, clear of impact debris. Despite this, counting craters is the main technique for determining the age of a planet's surface. It also relies on assumptions about the past population of orbit-crossing comets and meteors in the inner Solar System. "The planetary geologists who are studying the radar images streaming back from Magellan find they have an enigma on their hands. When they read the geologic clock that tells them how old the Venusian surface is they find a planet on the brink of adolescence. But when they look at the surface itself, they see a newborn babe... Magellan scientists have been struck by the newly minted appearances of the craters formed...." [20 Crater counting and the random distribution puts the entire surface age at 500 million years. It is therefore generally concluded that any old surface was wiped clean by a cataclysmic event at that time and remained volcanically quiet since then. The high degree of circularity of most craters suggests that whatever created them acted largely perpendicular to the surface, which is highly unlikely for impacts. Such crater circularity is also a feature on our Moon, the moons of Mars (Figure 4), oddly shaped asteroids, and the nucleus of comet Halley where the cratering process may have been observed in action  (Figure 5). Figure 4. View of the 17km long asteroid 951 Gaspra (top), taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The smallest details are 55 metres across. Deimos (left) and Phobos (right), the moons of Mars, are shown for comparison. Note the craterlets on the rim of the large crater on Phobos. Figure 5. An artist's enhancement of the images of the nucleus of comet Halley taken by the Giotto spacecraft. Notice the bright circular spots and jets. Figure 6. Three large craters with diameters from 37 to 50km are seen in this image from the Lavinia region. Note the truncated ejecta fields around the craters. Asymmetric ejecta patterns have been cited as evidence for impact at an angle to the vertical. Some craters (Figure 6) have a flower-like ejecta blanket which did not travel very far, presumably due to the high atmospheric density. Mars shows similar features which were attributed to the action of water. Since Venus has no water that theory cannot be relevant. There are a number of asymmetric craters which do hint at impact. They show possible effects of the thick atmosphere on the way that meteors reach the surface or the manner in which the ejecta blankets are distributed. Many craters seem to be flooded from below with lava which is presumed to exist in hot layers just beneath the thin crust of Venus.
_9. Plate tectonics
_The surface of Venus has been described as 'spotty'. There are no apparent equivalents of our continental plates. There is only flimsy evidence for some form of plate subduction around the rims of pimple-like elevations called coronae but the origin of the coronae is a mystery. They have been described as magma extrusion features. There is no evidence of a mid-ocean type ridge on Venus to generate new crust. The situation was summed up recently in New Scientist: "The high-resolution radar images Magellan has produced show no evidence of the long chains of volcanoes, and no mid-ocean ridges or other features that would indicate a global system of plates." [21 Venus has rocks similar to those on Earth and possibly more internal heat which would be expected to lead to more dynamic tectonic activity. One suggestion is that the surface of Venus is too hot to sustain rigid plates and that the surface puckers and wrinkles in response to interior forces. Another flimsy idea is that the lack of water on Venus means that it lacks the essential lubricant for sliding crustal plates [22. The many differences between the crusts of Earth and Venus suggest an unusual event to have caused the observed continental rifting on Earth. The assumed driving mechanism for continental drift is mantle convection due to internal radiogenic heat. But it is a very unsatisfactory explanation given the rigidity of the crust and modest heat input which would lead to a low velocity of convection [23. There is no good evidence that anything other than settling movements between plates are now taking place on Earth, long after some past catastrophic rifting 'event(s)'. Rifting is most easily explained by external torques on the Earth. Surface features on Venus, interpreted as fractures, suggest crustal expansion with few signs of compression. The size and spacing of wrinkles is believed to give an indication of the crustal thickness. Venus has 'smaller, more closely spaced features than any previously seen' [24, which argues for a thin crust. But there is another possibility- that the so-called fracture lines are not fractures at all but channels, gouged out  of the surface by a mechanism to be described later. Gravity mapping is to be undertaken by Magellan after its orbit is lowered by atmospheric braking, and then circularised. Such mapping should provide more clues to the structure of Venus. Already it is believed that the prominent Maxwell Montes region should subside under self gravity in a relatively short time.
_10. Channels and valleys
_Venus appears to be laced with fractures, ranging from elaborate networks of fine cracks that extend over large areas of the planet to extensive canyons  thousands of miles long. Up to 200 channels of various types (some clusters being counted as a unit) have been counted. They are concentrated in the equatorial regions and particularly the highlands, rift and fracture zones associated with large shield volcanoes, and the uniquely Venusian coronae. Twelve valleys have been counted. They have been classified as either labyrinthic, rectangular, and irregular or pitted. Some valleys graduate into channels. Simple, non-branching channels have been classified as sinuous rilles, channels with flow margins, and canali [25. Figure 7a. The meandering channel known as the river Styx. It is 6,800km long but practically constant in width at about 2km. The scale bar= 50km. Figure 7b. Detail of river Styx. Note the indications of a smaller channel in the bed of the 'river'.Sinuous rilles generally originate in depressions up to a few hundred meters deep. The channel is cut into the terrain and grows narrower and shallower distally, with no outflow deposit. They  are the most numerous channel type and seem to be concentrated near coronae and arachnoid features. They are thought to be due, in some degree, to "a process of lava drainage channel deepening and widening through thermal-mechanical erosion by high temperature, low viscosity lava during a sustained eruption at high effusion rates" [26. There are severe problems with this proposal. For example, outwash deposits are generally lacking and the channel narrows rather than widens at the lower end. The channels are often preferentially cratered compared with  the surrounding terrain. They are probably too deeply cut into the surface (several hundred metres) to be explained by lava drainage. The dimensions of the Venusian sinuous rilles are far greater than any lava channels seen on Earth. Channels with flow margins occur on volcanic flow deposits. They are shallow and do not cut into the terrain like sinuous rilles. They are consistent with a lava flow origin. Canali are the next most common channel type. They are extraordinarily long, have remarkably constant width and depth  and a lack of complex branching. Canali are found on the smooth plains and trend in random directions. The longest canali are confined to specific plains. There is generally no way of distinguishing which end of the channel is the source and there is no evidence of ponding. Narrow levees can be discerned on some of the radar images. Suggestions for their origin struggle with enormous flows of long duration of exotic, highly fluid lavas on a scale not seen on any other body in the Solar System. Since  there is no evidence of any outflow of the canali it is suggested that successive outflows of lava or weathering has obliterated the sources and sinks of the canali! One of the most bizarre canali is the remarkably long and narrow Hildr Fossa, which Magellan scientists have nicknamed the River Styx (Figure 7). The feature has no analogue on Earth. With a constant width of less than 2km, Hildr is 6,800km long! Slightly longer than the Nile, it is the longest channel known in the Solar System. What is even more weird for a channel which is assumed to have been formed by the flow of some unspecified extremely hot, thin liquid is that it runs up hill and down dale by as much as a kilometre in a roller-coaster fashion. It has been suggested that the terrain must have undergone uplift since the channel was formed. But practically all of the many 'rifts' and channels on Venus exhibit the same disregard for gravity without signs of channel disturbance which would be expected from extensive  ground movement. In the searing heat and crushing pressure at the planet's surface, it is impossible to imagine any substance that could remain liquid long enough to carve out such a lengthy, uniform channel, to somehow disappear along the way and defy gravity in the process! Unremarked by investigators is a secondary, even more sinuous, channel meandering along the floor of Hildr (and most other channels and fractures where image resolution allows) with what appears to be small craterlets dotted along its length. This looks like a  more extensive form of the sinuous rilles. The bright radar echo from both sides of these channels and the shadow behind the top of the radar illuminated bank suggests that the banks are narrow, raised levees [27. The channels and valleys on Venus are assumed to be erosional features caused by a flowing liquid. The only liquid expected at the surface temperature of Venus is lava. Few of the features observed can be explained by lava flows.
_11. Surface age
_It is to be expected that the surface has not suffered from much erosion. With a year-round temperature at the surface of 470 degrees C, surface water, if there ever was any, has long ago boiled away leaving a totally dry and arid landscape. Winds in the lower atmosphere are also very sluggish due to the even temperature and high atmospheric density near the surface. So impact craters and scars from geologic events should remain visible for millions or billions of years. Using accepted assumptions about impact cratering rates in the inner Solar System, it is assumed that the surface age can be determined by crater counting. Scientists were surprised to find a distinct shortage of craters, which indicates a young planet. An early report of the Magellan findings stated: "The Venusian surface appears to be 100 million to 1 billion years old, quite ancient by terrestrial standards" [28 but very young when compared with the Moon or Mercury which also suffer little erosion. The craters on Venus all appear to be new. There is no evidence of an old, heavily cratered terrain. It was simply suggested that the planet's outer layers have been 'reworked and erased relatively recently' [29 without any cause being given. The erasure of the planet's features must have stopped abruptly for there to be little sign of encroachment of lava upon the craters. Clearly, the age will be too high if cratering rates were greater in the recent past. The detailed nature of the surface, revealed by panoramic photographs from Venera 9 after landing, was a surprise. There were no signs of a dust cloud on touch-down at 24 kph and the stones were sharp-edged and recent looking. Even if the erosion rate on Venus were a fraction of a percent of that on Earth, a soil measured in metres would be expected to form in 100 million years. In addition, some of the slopes on Venus, determined by the Magellan orbiter, are remarkably steep. There are slopes of 1 in 4, which is near the limit of stability. Such slopes  obviously cannot have existed for long. They are remarkably young. It is assumed that resurfacing by basaltic lavas is responsible for the apparent youthfulness of the surface. This requires some unknown mechanism based on unproven convection in the mantle to cause widespread resurfacing of the planet, followed by quiescence. It seems to be asking too much for some indeterminate internal process to create planet-wide lavas and then shut down for hundreds of millions of years while cratering takes place. Of course, all of this presupposes that Venus has a  history prior to the 'global resurfacing event'. 12. No satellite Venus has no satellite. The Earth is unique among the inner planets in having a moon which would not appear out of place among the satellites of the giant outer planets. It suggests a quite different history for Earth compared to Venus. How are planets formed? Before any discussion can take place about the age of Venus, the method of planet formation needs to be determined. The accepted nebular theory of the birth of the Solar System does not allow much leeway from a figure of 4.5 billion years. If Venus was added to the solar family of planets very recently, then a new cosmogony must be proposed which does not require that all planets be created at the same time. This would be a radical departure from astronomical thinking today and would result in a completely new perspective in cosmology as well as cosmogony. The better we understand our own back yard, the better are the chances that we will eventually unravel the mystery of our origins, and the solution will come sooner if our minds are prepared to accept the truth when it is found, however fantastic it may be. It we are guided by our reason and our scientific method, if we let the Universe describe its wonder to us, rather than telling it how it ought to be, then we will soon come to the answers we seek, perhaps even within our own lifetimes.' [34
Updates / Re: Mathis on Velikovsky +
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The Surface Of Venus -- "A Newborn Babe" [Aeon Journal]
From: Aeon III:1 (Nov 1992)

_The Surface Of Venus-- "A Newborn Babe", Charles Ginenthal
_Strange, when you think about it, how a lack of information so often grows by leaps and bounds into a belief that has no scientific basis but becomes "accepted fact" simply because enough people want to believe it. Few things irk men of science (and they aren't all that honest) more than having to respond to questions with a puzzled look on their faces and a a collective shrug of shoulders. People have a nasty habit of assuming that scientists should know about those matters on which they're questioned-- if for no other reason than that scientists spread this belief and spend great sums of money collecting information. But with all his instruments and a lifetime of study, the scientist doesn't really have the faintest idea of what it may be like on Venus. Oh, he's got ideas (most of them horribly wrong), but he does not know. If you don't know-- at least say something. Don't quite make up out of thin air. Deduce. If you have only a shred of cloth, weave yourself a magnificent set of clothes by mixing liberal amounts of imagination with that shred. That's just about what happened with what we thought we knew about Venus. The theories were both serious and preposterous. They were sincere and they were outlandish. They were well intended and they were based on everything we knew about Venus, but people couldn't separate minimum fact from maximum imagination, and what emerged was gibberish. Martin Caiden, Planetfall (New York, 1974), p. 138 In 1950, Immanuel Velikovsky claimed that the testimony of ancient peoples from all parts of the globe described Venus as a giant, brilliant comet. Based on Velikovsky's analysis of this data he drew the conclusion that Venus was a newborn planet in the early cool-down stage of its development. Therefore, if his understanding of the evidence was correct then Venus' surface should exhibit all the conditions of a world that was very recently molten and is most likely still volcanic and geologically active. In 1985, Dr. Lawrence Colin, Chief of the Space Science Division at nasa's Ames Research Center and co-editor of Venus, wrote:...Our knowledge of Venus was still seriously limited in the early 1960s prior to mankind's first rendezvous by spacecraft. In 1961 competing views of Venus could be classified in seven broad categories: 1. moist, swampy, teeming with life. 2. warm, enveloped by a global carbonic-acid ocean. 3. cool, Earth-like, with surface water and a dense ionosphere. 4. water, massive precipitating clouds of water droplets with intense lightning. 5. cold, polar regions with ice caps 10 kilometers thick and a hot equatorial region far above the boiling point of water. 6. hot, dusty, dry, windy global desert. 7. extremely hot and cloudy, with molten lead and zinc puddles at the equator, seas of bromine, butyric acid and phenols at the poles. From this list it is not obvious that scientists were all describing the same planet. For those who are impatient about the outcome, speculation 6 appears to represent most closely what we now think Venus is like. (1) Reinforcing the sixth option Ernest J. Opik, the internationally known astronomer of Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, stated in 1960: The modern picture of Venus...[is a borderless desert extending over an area one hundred times that of the Sahara...[The Sahara itself would appear a paradise compared with the dry and suffocating dust storms raging behind the brilliant deceitful face of the Evening Star. (2) Nowhere was it ever suggested by establishment scientists that Venus would be found to be a volcanic cauldron covered by immense lava flows. In fact, as recent as 1989, Isaac Asimov, the late popular science writer, remarked: For years astronomers had believed that Venus was a geologically dead place. Although quakes, volcanoes and other activity surely wracked the planet at one time, it seemed certain that Venus was quiet today. (3) Therefore, if Velikovsky's analysis of the ancient testimony is correct the observations by the Magellan spacecraft should not only contradict the previous models of the Venusian surface but should also show overwhelming evidence of recent stupendous volcanism on a surface that appears to be pristine. One of the first indications of this excessive volcanism was presented in May 1990 in the Journal of Geophysical Research which analyzed the sulfur content of the Venusian clouds. There Na Y. Chan et al. state: Results of recent International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Venus made on January 20, 1987, and April 2 and 3, 1988, along with a re-analysis of the 1979 observations...are presented. The observations indicate that the amount of sulfur dioxide at the cloud tops of Venus declined by a factor of 84 from 38070 ppb [parts per billion to 5020 ppb in 1987 and 1988. (4) One of the researchers of this phenomenon, Larry Esposito from the University of Boulder Colorado, elaborated on this decrease of SO 2 and SO two months later in Astronomy: Pioneer Venus has continued to monitor these constituents above the clouds. Over the years a remarkable discovery has emerged: both sulfur dioxide and the haze have been gradually disappearing. By now only about 10 percent of the 1978 amount remains. This disappearance has also been confirmed by the Earth-orbiting International Ultraviolet Explorer between 1979 and 1987 and other Earth-based observations. The haze and the sulfur dioxide are now approaching their pre-1978 values. Analysis of recent Earth-based radio observations by Paul Steffes and his colleagues show less sulfur dioxide below the clouds than was measured by Pioneer Venus and Venera landers, which is also consistent with the decrease of sulfur dioxide. Inclusive Earth-based data show that a similar phenomenon may also have occurred in the late 1950s. The best explanation right now for the decrease is that from time to time major volcanic eruptions inject sulfur dioxide gas to high altitudes. The haze comes from particles of sulfuric acid, which is created by the action of sunlight on sulfur dioxide...Being heavy the particles gradually fall out of the upper atmosphere, letting conditions up there return to normal between eruptions. My calculations show that this eruption of the late 1970s was at least as large as the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. The explosion, equal to a 500-megaton H-bomb, was the most violent of the last century or so shooting vast quantities of gas into the Earth's stratosphere. (5) Some scientists have already drawn the same tentative conclusion posited by Esposito. Thus James Pollock states: Measurements by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter show that the amount of sulfur dioxide present near the cloud tops declined from approximately 100 parts per billion (ppb) in 1978 to about 10 ppb in 1986. There is also fragmentary evidence of similar increases and decreases at earlier times. Such fluctuations might be due to episodic injections of SO 2 high in the atmosphere by powerful volcanic explosions. (6) David Morrison and Tobias Owen put the case even more strongly: Observations over the past twenty years have indicated that large fluctuations occur in the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) in the atmosphere of Venus above the clouds. When these observations are combined with indications of volcanic topography and lightning discharges for possible volcanism, the case for erupting volcanoes on Venus becomes rather strong. (7) This appears to be indirect evidence that at least twice in the 1950s and 1970s there were major volcanic eruptions on Venus' surface.
_There are, of course, questions and objections related to this analysis; nevertheless, the Magellan spacecraft may have already observed explosive volcanism. In the December 1990 issue of Scientific American appears a photograph made by Magellan which appears to exhibit exploded material from one of its craters. The caption accompanying the picture states: Explosive volcanism may be responsible for the radar-bright deposit that extends roughly 10 kilometers from the kilometer-wide volcanic crater at the center of the image. The etched pattern of the surrounding plains becomes more obscure closer to the crater, which indicates that the deposit is thickest near the crater. The shape of the deposit suggests that local winds either carried the plume southward or else gradually eroded away the plume material except for that part located in the volcano's wind shadow. These bits of information, though consistent with volcanic activity, need to be corroborated by other information that will give a more comprehensive picture of a planetary surface formed by massive volcanic processes. In this respect, we turn our attention to another body in the solar system that is in the throes of massive, violent, ongoing volcanism and exhibits several notable features related to this Venusian phenomenon. That body is Io, the inner Galilean satellite of Jupiter. As Io orbits around Jupiter it is constantly being distorted in shape by its tidal interactions with the very massive Jupiter and its three outer Galilean satellites. As Io is distorted and flexed, like the action produced by bending a spoon, enormous heat is generated producing volcanism. Therefore, Io is molten at a relatively low depth of its surface and its thin crust is floating on an ocean of molten magma. The amount of heat emitted by Io, according to David Morrison (a member of the imaging science team for the Voyager spacecraft) shows: "[ An internal heat source-- estimated at 10 14 W-- needed to drive this volcanism is two to three orders of magnitude [100 to 1000 times greater than that expected from normal radionucleides..." ( 8 ) Io is the most volcanic body in the solar system. According to Billy Glass: The volcanic eruptions [on Io appear to be comparable in intensity to the greatest terrestrial eruptions which are rare on the Earth...Io appears to be volcanically more active than the Earth. This has made mapping Io difficult because the active regions undergo radical changes in short periods of time. In the four month interval between Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, for example, one of the largest (200 km diameter) [122 miles eruptive centers on Io known as Prometheus was transformed from a heart shaped feature to a circular one. (9) Hence, if Venus was an incandescent body 3500 years ago and then cooled to the point where it became molten before it arrived at its present state, it should exhibit a topography quite similar to that of Io. In essence the volcanic forms observed on Io should generally be representative of the surface features seen on Venus. There should, of course, be differences between the bodies because Io's temperature is not decreasing whereas we presume that Venus' temperature is. Furthermore, there will be differences in the materials each body contains which will also affect the appearance of their surfaces. Before comparing Io and Venus we wish to point out that many of the volcanic craters on Io do give the appearance of impact craters. According to Carr et al.: Calderas occur in every region of Io so far photographed. They are generally recognizable by their strong resemblance to terrestrial and Martian calderas. In many cases no relief can be detected and a caldera is inferred from the presence of a dark circular feature....Over 5% of the Ionian surface seems to be part of a caldera, either dormant or active. Where relief is discernible the calderas are recognized as rimless depressions with steep, inward-facing scarps and relatively flat floors. (10)
_Plains Vulcanism
_David Morrison describes Io's volcanic features as follows: Some of Io's volcanic features look a great deal like their terrestrial counterparts: low shield-shaped constructs with calderas at their peaks and flows of erupted materials on their sides. However, most of Io's calderas are not at the tops of mountains but instead appear to be scattered amid the plains. (11) Io exudes its magma in this manner because it is tremendously hot internally and has an extremely thin crust. Therefore if Velikovsky was right that Venus was hot internally just below its thin crust it too should pour forth its magma after the fashion of Io. Observations should show evidence that lava is either presently or has very recently been exuded from circular vents on the plains of the Venusian surface. In New Scientist we learn that radar shows lava flows on Venus are indeed very much like those on Io: The flat plains of Venus consist of lava that has flowed from the planet comparatively recently, according to latest radar results. And an appreciable amount of the planet's heat may escape through these lava flows, rather than through large volcanoes and rift valleys that geologists have known for some years. In the plains the researchers found dozens of small vents, which oozed lava without forming volcanic cones. The researchers say, "The large number and wide distribution of vents in the lowlands strongly suggest that plains volcanism is an important aspect of surface evolution and contributed to heat loss on Venus". (12) Thus, there is a basic similarity that strongly suggests that Venus is venting its internal heat through plains volcanism. This implies that Venus, like Io, has a thin crust and is extremely hot not far beneath that crust.
_The Nature of Io's and Venus' Craters
_Since Io possesses such a thin crust floating on a bed of magma, that crust can become deformed. Io's craters are situated over the upwellings of the hottest magmatic flows and, therefore, distortion of the crust should be in evidence most strongly at these sites of upwelling. This, indeed, has been well observed by Voyagers 1 and 2. Carr, et al., describe the crater caldera shapes in this manner: "Although most [craters are nearly circular, they range widely in shape; some have scalloped walls suggesting collapse about different centers, others have rectilinear outlines, and others have elongate, slot-like shapes." (13) One of the first reports from Magellan respecting non circular craters on Venus was presented in the New York Times for Sept. 18, 1990. There it was reported that a kidney-shaped crater had been observed. The explanation given to explain this unusually shaped structure was that the "kidney-shaped crater appeared unlike any other in the solar system. Perhaps an incoming meteor broke up as it passed through the dense Venusian atmosphere, causing several large chunks of material to strike almost simultaneously in an irregular pattern." (14) However, over time more and more irregular shaped craters were observed so that the first example could no longer be considered unique. Thus an article in Discover states, "Even Venus' meteorite craters are intriguing. Some have strange and irregular shapes, in puzzling contrast to the round outline typical of most impact craters in the solar system." (15) So far as is known only two worlds-- Venus and Io-- exhibit very large numbers of misshapen craters. This again strongly implies that they were created in the same way under similar conditions. That is, both Venus and Io are highly volcanic and have thin crusts floating on magma: "Lunar craters, like terrestrial impact craters tend to be circular, whereas calderas do not." (16) Geophysicists have generally considered misshapen craters as volcanic structures on the Moon and on Io. However, when they observe misshapen craters on Venus in which nearly all craters over 12 miles in diameter are observed to be filled with lava and in which a percentage have lava rivers emanating from them, the scientists have changed their interpretation to suggest that the craters are no longer of volcanic origin but of impact origin. If Io's and Venus' craters were, indeed, generated by similar processes then they should also show common features other than their non-circular shapes. For example some of Venus' craters are quite deep. Thus Dr. Gordon H. Pettengill, a leader of the Magellan radar team, reported that the spacecraft's first altimeter measurements were defining the texture of the planet's topography. One surprise, he said, "was discovering that a previously surveyed impact crater named Colette is more than two miles deep-- far deeper than any crater seen on the Earth or any other planet." (17) On Io, too, we find that "some calderas are several kilometers deep" (18) Moreover, there is another level of resemblance between the craters of Io and Venus that strongly suggests that Venus' craters are of volcanic rather than impact origin. Because Io's craters are accepted as having been produced by volcanism the outflows of rivers of lava from them is not considered enigmatic to the space scientists. In this regard it is reported: One of the most striking aspects of Io's calderas is the associated albedo patterns. The floors of most are very dark and the low reflectivity of many is accentuated by bright haloes around the craters....[Sulfur rendered molten by heat from silicate magmas...may be the source of some of the river like features that snake across Io's surface...The flows from one of Io's craters are very long stretching for hundreds of kilometers. (19) R. Stephen Saunders reports of one Venusian crater: "The crater's flat, smooth floor hints that it has been flooded with lava." (20) Saunders exhibits photographs of Venusian craters which show dark floors with bright halos around them and then informs us that: "River-like erosion features running from the largest crater in the image are as yet unexplained." (21) The reason for this difficulty is, of course, that the interpretation of these long river-like structures from the craters suggests that the craters are not impact formations but volcanic creations. With respect to this long river, Andrew Chaikin writes: One of the most bizarre features yet identified on Venus is a remarkably long and narrow channel that Magellan scientists have nicknamed the river Styx. Although it is only half a mile wide, Styx is 4,800 miles long. What could have caused such a channel is unclear. Water, of course, is out of the question. Flowing lava is a possibility but it would have to have been extremely hot, thin and fluid. (22) One further resemblance between the craters of Io and Venus is their general size or diameter. Billy Glass observed that the craters depressions on Io are "up to 200 km in diameter." (23) On Venus it is assumed that any crater larger than 300 km would settle by rheological flow in about one billion years. (24) Sulfur is the fluid suggested as being responsible for river structures on Io. However, the River Styx runs up as well as downhill. What is clearly implied, if this feature is a flow, is that the surface topography has shifted greatly since the flow ceased. Furthermore, Science News reports recent changes on Venus that have been attributed to wind blown debris but a deep regolith has not been seen anywhere on Venus and the scientist who discovered the changes also suggests that the differences between the 1991 image and another taken months later "may stem from an actual surface change." (25) The largest craters so far observed are about 275 km in diameter. This implies that a molten body like either Io or possibly Venus would produce craters of this size and smaller. This, of course, is still to be determined by the full scale observation of Venus by Magellan. If this evidence holds up it will again imply that Venus is molten at shallow depth. This however, does not negate the possibility that tidal forces on solid bodies such as the Moon may generate larger craters such as the Maria basins. In summarizing the information about craters one notes that their shape, depth, size, and bright halos around craters and dark flat centers bearing river-like lava flows on both Io and Venus are strong indications that volcanism is the cause of these surface features. One can also add that both Io and Venus possess craters with central peaks and craters without central peaks which can be seen in any good collection of photographs made of these bodies. To some extent confusion reigns in the analysis of Venus' craters as impact structures. Consider the problems posed by the crater known as Cleopatra. Here Burnham points out: Cleopatra is an impact crater surrounded by terrain that has been extensively modified by volcanism, probably induced by the impact. According to present thinking, if there was enough volcanic material available close to the surface so that it could spill out after the impact, then Maxwell [a nearby mount itself would have softened and slumped to a much lower elevation. What is the answer? No one knows yet. (26) In no manner at all does impact cratering explain Cleopatra. Rather, as is the case with most volcanic craters, a vent made its way up to the slopes of Maxwell Montes and broke through the surface creating a large crater and pouring lava over the surface. Significantly, Burnham reports that, "All craters larger than about 20 kilometers across have interiors at least partially flooded with lava." (27) [italics added. From this it is quite clear that volcanism rather than impact is the dominant cause of cratering on Venus.
_Pancake-Shaped Domes and Other Anomalies
_Among the strangest features found on Venus is a series of pancake-shaped domes. This surprising discovery was recounted in the New York Times as follows: At the news conference yesterday, Dr. R. Stephen Saunders, the [Magellan project's chief scientist, showed pictures of...pancake-shaped domes which he said were "features never seen before" on any planet. In one region, seven domes remarkably similar in size stretch out in a line remarkably straight for nature...They were presumably formed by extreme viscous lava pouring out of volcanic vents. The pattern "is telling us something about the eruption mechanism, the viscosity and the eruption rate.' But that was as far as geologists ventured in the interpretation. (28) The unusual shape of these features should have struck a chord somewhere among the planetary geologists because pancake-shaped domes have also been observed on Io. Thus Carr et al., inform us: While most calderas [on Io do not seem to be within sharply defined edifices, a variety of positive relief features are recognizable. Most are puzzling and difficult to relate to terrestrial landforms. Among the more comprehensible because of their resemblance to low volcanic cones, are two pancake-like constructions...They are nearly circular, and surrounded by low escarpments. Each has a bright-floored small crater in the middle. The albedo [reflection of light by the material of the main edifice is uniform and close to that of the surroundings. (emphasis added) (29) Once again two worlds-- Venus and Io-- share a unique feature seen nowhere else. Of course, normal volcanic domes have also been observed on Venus. Here Eberhart reported: Beneath Venus' acrid clouds which perpetually shield its surface from the eyes of Earth-bound observers, lie tens of thousands of low dome-shaped features. For several years planetary scientists have pondered the origin and significance of these gentle mounds, which have appeared in radar images made of the planet since 1983. Apparently the result of volcanism, the domes constitute "the most abundant geological feature on the planet" says Jayne C. Aubele of Brown University: "I'm excited about the domes and other scientists are beginning to be also" Aubele says "the presence of a volcano on the surface of a planet always tells us something about the planet. The presence of tens of thousands of volcanoes overwhelms me". (30) Although the number of domes on Venus of volcanic origin may turn out to be smaller in number when Magellan completes its survey, the great number clearly indicates how abundantly volcanic Venus must be. One researcher sums it up this way: "Magellan's radar survey of Venus found thousands of small volcanoes dotting the mostly flat landscape, as well as mountainous volcanic structures several hundred kilometers in diameter and evidence of massive outpourings of lava." (31) Later we are informed that, "Magellan has found no evidence of gradual resurfacing." This suggests that Venus lava flows were immense in scale, which is what Velikovsky's concept requires.
_Hot Spots
_For some time now it has been known that certain areas on Io are far hotter than the surrounding surface terrain. Such areas are described as "hot spots." Here Morrison tells us, "In Io's case nature has aided us by channeling much of the heat flow into a few small areas resulting in hot-spots with temperatures far higher than the ambient background." (32) Alfred McEwen et al., suggest that, " that most of the hot spots [on Io have remained relatively stable in temperature, location and total power output at least since the Voyager encounters and possibly for the last decade." (33) Hotspots have been associated with surface features on Venus for a very long time; they were originally found by Earth-bound radar and confirmed by Venera spacecraft. (34) James Head asks: The question with arguably the broadest implications is simply how has Venus chosen to get rid of its internal heat (emphasis in original). Does Venus cool itself by sending magma directly from the interior to the surface? Then we would expect to see widespread volcanic deposits and numerous "hot spots," like those on Jupiter's satellite Io. (35) Thus the presence of hot-spots suggests that Venus-- like Io-- is venting its heat via hot-spot volcanism. This, in turn, suggests that Venus-- similar to Io-- is molten at a shallow depth. One of the great enigmas of the "runaway greenhouse effect" is the problem of explaining the source of Venus' high surface temperature. Based on this analysis it now seems highly probable that the high surface temperature has little if anything to do with a greenhouse effect. Velikovsky's conclusion that Venus' surface heat is derived from its molten core appears to be correct.
_The Age of Venus' Surface
_In Worlds in Collision Velikovsky suggested that Venus' age was to be measured in thousands of years rather than billions. In a recent article in Science a leading astronomer offered the following observation regarding the age of Venus' surface: The planetary geologists who are studying the radar images streaming back from Magellan find that they have an enigma on their hands. When they read the geologic clock that tells them how old the Venusian surface is they find a planet on the brink of adolescence. But when they look at the surface itself, they see a newborn babe...(emphasis added) Magellan scientists have been struck by the newly minted appearances of the craters formed...Only one of the 75 craters identified on the 5% of the planet mapped shows any of the typical signs of aging, such as filling in with lava of volcanic eruptions or being torn by the faulting of tectonic disruption. But by geologists usual measure these fresh-looking craters had plenty of time to fall prey to the ravages of geologic change. (36) Based on the assumption that Venus is an ancient body the scientists estimate the surface of Venus to be on the order of 100 million to 1 billion years old. In short, even though they are confronted with a surface that is pristine scientists nevertheless interpret the evidence according to the theory that Venus is 4.5 billion years old. Thus Billy Glass tells us that in analyzing Venus' history planetary scientists accept, "the geologic history of Venus...based primarily on what we have learned about the other planets and is necessarily highly speculative. We assume that Venus was formed 4.5 x 10 9 y ago." (4.5 billion years ago) (37)
_The Missing Venusian Regolith
_Geophysicists, in order to explain the physical nature of the Venusian surface, offer the supposition that between 100 million and a billion years ago the entire planet turned itself inside out. If one were to accept this assumption it would require that over that period of time between the covering of the surface with lava flows and the present, erosional forces would break down the surface rock into detritus to form a regolith. The problem for the space scientists is that there is no evidence of a regolith covering the Venusian surface. Moreover, in view of the nature of the highly acidic nature of the atmosphere it is obvious that there has been significant erosion of the surface. According to Bruce Murray et al., "there can be little doubt that chemical weathering must be very effective on Venus' surface." (38) Venus' atmosphere is known to contain hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid, both of which are very corrosive. Paolo Maffei explains further that, "the atmosphere of Venus also contains-- although in small amounts-- hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, which reacting with sulfuric acid [known to exist in Venus' atmosphere could form fluosulfuric acid, a very strong acid capable of attacking and dissolving almost all common materials including most rocks." (39) According to the scientists, Venus has been subjected to this intense weathering of its surface for at least 100 million years. Over this period of time the planet should have developed a covering of weathered material. Nevertheless, George McGill et al., inform us that: Radar and Venera lander observations imply that most of the surface of Venus cannot be covered by unconsolidated wind blown deposits; bulk densities on near surface materials are not consistent with aeolian sediments. Thus present-day wind-blown sediments cannot form a continuous layer over the entire planet. (40) Thus, despite the fact that erosional processes are clearly at work on Venus' surface, there is no evidence of a regolith. Bruce Murray, in dealing with this enigma wonders: Russian close-ups of Venus were surprising. I had presumed that its surface was buried under a uniform blanket of soil and dust. Chemical weathering should be intense in such a hot and acid environment. Unknown processes of topographic renewal evidently manage to outstrip degradation and burial (41) [emphasis added. In order to explain the lack of a Venusian regolith the scientists imagine a process that has no scientific basis for its action to reconsolidate the detritus on Venus. Nevertheless, let us assume that Venus' erosion rate is extremely weak and that it is not turned back into rock at the surface by unknown processes. What do we find? If we allow a tiny erosion rate of one millimeter per hundred years, then in 100 thousand years we produce one meter of loose material on the surface of Venus, which is equal to about 40 inches. However, in 100 million years we generate a kilometer of detritus, which is over 3000 feet of this loose material. Under no known condition can this much matter at the surface be turned to solid rock, and this is admitted by the scientists. What we find at the surface of Venus is the detritus of an erosion rate that is only a few thousand years old. Only by ignoring this clear evidence can the astronomers support the view that Venus' surface reflects events tracing to processes occurring between 100 million and one billion years ago. Although Magellan has cast doubt upon most of the scientific establishment's predictions regarding the nature of Venus' surface, a belief in a 4.5 billion year old age of the planet Venus is still enshrined as dogma. In accordance with this theory, it is believed by the space scientists that the degradation of craters on Venus' surface must have occurred over hundreds of millions of years. As the situation on Io proves, however, degradation does not require long time periods. Io's craters decay over extraordinarily short time periods measured in weeks or months. On Venus this period might take years. Based on the indications (cited above) that both Venus and Io are molten at shallow depth and are highly volcanic, Venus' craters would by no stretch of the imagination require millions of years to degrade. How then do scientists explain the fact that Venus' craters look so pristine? Here Kerr observes: Magellan scientists strove to explain the paradox of young looking craters on a relatively old surface. They raised the possibility that several hundred million years ago, a planet-wide outpouring wiped the slate clean, drowning any existing craters in a flood of lava. Then the flood would have had to turn off fairly abruptly so the craters formed by subsequent impacts would remain pristine. But such a global episode of volcanism generates another mystery. How could Venusian volcanic activity ebb so abruptly? (42) No doubt there will be other, equally imaginative, scenarios advanced in order to explain away this dilemma of so few craters showing signs of decay. To return to Kerr: But surface remodeling is going on after all, Magellan scientists told a large crowd at the AGU [American Geological Union meeting. More recent images show the ravages of time, but in a fashion that leaves few aged craters."(emphasis added) This is not so much an explanation of the findings as a directive that the evidence is to be interpreted as such. This is not the only problem, however. Again we cite Kerr: The expanded view reveals four nearly continent-sized areas, ranging from a few million to 5 million square kilometers, that have no impact craters at all. According to Magellan team member Roger Phillips of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, the absence of impact craters-- despite a steady rain of asteroids and comets onto the Venusian surface-- means that in the recent geologic past the craters were wiped out either by lava flooding across these areas or by tectonic faulting, stretching and compression. The volcanic activity required to resurface the crater-free regions would be impressive by any standards, Phillips says. For example, it took at least a million cubic kilometers of lava over a few million years to produce the 66-million-year-old Deccan Traps of India. But the lava-covered areas already uncovered on a small part of Venus by Magellan must have all formed within the past few tens of millions of years to have escaped being marked by impact craters. (43) So Magellan scientists are still left with an enigma. What is clearly implied by the radar and photographic evidence is that immense outpourings of lava have occurred over huge areas of Venus' surface, covering over everything including craters. The scientists still cannot explain why there are so few craters that are degraded or flooded or why Venus suddenly poured out its lava in oceanic amounts. But all of this is clearly what one would expect to find from the theory that Velikovsky advanced in Worlds in Collision whereby Venus was only recently subjected to tremendous stresses and participated in numerous clashes with other planets.
_As a newborn planet, Venus would not have fully differentiated so it remains possible that all its iron has yet to sink to its core. Accordingly, it was reported in Astronomy that: Maxwell Montes...poses a big problem in interpretation. Parts have electrical properties that indicate the surface contains "flakes" of some unknown mineral, most likely iron sulfides, iron oxides, or magnetite. Iron sulfides (" fool's gold") fit the observations best, but studies have shown that they would be quickly destroyed by the corrosive Venusian atmosphere. Iron oxides (such as hematite) and magnetite are also possible, but the presence of either is not easy to account for. (44) If indeed iron is to be found upon the surface of Venus it would support the claim that it is a youthful planet in the early stages of cooling. (45) A planet that had differentiated its iron into its central core would not be expected to pour iron onto the surface with volcanic materials. The reason that the iron compounds have not completely corroded in Venus' corrosive atmosphere, most probably, is that these outpourings of iron are extremely recent surface coverings measured in perhaps a few years. Iron on Venus' surface is clear evidence that supports Velikovsky.
_The superabundance of 36 Argon, and the tiny amount of 40 Ar, are glaring puzzles for the conventional view of Venus' history but perfectly consistent with Velikovsky's view that Venus is a youthful planet. As Glass explains, the 40 Argon builds up over time by the breakdown of 40 Potassium: The ratio of the mass of radiogenic 40 Ar to the mass of Venus is smaller by amount of a factor of 15 than the value for the Earth. Since 40 Ar within a planet increases with time due to radio active decay of 40 K, the amount of 40 Ar should be higher if the primary outgassing took place late in the planet's history. (46) If Venus did not outgas much 40 Ar over time why did it outgas so much 36 Argon? If Venus lost nearly all its 40 Ar why did it retain 36 Argon? If, on the other hand, the great outflowings of lava released great amounts of 36 Argon why didn't these outpourings also release large amounts of 40 Ar?
_Ultraviolet radiation photodissociates CO 2, SO 2 and H 2 O; over millions of years oxygen should have become plentiful in Venus' atmosphere, but it remains a minute constituent. Venus' water vapor cannot have escaped in less than 20 billion years. Where then is Venus' water? To argue Venus had no water but retains other volatiles is a basic contradiction. Moreover, Venus' middle atmosphere should have been converted to CO 2 and O 2 over a few thousand years, yet this is not the case. To argue that the Sun's magnetic flow implants and removes gases is based on assumptions that have never been proven and does not address all the problems of the other gases which exist and are unrelated to the solar wind. A similar problem surrounds the prevalence of hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids. Both of these acids are neutralized by new surface rock; oxygen, on the other hand, will unite with new surface rock. If nearly all of Venus' oxygen was removed by uniting with new outflows of molten rock why didn't these great outflowings neutralize all the hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid? The lack of abundant oxygen on Venus and the existence of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid are only congruent with one theory-- that of Immanuel Velikovsky.
_The Greenhouse Effect
_For years the scientific community has maintained that the great heat of Venus is derived from an atmospheric greenhouse effect. Gary Hunt and Patrick Moore outline the ingredients necessary to generate a large and powerful greenhouse on Venus: CO 2 is responsible for about 55% of the trapped heat. A further 25% is due to the presence of water vapor, while SO 2 which constitutes only 0.02% [2/100 of a per cent of the atmosphere, traps 5% of remaining infrared radiation. The remaining 15% of the greenhouse is due to the clouds and hazes which surround the planet. (47) While carbon dioxide is certainly present on Venus, it can account for only 55% of the greenhouse effect. As Barrie Jones explains, other factors are also necessary to make the greenhouse work: Efficient trapping [of heat cannot be produced by CO 2 alone, in spite of the enormous mass of CO 2 in the atmosphere. This is because CO 2 is fairly transparent over certain wavelength ranges to planetary wavelengths. Radiation could escape through these "windows" in sufficient quantities to greatly reduce the greenhouse effect below that which exists. It is by blocking of these windows by SO 2, by H 2 O and by the clouds that greatly increases the greenhouse effect. (48) In short, it is crucial to the runaway greenhouse effect that there be sufficient water, sulfur dioxide, and haze to maintain the heat holding capacity of the planet. Respecting water, especially in the lower atmosphere, the scientists have been looking for this vapor for a very long time. As late as September 1991, water vapor has not been found in anything like that amount needed to support the contention that the greenhouse is a foregone conclusion. According to R. Cowan: A research team has focused on the greenhouse puzzle...The absence of water vapor above Venus' cloud banks mystifies scientists because models of the planet's strong greenhouse effect suggest that [water vapor plays a key role in maintaining the warming. Researchers have now looked for water below the cloud bank and down to the surface-- and their search has come up dry. Evidence of a dry Venus may force researchers to consider whether other chemicals could create and sustain the planet's greenhouse effect, says David Crisp of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who coauthored the new report. (49) Now when a vapor responsible for 25% of the efficiency of the greenhouse-effect has been sought in vain for some 20 years it implies that a major problem exists with the model in question. Furthermore, in our earlier discussion of the SO 2 and haze in the Venusian atmosphere we have shown that measurements indicate that these materials are transient products and do not sustain themselves for long periods of time. With this additional undermining of the greenhouse effect the process becomes more and more difficult to imagine. One of the major theoretical supports of the greenhouse model is the belief that Venus is in thermal balance. Over and over we are told that measurements of the cloud tops for infrared emissions show conclusively that the amount of sunlight incident on the planet is equal to the infrared radiation emitted by Venus. However, this must also be supported by in situ measurements throughout the atmosphere: Radiative balance occurs [on a planet at every level when the amount of downward-directed solar radiation that is absorbed is equal to the amount of infrared radiation that is emitted upward. When local temperatures satisfy this balance the atmospheric temperature is maintained. (emphasis added) (50) Not only must there be thermal balance at one level of the atmosphere, this thermal balance must exist at all levels throughout the atmosphere to confirm thermal balance. That this is not the case upon Venus has been known for some time. As long ago as 1980 Richard Kerr reported in Science that: When [4 Pioneer Venus probes looked at the temperature, each one found more energy being radiated up from the lower atmosphere than enters it as sunlight. To further complicate the situation, the size of the apparent upward flow of energy varies from place to place by a factor of 2 which was a disturbing discovery. (51) Kerr adds a telling and fundamental observation in this regard: "The much ballyhooed greenhouse effect of Venus can account for only part of the heating." (52) [emphasis added This simply means that the measured evidence from in situ probes precludes the possibility that Venus is in thermal balance. Since this evidence was confirmed by four probes it is highly unlikely that each probe could have been in error. What is most significant is the variation from place to place, the amount of heat rising varying at some places by a factor of 2. Thus, if in one region of Venus' atmosphere the temperature was x degrees, in another area it was 2x degrees. This means that there was at least twice the amount of heat coming up at 2x than could have been supplied by the greenhouse effect. It is most unlikely that in one region of Venus' atmosphere the greenhouse effect is twice as strong as in the other regions.
_A fair reading of history will show that conventional astronomers have a very poor record when it comes to predicting the surface conditions of Venus. Such is not the case with regards to the thesis outlined by Immanuel Velikovsky in 1950. As this essay has sought to show, the evidence from Venus is fully consistent with the thesis of its anomalous origin and tumultuous recent history as set forth in Worlds in Collision. Indeed, it is this author's sincere hope that the day will come when members of the scientific community will find the courage and integrity to call for a full and proper investigation of Velikovsky's hypothesis.
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