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91
Updates / Re: E HOT SPOTS
« Last post by Admin on March 15, 2017, 10:51:27 am »
522 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 3, September 2016. www.ncgt.org
Caveats on tomographic images
Gillian R. Foulger (g.r.foulger@durham.ac.uk), Giuliano F. Panza, Irina M. Artemieva, Ian D. Baslow, Fabio Cammarano, John R. Evans, Warren B. Hamilton, Bruce R. Julian, Mechele Lustrino, hand Thybo and Tatiana B. Yanovskaya.
Terra Nova, v. 25, no. 4, p. 259–281, 2013. doi: 10.1111/ter.12041.
(The following is an exerpt from Summary of this paper. Permission granted by the senior author)
Summary
Problems with travel-time tomography include inadequate correction for structure outside the study volume, inability to retrieve three-dimensional structure, corruption of the mantle image by inadequate correction of the crust and boundary layer beneath, inability to retrieve true anomaly amplitudes and inhomogeneous ray coverage. Some regions simply cannot be imaged using current techniques, particularly in remote oceanic regions. Perhaps the most vexed problem is assessing realistically the true errors in results. Because of the fundamental experimental set-up, errors in structures calculated using teleseismic tomography are largest in the vertical direction. This results in a propensity to downward-smear structures, producing artificially vertically elongated anomalies. For surface-wave tomography, lateral resolution of anomalies is poorest and therefore lateral smearing can be strong.
The information in three-dimensional models is difficult to impart in a few maps and cross-sections. The wide array of choices, such as which particular result to favour, and which colour palette, line of section, and zero-contour wave speed to select, means that there is broad scope for producing figures that support preferred models. The widespread use of relative wave speeds commonly leads to misinterpretations. Translation of seismic anomalies to geology is not straightforward. More physical parameters vary in the mantle than seismic parameters mapped. Simplifying assumptions, such as seismic wave speed being everywhere a direct proxy for temperature, are not supported, and neither are geochemical models that rely on such work.
The wave speeds of both compressional and shear-waves are anisotropic in the mantle, and if this is neglected, which is usually thecase, erroneous results and interpretations may result. The upper 200 km of the mantle is the most heterogeneous and anisotropic region of the mantle and beneath this, heterogeneity drops dramatically (Gung et al., 2003). Many weak anomalies imaged by seismic tomography may result simply from uncorrected anisotropy. Anisotropy at ~200 km beneath cratons and at ~80 - 200 km beneath ocean basins may be related to shear in the boundary layer, the difference in depth simply reflecting a variable depth to the maximum shear (Anderson, 2011).
In recent years, much progress has been made in improving computational techniques and incorporating these advances into tomographic practice. This includes using local structure in global parameterizations, and three-dimensional ray-tracing instead of assuming straight or piecewise- straight rays (Hung et al., 2001, 2004). Similarly, Christoffersson and Husebye (2011) have revisited the basics of the inversion methods used, showing that at least some of the often-noted smearing and weakening of velocity anomalies by traditional damped inverses can be mitigated by using better tuned methods. Progress is also being made on describing better the uncertainties in the results, including calculating probability density functions (Mosegaard and Tarantola, 2002; Sambridge, 1999a,b). However, these advances cannot eliminate the fundamental difficulties we have highlighted above, which are inherent in the experimental setup. There is, nevertheless, a good case for re-processing many older data sets that have only been analysed using earlier, more primitive methods, the results of which continue to influence dynamic models of the mantle.
Other seismic results that do not depend on tomography should be included in interpretations, and interpretive work should emphasize only the deductions that are required by the data. Published, coloured tomography images and simplistic, cartoon- like interpretations should be treated with scepticism. Blue colours in tomographic cross-sections cannot be assumed to indicate cold, sinking material and red cannot be assumed to indicate hot, rising material. Likewise, increased awareness is needed that petrology/geochemistry cannot, in general, determine the depth of origin of magma sources. As a consequence, joint interpretation is more difficult than commonly realized. A more cautious approach will enable the current, unprecedented experimental tools available in both seismology and petrology/geochemistry to contribute reliably to answering the fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the Earth’s interior that have been disputed ever since plate tectonics was accepted and still remain controversial.
92
Updates / PREVENT ERUPTIONS
« Last post by Admin on March 13, 2017, 07:29:02 pm »
3/16/17, 11:34AM
Charles Chandler - Hi Charles. On Tuesday I told Dong Choi, editor of NCGT, that the Electrical Hot Spots article he published around 2004, which described Earth as an electrical battery, is similar to your model and that, if your model is right, you have an idea how to stop eruptions and possibly quakes. He replied that he agrees that Earth acts like a leaky battery and explains many things well, including John Casey's finding that earthquakes correlate with sunspot minima. He said he looks forward to receiving your manuscript. I mentioned your model, because I thought he might be interested in your idea for stopping eruptions. But he said he doesn't think nature's acts are stoppable, although he said it's an interesting idea and who knows, maybe it would work.

I noticed that Jeff Wolinsky had a brief mention of his model and links to his videos in NCGT's 3rd quarter issue last year. So it looks like NCGT will be hopefully a good place to publicize much of your model. I think they may even like to publish your tornado model, because they seem to be very interested in learning to prevent natural disasters, at least via prediction and preparation. G'Day

-----

Tuesday, March 14, 2017 3:33 AM
From: "Dong Choi (NCGT)" <editor@ncgt.org>
I look forward to receiving Charles Chandler's manuscript. I agree that the Earth acts like a battery. This explains many phenomena very well. The earthquake - solar cycle anticorrelation is also well explained by the leaky battery theory, as proposed by Giovanni Gregori. Electric Earth is the way to see the real Earth.
I don't think nature's acts - volcanic eruptions and earthquakes - are stoppable. But the idea is very interesting. Something to keep thinking for us. One day, it may become a reality. Who knows?
I am watching Indonesian volcanoes. They will be a sentinel of the coming mini-ice age. Don't forget California and New Madrid. We will detect when a huge energy is released from the Earth's outer core. There must be some signs.

---

Hi Dr. Dong Choi. Tuesday, 14 March 2017 11:24 AM
Thank you for the book suggestion. I'm waiting to see if it's available via the library first.
I just read Dark Winter and got a lot of good info from that. I'll try to get the new book soon.
Last week I read from NCGT Newsletter no. 38 the article, GULF OF CALIFORNIA ELECTRICAL HOT-SPOT HYPOTHESIS, which is interesting and is similar to my friend Charles Chandler's model. Both agree that the Earth acts like a battery that generates electric currents. Charles developed his model about 4 years ago. I told Charles about the article and suggested that he inquire about possibly submitting some of his material to NCGT. Charles' model is much more thorough than the NCGT article, but the latter was written around 2004, so they may have developed their model more by now.

If Charles' model is close to correct, he has determined how volcanic eruptions and earthquakes could possibly be stopped. Quakes would be more difficult, because a final quake would be triggered, so people would have to be evacuated. But for volcanoes he says a 5 km deep borehole some distance from the volcano should stop eruptions, like lightning rods prevent lightning damage. The borehole would act like a lightning rod for electric currents from the Moho, causing the nearby volcano channel to freeze up gradually. He says a borehole near an earthquake fault could heal the fault, which is an idea that I think your co-editor Louis Hissinck is familiar with. But a nuclear explosive would need to be dropped into the borehole in order to produce a shock wave that would seal it. He thinks a good test site would be Istanbul where a fault is near the surface, requiring little drilling. As for the volcano nearby boreholes, he estimated they'd cost about $20 million to drill 5 km deep.
So, in light of John's and your findings about quakes and eruptions being triggered by solar minima in conjunction with planetary tidal influences, it seems that humanity might be able to prepare for catastrophic events by preventing them, at least in part. I suppose the Indonesian volcanoes would be the most important ones to prevent from erupting.
Do you have any comments?

--------------------------------------------

On Thu, 3/9/17, Dong Choi (NCGT) <editor@ncgt.org> wrote:
Subject: RE: Surge Tectonics
Date: Thursday, March 9, 2017, 4:20 AM
 
Hi, Lloyd, The book you need to read is; "Surge tectonics: a new hypothesis of global geodynamics", authored by Arthur Meyerhoff and others. Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1996. The book has been cited numerous times in our papers. I am one of the co-authors of this book. Art Meyerhoff was the greatest geologist our history ever had. I am glad I am one of his students; he raised me to occupy the present position - editor of NCGT Journal. The book presents scientific grounds of the surge tectonics. The book appeared two years after his death. 
 
The surge channel is identified by the presence of low velocity lenses or layers under inactive or active tectonic belts in the upper mantle. In the New Madrid paper I showed the presence of a low velocity lens under the Mississippi Valley. The low velocity lens is where liquid or gas is contained and energy or magma flow occurs. Although I did not specifically refer to the surge channels in many of my papers, their presence is confirmed in many seismic tomographic images.
 
As you may have noticed already, the current geology is facing serious challenges; same as politics - fake news, fake science. Political correctness and financial correctness distort factual evidence. Plate tectonics have been dominating the geological scene for over 50 years, but no evidence has ever been presented. All hard data show otherwise - vertical tectonics is the primary movement. We have documented numerous evidence that shows the sunken continents in the present oceans.
 
I am glad there is a serious person who reads our papers objectively. Please ask me anything, I'll try to answer as much as I can. Dong Choi
 
 -----Original Message-----
From: lloyd kinder Sent: Thursday, 9 March 2017 4:06 PM
To: Dong Choi (NCGT) <editor@ncgt.org>
Subject: Surge Tectonics
 
Hi Mr. Choi. From what I've read so far in NCGT, it seems that there have been considerable successes using Surge Tectonics to predict major earthquakes. Do you recall if there are any writings in NCGT that specify what exact evidence there is for surge channels and migration of surge energy from the mantle to the surface? I enjoy many of the illustrations, tables and maps in NCGT, but haven't yet come across the kinds of evidence for surge channels that I hope to read soon. I hope you may be able to refer me to one or more NCGT journal or newsletter issues that have such evidences. Otherwise, can you refer me to any books or papers outside of NCGT, esp. something fairly recent? Thanks for any help or just a reply.
93
Off Topic / Dark Winter
« Last post by Admin on March 11, 2017, 07:20:54 pm »
Dark Winter, by John Casey

[I consider this an error.] p6) One of the longest cycles is that of the ice ages. In between a cycle of every 100,000 or so years of essentially an icebound Earth, we have what are called "intgerglacial warm periods". For the past 11,000 years, we have been living in one of these rare interglacial periods, called the Holocene warm period.6

p14-15) <<Copy graphs.>> Some scholars use 1795-1825 as the DM period. I have chosen to begin the DM at solar cycle 4' (4 prime), discovered by I.G. Usoskin, K. Mursula and G.A. Kovaltsov.2 In their paper "Lost sunspot cycle in the beginning of Dalton Minimum: New evidence and consequences", they make a convincing case that the latter part of cycle 4 was, in fact, a small solar cycle with very low amplitude, hence 4'. I end the DM in the year 1830, which was where the solar cycle 7 began to exceed the three previous low-sunspot cycles, namely 4', 5 and 6. Figure 2-2 shows the cycle 4 with 4' extending from 1793 to 1798.

p18-19) - 1787: The US Constitution ratified by the states.
- 1789: George Washington elected as first president of the United States.
- 1789: The French Revolution begins.
- 1793: Dalton Minimum begins: Solar Cycle 4'.
- 1797: John Adams elected second president of the United States.
- 1801: Thomas Jeffereson elected third president of the United States.
- 1803: Lewis and Clark begin to explore the northwestern United States.
- 1803: The Louisiana Purchase negotiated with France.
- 1807: Robert Fulton launches his steam-powered boat, the Clermont.
- 1809: James Madison elected fourth president of the United States.
- 1811-12: The New Madrid earthquake strikes the Mississippi valley; the first quake occurs on December 16, 1811. It is the most powerful series of earthquakes in North American history - a series of three 8.0 temblors, plus many smaller ones.
- 1812: The War of 1812 between the United States and England begins.
- 1812: Napoleon invades Russia and suffers massive losses because of bitter winter weather.
- 1815: The Mount Tambora volcano erupts, April 5, 10 & 11. It is the largest and deadliest volcanic eruption in recorded history at the time, claiming 90,000 lives.
- 1815: Napoleon suffers loss at Waterloo on June 18.
- 1816: The "Year without a Summer". Bitter cold weather hits New England, and the destructive frost spreads as far south as Pennsylvania.
- 1816: In May, a frost hits from New England down to Virginia, and in June, people go sleighing after a freak snowfall.
- 1816: In August, frosts and snow strike New Hampshire, killing off what few crops still survive. Two months earlier, temperatures had been in the 90s.
- 1816-1823: Hundreds of thousands die, possibly as a result of cholera that spreads from India to New York City, related to regional conditions from Mount Tambora's eruption.
- Thousands die in New England from the cold and after effects, and thousands leave for Indiana and Illinois. The migration may have been a key factor in these areas becoming new states of the newly formed Unisted States of America.
- The combined cold and heavy rain damage of 1816 causes potato, corn and wheat crops to fail across Ireland and England and, along with collateral typhus outbreaks, thousands more die.
- 1817: James Monroe elected fifth president of the United States.
- 1825: John Q. Adams elected sixth president of the United States.
- 1830s: A second wave of cholera strikes Europe, also possibly related to the Mount Tambora eruption. Hundreds of thousands more die, especially in France.

[I consider this dating to be in error.] p24) On the subject of supervolcanoes like Yellowstone, we should not be too concerned, since there are usually tens to hundreds of thousands of years between eruptions. However, if we suddenly see a spike in the number and intensity of earthquakes in the vicinity of the world's supervolcanoes, then everyone should start paying attention.

p28-29) ... the French Revolution was prompted in part by starving peasants.... ... Encycliopedia Britinnica:25 "During the momentous political events of 1788-89, much of the country lay in the grip of a classic subsistence crisis. Bad weather had reduced the grain crops that year by almost one-quarter the normal yield. An unusually cold winter compounded the problem, as frozen rivers halted the transport and milling of flour in many localities." ...
But why had the crops failed? The crops failed because, at the time, there was in place global warming and drought, which I believe was caused by the Bicentennial Cycle, which was then at its peak of warming!
... It appears from my research that the United States of America owes its very existence, in great part, to the natural reaction of the French people during the late 1780s to the side effects of drought and crop loss brought on by the last global warming peak and following extreme cold caused by the global climate changeover of the 206-year Bicentennial Cycle of the Sun! ... The government that eventually came into power would then come to the rescue of the United States in its war against the British in 1812.

p42) TABLE 4-1. CLIMATE CHANGE FORECAST FOR THE NEXT 200 YEARS
Years      Climate Type      Peak/Bottom of Cycle
2020-2045   Cold Era      Bottom: 2031-2037
2070-2090   Warm Era      Peak: 2080-2085*
2110-2150   Cold Era      Bottom: 2130-2137**
2170-2235   Warm Era      Peak: 2180-2211***
*Will be less warm than the period 1990-2010.
**Will be as cold or colder than the period 2031-2037.
***Will be less warm than the period 2080-2085.

[I also consider this an error.] p43) We have comfortably rested atop the temperature curve in the Holocene warm period for about 11,000 years.

p48-49) In this appendix you will see just how many researchers out there are saying we are heading for a cold climate and ... have been saying so for many years. ... Here is the summary ... of how much support I found by early 2007 to corroborate my research for the RC theory:
- Centennial Cycle: 18+ researchers in over 11 papers
- Bicentinnial Cycle: 17+ researchers in over 8 papers
- Both cycles found together: 11+ researchers in over 8 papers
- Temperature correlation with solar minimums: 9+ researchers in over 7 papers
- Predictions of next minimum/coming cold era: 12+ researchers in over 11 papers
... The total list of researchers who can lend credence to one or more elements of my theory may be 200 [or much more].... I just stopped counting after the first hundred....

p49-57) Researchers who have predicted a long-term solar minimum, solar hibernation, or new climate change to a period of long-lasting cold weather based upon solar activity: [16 listed].

p74-146) Now, let us look at the 33 reasons ... that demonstrate why global warming has ended and a new cold climate has begun: ...
<<p76 SSRC error>>
...
- 2. A major short-term drop in Earth's temperature took place between 2007 and 2008.
...
- 4. A major decline in global temperatures has started, reinforcing the SSRC prediction for a historic temperature reduction by December 2012.
- 5. A long-term global temperature trend toward a colder climate has been established in Earth's atmosphere.
<<Copy graphs p88-90>>
<<See Climate4you.com>>
- 6. There was no growth in Earth's temperatures for 13 years.
- 7. We have been misled by climate change alarmism for over a hundred years because of a narrow view of when climate change occurs and why.
p92) TABLE A3-1. CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE [MEDIA]
1895-1920s   Global Cooling   3 media sources
1930s      Global Warming   many sources
1950s      Global Cooling   1 source
1960s      Global Warming   1 source
1974-1980s   Global Cooling   4 sources
1988-2000s   Global Warming   many sources

- 8. Cold temperature records are being set, globally.   
- 9. A NASA ocean temperature study has shown declining ocean temperatures.
- 10. A review of ocean temperatures measured by satellites shows a cooling trend.
- 11. Ocean cooling is predicted by a California seal pup study.
- 12. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation has started.
p103) 1925-47 Warm; 1948-1975 Cold; 1976-1998 Warm; 1999-2002 Cold; 2003-2007 Warm; 2008-2010 Cold

- 13. Antarctica is getting colder, and its glacial ice sheet is growing....
- 14. The Greenland glacial ice sheet is stable and growing.
- 15. During periods of time in 2009 and 2010, the Arctic sea ice reached its historical average extent.
- 16. The world's mountain glacial ice began to reverse from a predominantly shrinking phase to one of long-term growth beginning around 1998.
...
- 18. There is a general lack of understanding among US and international science agencies about the real status of glacial ice.

p123) TABLE 13-2. GLACIAL ICE DATA STANDARD. (GIDS)
[How much sea level would rise if all melted:]
1. Totals: 70 meters or 230 feet [#1=#2+#3+#4]
2. Antarctica: 63 meters or 206 feet
3. Greenland: 5.6 meters or 18.4 feet
4. Mountain glacieers etc: 1.4 meters or 4.6 feet

- 19. Destructive storms are not growing in number.
p124) In May 2007, the world experienced a record 33.4 days without a tropical cyclone.... This means colder oceans.
- 20. The RC theory predicts another solar hibernation.
- 21. Many scientists say a new cold climate is coming.
- 22. A rare conjunction of solar cycles is taking place.
- 23. Climate change research is poised to begin a new era of highly reliable forecasting based on solar activity.
- 24. NASA says a major solar minimum is coming.
- 25. The surface movement on the Sun "has slowed to a record crawl".
- 26. The solar wind is at a 50-year low.
- 27. The planetary magnetic field strength is at an all-time low.
- 28. The Sun's radio flux density is at an all-time low since record keeping began in the 1950s.
- 29. Cosmic rays from outside the solar system have reached the highest level ever recorded, indicating the Sun's protective envelope around the Earth has never been weaker.
- 30. The Sun is shrinking.
p144) The root causes and energy transfer mechanisms within the Sun are not well understood and still require much research. According to Dr. ... Abdussamatov ... the Sun's radius has been shrinking since 1979 and by 2018 will have been reduced by 81.6 kilometers [Graph shows dRm, km: 8/86: 0; 5/96: -5.1; 7/07?: -35.7; 9/18?: -81.6; source: The Shrinking Sun, Dr. Habibullo Abdussamatov, August 28, 2006, Solar Physics, Vol. 23, No. 3, 91-100. Out of 695,700 kilometers; that's over 2 kilometers shrinkage per year].
- 31. The northern lights are at a record low.
- 32. The Earth's upper atmosphere is shrinking.
- 33. Solar irradiance is declining.
p148) "Solar irradiance" changes in sync with the 11-year solar cycle and with an average of 1,366 watts per meter squared ... [and] the typical variation in this number [is] about 1.3 watts per meter squared....
94
Off Topic / Re: PREP
« Last post by Admin on March 11, 2017, 11:51:40 am »
PREPAREDNESS FOOD SOURCES
-- chickens + feed + egg incubation
-- aquaponics = fish in tank + food-plants above + feed + energy input
-- probiotics: kefir + whey; fermented veges are best;
vinegar & alcohol <fruit scraps
-- mushrooms <cultures
-- mice, rats, bugs + feed
-- MMS, wild-garlic, bloodroot, echinacea
-- jerokes, radishes, fennel,
> Sloane info

1. Soybeans 2. Rye 3. Buckwheat 4. Pumpkin/Squash 5. Sunflower
6. Tomato 7. Zucchini x Roses 8. Strawberries x Apple x Lambsquarters
9. Potato x Garlic 10. Pepper x Burdock 11. Turnip x Egg 12. Chicken
.Vitamin C 1900 Peppers freeze dried 426 Rose hips >183 Green Peppers raw >177 Green Peppers sauteed 93 Brocolli >70 Tomato juice 60 Peas >59 Strawberries raw 40 Peas raw >37 Lambsquarters cooked 36 Cantaloupe raw >36 Mulberries raw 36 Elderberries raw 34 Cabbage red boiled >34 Zucchini baby >30 Apple juice
.Magnesium -781 Rice bran >550 Pumpkin/Squash seeds roasted >231 Buckwheat >228 Soybeans roasted
145 Soybeans roasted 189 Beans Great Northern >110 Rye
.Zinc 10 Pumpkin/Squash seeds 5 Chicken
- C: 426 Rose hips 183 Green Peppers raw 177 Green Peppers sauteed 70 Tomato juice 59 Strawberries raw 40 Peas raw 37 Lambsquarters cooked 34 Zucchini baby
30 Apple juice
- Mg: 550 Pumpkin/Squash seeds roasted 231 Buckwheat 145 Soybeans roasted 110 Rye
- Zn: 10 Pumpkin/Squash seeds
- B1 1) .4 Soybeans roasted .3 Soybean sprouts .3 Rye
- B2 1) .7 Soybeans roasted .4 Buckwheat .2 Rye .2 Sunflower seeds roasted
- B3 7) 7 Rye 7 Sunflower seeds roasted 5 Buckwheat 4 Pumpkin/Squash seeds roasted 3 Potato baked 1 Soybeans roasted
- B5 5) 7 Sunflower seeds roasted 1 Rye 1 Egg 1 Buckwheat
- B6 1.5) 1 Garlic raw .8 Sunflower seeds roasted .6 Potato baked .3 Peppers sauteed .3 Rye .3 Buckwheat roasted .2 Soybeans cooked .2 Burdock root cooked .1 Pumpkin/Squash seeds roasted .1 Egg
- Fo .4) .2 Sunflower seeds roasted .2 Soybeans roasted .1 Turnip greens cooked
- B12 .003) .009 Chicken .005 Salmon .001 Eggs cooked



EMERGENCY SHELTERS
caves, sink holes, cellars, tunnels, mounds
95
Off Topic / PREP
« Last post by Admin on March 11, 2017, 10:27:03 am »
PREP
g Mg,Zn,
Pl jarts, muflo roses,
Raise rabbits?
RoseHips >VitC
CarobPwd ou HeavyMetals

.2/20) PLAN CMTY PREP:
G: Prep for max survival & prosperity
1: Prep family & friends
2: Improve local cmty
3: Coop Prep online
1a: W Joe/farming
1b: W Joe & PK/biz+government
1c: W fam/biz+prep
2a: W cmty/*loc cmty coop
2b: *loc bank
2c: *loc cmty biz'
2d: cmty control loc land
2e: cmty give state 20% voice
3a: *wk prep mtg'
3b: *dai vid'

PREP GROUP PURPOSE: to help each other and our neighbors prepare for any crisis and to seek to prevent crises.

SECURITY CHECKLIST
(Go through the list and think about possible causes and prevention for each item)
1. misinformation
2. inhome injury
3. traffic injury
4. job injury
5. inhome or away threats
5a. assault
5b. robbery
5c. valuables loss or damage
6. home burglary
7. car burglary
8. workplace burglary
9. home fire (>360,000/yr: arson 30,000; kids inside or outside 60,000)
10. home weather damage
11. car theft
12. car damage
13. computer
13a. Vulnerabilities in internet capable devices & WiFi
13b. Mobile Malware (i.e. cell phones etc)
13c. Social Media attacks “Security measures can’t overcome stolen credentials and click-throughs to dubious links.”
13d. Denial-of-service Website attacks
13e. Third-party Website Attacks
14. poor diet
15. drugs, medications, harmful treatments
16. pollution: indoor, invehicle, outdoor

2. Enemies:
(Again, think about causes & possible prevention for each item.)
1. abusive acquaintances
2. domestic criminals
3. corrupt officials
4. criminal immigrants
5. foreign invaders/attackers

SURVIVAL GEAR LIST
http://morethanjustsurviving.com/survival-gear-list

NUKE OR IMPACT SURVIVAL
_1. Learn to duck and cover etc.
Get cheap nuke & fallout protection
Most radiation decays in a day or so
http://webpal.org
http://physiciansforcivildefense.org
_2. Protect thyroid from radiation
10 Boxes ThyroSafe $149.95 SAVE $19.55, $16.95/box
http://www.ush2.com/potassium_iodide_radiation_tools.htm

PREPAREDNESS FOOD SOURCES
-- chickens + feed + egg incubation
-- aquaponics = fish in tank + food-plants above + feed + energy input
-- probiotics: kefir + whey; fermented veges are best;
vinegar & alcohol <fruit scraps
-- mushrooms <cultures
-- mice, rats, bugs + feed
-- MMS, wild-garlic, bloodroot, echinacea
-- Sloane info

EMERGENCY SHELTERS
caves, sink holes, cellars, tunnels, mounds

PREPAREDNESS SUBGROUPS
The more people who are prepared for emergencies, the safer everyone will be. Therefore, it seems it would be worthwhile for anyone to start preparedness subgroups or other groups.

PREPAREDNESS BUSINESS
Some of us could start a local preparedness business, or nonprofit, that would help us raise funds and keep supplies on hand for better preparedness for ourselves and the public.

SUGGESTED READING

BETTER GOVERNMENT
http://forum.freestateproject.org/index.php?topic=28491.0

IMPORTANT WORLD NEWS, EDUCATION, ECONOMICS, HISTORY, SCIENCE, HEALTH, etc:
Threads by Luck at http://forum.freestateproject.org/index.php?board=63.0

LOCATIONS SECURITY
South Calhoun: BrusFerry; GolFerry; Hardin Rd; Hamburg Rd; MS River; IL River
North Calhoun: Brus Rd; Batch Rd; Bridge; R100; R96; IL River; MS River
Deputize resident volunteers
96
Updates / E HOT SPOTS
« Last post by Admin on March 08, 2017, 01:58:31 pm »
New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, no. 38 3 ARTICLES
GULF OF CALIFORNIA ELECTRICAL HOT-SPOT HYPOTHESIS:
CLIMATE AND WILDFIRE TELECONNECTIONS
Bruce A. LEYBOURNE - leybourneb@hotmail.com
(Geostream Consulting LLC, www.geostreamconsulting.com)
Bay St. Louis, MS, USA
Giovanni P. GREGORI - giovanni.gregori@idac.rm.cnr.it
(Professor -Istituto di Acustica O. M. Corbino - Retired) Roma, Italy.
Cornelis F. de HOOP - cdehoop@lsu.edu
(School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center)
Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Introduction:

The prevailing view that radioactive decay is the major thermal source for the interior of the planet may create limitations in geophysical modeling efforts. New theoretical insights (Gregori 2002) provide for an electrical source from the core-mantle-boundary (CMB) by a tide-driven (TD) geodynamo which is enhanced by various solar induction processes. Joule heating at density boundaries within the upper mantle and base of the lithosphere from CMB electrical emanations may provide some of the hotspot energy for upper mantle melts and associated magmatism driving seafloor spreading and lithospheric rupture. Estimates of the total budget of the endogenous energy of the Earth supporting the electrical hot-spot hypothesis are as follows (Gregori, 2002):
1) The general scenario is that the TD geodynamo has a very low performance in terms of magnetic energy output (<<1%), while almost its entire energy output supplies (via Joule’s heating) the endogenous energy budget. Indeed it can be sufficient for justifying the entire observed energy budget of the Earth, while other sources, such as radioactivity, are just optional.
2) A different consideration is due to chemical and phase transformation processes, occurring within deep Earth. Observations are evident that the Earth operates like a car battery, being recharged and discharged at different times. This occurs by storing energy within the deep Earth interior. Within a car battery, such storage occurs via a reversible chemical reaction. In the case of the Earth, such storage occurs via a conspicuous change of liquid vs. solid phase. It should be stressed that such inference is a matter of observational evidence, and of strict implications. It is NOT a result of any kind of speculation.
3) The timing of such recharging and discharging is manifested, as the most evident effect, in terms of the Earth’s electrocardiogram, displaying one heartbeat every ∼27.4 Ma (with an error bar of, say, < ±0.05 Ma). Every heartbeat elapses a few Ma, and during it some large igneous province (LIP) is generated. At present, we are close to the peak of one such heartbeat, and a present LIP is Iceland.
4) The manifestation of such huge endogenous energy budget, at least according to the observational evidence referring to the last few million years, occurs in terms of a ∼ 60% release as a gentle geothermal heat flow, while the entire remaining 40% includes all other forms of energy, such as volcanism, seismicity, continental drift or sea floor spreading, geodynamics, and tidal phenomena. Therefore, the planetary-integrated role of heat flow cannot be neglected (such as it is being generally assumed when dealing with climate models). Tectonic theorist might consider electrical stimulation from the interior of the planet as a plausible driving mechanism of surge channel activity and plate motions. This driver has remained elusive in modern theoretical constructs.
Two recent lines of observational evidence linked to electrical stimulation within a geologic hotspot exemplify the importance of understanding this tectonic driving mechanism and testing the validity of our hypothesis. The Guaymas Basin Rift, (Fig. 1, and Fig. 2 – Area 2) a geologic hotspot within the Gulf of California is considered a geothermal power source for the region. In the first scenario gentle geothermal heat flow from TD joule heating within the hotspot is invigorated during bursts of regional seismic activity. Solar induced and electrically stimulated seismic activity provides additional thermal energy at the base of the lithosphere. This heat may take up to 6 - 7 months for transmigration and escape at the surface. This timing is consistent with the observational data and rationally explains the local sea surface thermal signatures over the Guaymas Rift coincident with El Nino climate teleconnections (Fig. 2 – Area 3 and 4). In the second scenario Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) induce powerful surges of electrical activity from the deep interior of the planet. These powerful surges overcome resistance in the lithosphere by traveling along more conductive zones generally associated with basaltic fault intrusions and their signature geomagnetic anomaly trends. Ionized gases may be forced through the fracture systems and wildfires may be sparked by electrical arcing (lightning) or direct combustion from intense joule heating near the surface. The unprecedented wildfire storm in October 2003 occurred simultaneously with a powerful CME. Geospatial wildfire patterns suggests these wildfires followed fault and geomagnetic anomaly trends associated with the extension of the East Pacific Rise into the North American continent and Pacific fracture zones traversing the west coast of California. Details of each scenario are discussed below.
I. El Nino Climate Teleconnection
Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies over the Gulf of California/Baja (Fig. 2 - Area 2) are teleconnected to the peak El Nino SST anomaly patterns also seen in Fig. 2. Note the spurious SST anomaly over the Cocos Ridge associated with El Nino (Fig. 2 – Area 3). Earthquakes beginning in November 1996 at the beginning of a solar sunspot cycle (Hale Cycle) signal the beginning of an increased period of seismic activity associated with heat inputs driving the 1997/98 El Nino (Fig. 3). Blot (1976) and Blot et al. (2003) indicate thermal transmigration rates of approximately 0.15 km/day accounting for the approximately 7 month delay of sea surface thermal signatures after high impact earthquake bursts which even triggered a small tsunami in Hawaii (Walker, per. com). Seismic precursors to El Nino by 6-7 months have also been documented (Walker, 1988, 1995 and 1999) over the last 7 recent El Nino events. The resulting clustered seismic activity is hypothesized to be electrical in nature and is associated with joule heating at density boundaries near the base of the lithosphere (Gregori, 2000 and 2002). Electrical stimulus of these earthquakes is highly suspect, especially below the lithosphere. This scenario provides a geophysical mechanism for explaining the SST anomaly teleconnections. These SST anomaly patterns overlying earthquake events are hypothesized to be the result of increased heat emission from seafloor volcanic extrusions and/or associated hydrothermal venting. The volcanism is triggered by electrical bursts from the core-mantle-boundary induced by solar coupling to the internal geodynamo. The larger implication is that El Nino may be solar-tectonically modulated (Leybourne, 1997; Leybourne and Adams, 2001).

Cedros Trench Cedros Trench Guaymas Basin Rift Salton Trough
Fig. 1. SST drape over bathymetry in the Gulf of California Salton Trough region exhibits thermal anomalies coincident with the adjacent Cedros Trench. Thermal signatures in this area are often teleconnected to El Nino SST anomalies off the coast of South America. The Guaymas Basin Rift is the likely energy source for this local thermal signature and is a known geologic hot-spot supplying Southern California with geothermal power (Image by Haas 2002, NAVOCEANO-MSRC). New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, no. 38 5
1- US. West Coast2 – San Andreas/Guaymas3 – Central America4- South America

Fig. 2. Eastern Pacific SST anomalies peak in January of 1998 during 97/98 El Nino event in area 2 - San Andreas/Guaymas. This corresponds to the viewing angle in Fig. 1 exhibiting teleconnection SST anomalies over Guaymas Rift and Cedros Trench. Area 3 Central American exhibits the main intertropical convergence SST anomaly coincident with spurious teleconnection pattern over the Cocos Ridge trend (NAVOCEANO-MSRC).

Fig. 3. (a) Two distinct clusters of earthquakes off the Coast of South America in Nov. 96 are apparent. (b) SST’s seem to emanate in a similar pattern to the earthquake paired clusters. The northern SST anomaly is on the continental shelf as is the northern earthquake cluster, while the southern SST anomaly is further offshore over the continental slope as is the southern earthquake cluster. These SST anomalies appeared (June 1997) just north of earthquake positions possibly due to prevailing long shore currents, about 7 months after the paired earthquake clusters. (c) Chart indicates earthquakes/day (frequency), magnitudes are added for simple power indicator (magnitude add), along with an average (magnitude avg). A spike in earthquake activity begins Nov. 12th and tapers off Nov. 14th revealing the intense episodic nature of these events. (d) SST Max. Anomaly/month indicating anomalies > 7° C by June 97 followed by a year of elevated SST anomalies associated with the 97/98 El Nino. (e) Joule energy released during (f). Earthquake events Nov. 96.

II. Wildfire Teleconnection
Wildfire outbreaks during a period of geomagnetic storms in October 2003 may be linked to electrical emanations from within the earth (Leybourne et. al., 2004). In late October 2003, a powerful Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) directed straight at Earth erupted on the Sun’s surface, when wildfires simultaneously broke out along an arc shaped pattern of geomagnetic anomaly trends extending from Mexico to north of Los Angeles (Fig. 4). The wildfire ignitions slowed dramatically when the CME period ended. The geomagnetic anomalies are inter-splayed by fault systems connected to the Gulf of California hotspot through the San Andreas Fault complex and to the Hawaii hotspot through the Murray Fracture Zone. These orthogonal fault systems intersect in the San Gabriel Mountains where a huge wildfire out break occurred near strong geomagnetic signatures (Fig. 5). Strong electrical impulses emitted from the CMB during CME may not only joule heat local geologic hotspots, but unconverted superfluous electrical energy and ionic plasmas could be transmitted further along conductive igneous complexes (generally associated with geomagnetic signatures) and fault systems through the lithospheric fractions of the earth, arcing to power lines and igniting tree lighter or underbrush. In 1859 during the strongest CME on record, telegraph wires in western United States and Europe caught fire and were destroyed. Potential voltage differences between hotspot locations may create electrical ground shorts at geomagnetic intersection areas (Fig. 6), starting fires near power line circuits or from discharges directly to the ionosphere. An electrical hot-spot hypothesis based on Gregori’s theoretical construct is understood in terms of deep earth electromagnetic induction coupled to solar perturbations. The induction process creates anomalous electric currents from the internal-geodynamo.

Fig. 4. Arc-shaped fire pattern appears linked to geomagnetic anomaly trends (insert). http://activefiremaps.fs.fed.us/fire_imagery.php?firePick=southern_california; http://pubs.usgs.gov/sm/mag_map/ mag_s.pdfNew Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, no. 38 7
Fig. 5. Geomagnetic anomalies in San Gabriel Mountains along intersecting faults and mylonite units. http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/gump/anderson/rialto/rialto.html

Fig. 6. Geophysical composite map: a) Basalt flow remnant magnetization signatures indicating global hotspot locations and indicated Pacific links (Quinn, 1997). b) Southern California geomagnetic crustal anomalies have coincident links to the San Andreas orthogonal fault complex associated with an intersection in the San Gabriel Mountains where a huge wildfire outbreak occurred near the strong geomagnetic signatures during the October, 2003 CME (USGS 2002). c) Pacific Ocean Basin GEOSAT structural trends indicating possible electrical conduits (red lines) between Murray (North) and Molokai (South) Fracture Zones which intersects at Hawaiian, Guaymas, and Juan de Fuca hotspots (orange circles), geographical links (green lines) (Smoot and Leybourne, 2001). d) Southern view in Fig. 1 with geographical links (Haas, 2002).

Conclusions:
Thus, Earth’s endogenous energy may stimulate ocean basin heating associated with El Nino from episodes of increased seismic stimulation and electrical wildfire propagation during CME via geologic hotspot controls. Atmospheric pressure teleconnections are also suspected (Namias, 1989) in some cases. A distinction is made between the control on the TD geodynamo exerted by the e.m. induction within very deep Earth (i.e. within the mantle, which occurs only for e.m. signals of some very low frequency, say with a period T > 22 years), and the e.m. solar induction within some much shallower structures characterized by much higher frequencies and much shorter periods. Such kinds of phenomena also include the e.m. induction effects within manmade systems, such as power lines (causing blackouts), pipelines, and communication cables (Meloni et al., 1983; Lanzerotti and Gregori, 1986). Should we address these as distinct phenomena? The relationships between the different e.m. signals within such different frequency bands is not clearly defined but these various affects at different time scales may to some degree be physically driven by electrical stimulation from the interior of the planet.

References:
Blot, C., 1976. Volcanisme et sismicite dans les arcs insulaires. Prevision de ces phenomenes. Geophysique 13, ORSTOM, Paris, 206p.
Blot, C., Choi, D.R. and Grover, J.C., 2003. Energy transmigration from deep to shallow earthquakes: A phenomenon applied to Japan –Toward scientific earthquake prediction-. New Concepts in Global Tectonic Newsletter, Eds. J.M. Dickens and D.R. Choi, no. 29, p. 3-16.
Gregori, G., 2002. Galaxy-Sun-Earth Relations: The origins of the magnetic field and of the endogenous energy of the Earth. Arbeitskreis Geschichte Geophysik, ISSN: 1615-2824, Science Edition, Schroder, W., Germany.
Gregori, G., 2000. Galaxy-Sun-Earth Relations: The dynamo of the Earth, and the origin of the magnetic field of stars, planets, satellites, and other planetary objects. In Wilson A., (ed.), 2000. The first solar and space weather conference. The solar cycle and terrestrial climate. ESA SP-463, 680p., European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijck, The Netherlands, p. 329-332.
Gregori, G., 1993. Geo-electromagnetism and geodynamics: “corona discharge” from volcanic and geothermal areas. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, v. 77, p. 39-63.
Haas, A., 2002. Figs. 1, 2, and 3d. Produced by: Major Shared Resource Center (MSRC) at Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), Stennis Space Center, MS, 2002.
Leybourne, B.A., 1996. A tectonic forcing function for climate modelling. Proceedings of 1996 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, Brisbane, Australia. EOS Trans. AGU, Paper # A42A-10. 77 (22): W8.
Leybourne, B.A., 1997. Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere coupled model based on gravitational teleconnection. Proc. Ann. Meet. NOAA Climate Monitoring Diag. Lab. Boulder, CO., p. 23, March 5-6, 1997. Also: Proc. Joint Assemb. IAMAS-IAPSO. Melbourne, Australia, JPM9-1, July 1-9.
Leybourne, B.A. and Adams, M.B., 2001. El Nino tectonic modulation in the Pacific Basin. Marine Technology Society Oceans ’01 Conference Proceedings, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Leybourne, B.A., Haas, A., Orr, B, Smoot, N.S., Bhat, I., Lewis, D., Gregori, G., and Reed, T., 2004. Electrical wildfire propagation along geomagnetic anomalies. The 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, FL., p. 298-299 (July 18-24).
Meloni, A., Lanzerotti, L.J., and Gregori, G., 1983. Induction of currents in long submarine cables by natural phenomena. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., v. 21, no. 4, p. 795-803.
Namias, J., 1989. Summer earthquakes in southern California related to pressure patterns at sea level and aloft. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 94, # B12, p. 17,671-17,679.
Quinn, J.M., 1997. Use of satellite geomagnetic data to remotely sense the lithosphere, to detect shock-remnant-magnetization (SRM) due to meteorite impacts and to detect magnetic induction related to hotspot upwelling. International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Upsala, Sweden.
Smoot, N.C. and Leybourne, B.A., 2001. The Central Pacific Megatrend. International Geology Review, v. 43, no. 4, p. 341, 2001.
USGS –United States Geological Survey, 2002. Magnetic anomaly map of North America. Dept. of the Interior.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/sm/mag_map/ mag_s.pdf; http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/gump/anderson/rialto/rialto. html
Walker, D.A., 1988. Seismicity of the East Pacific: correlations with the Southern Oscillation Index? EOS Trans. AGU. v. 69, p. 857.
Walker, D.A., 1995. More evidence indicates link between El Ninos and seismicity. EOS Trans. AGU, v. 76, no. 33.
Walker, D.A., 1999. Seismic predictors of El Nino revisted. EOS Trans. AGU, v. 80, no. 25.
97
Updates / Re: MF 3/6-3/8
« Last post by Admin on March 08, 2017, 12:16:52 am »
Monday, March 6, 2017, 5:35 PM
Hi Lloyd, You have been doing a lot of reading I see, and finding more chaff than wheat. So Choi agrees with Plate Tectonics that heat is a major driver of geodynamics?  Supposedly the greatest remaining concentration of heat is in the core, giving rise to alleged mantle plumes, and most of the rest is from radioactive decay in the mantle, distributed homogeneously.  Calculations I have seen show Earth convects 44 terawatts of heat, but only half would be produced by these sources, suggesting residual heat is also being vented.  I agree with those who attribute slow lithospheric motion to tidal forces rather than heat, due mainly to the Moon but to other bodies as well.  Oceanic transgression and regression are essential mechanisms for producing sequence stratigraphy in Plate Tectonics and stasis theories.  That may be easy for their supporters to accept, yet I wish they would think about what would have to happen at depth for all this repeated fluctuation of hundreds of feet to occur globally.  And I agree with Tassos that Plate Tectonics, Heat Engine Earth, and the Organic Origin of Hydrocarbon Reserves are mistaken.  However, that does not lead to "therefore Expanding Earth".  Earthquakes are firing every second around the world, usually in well-defined zones, and the two hemispheric geanticlines don't seem to be in those zones.  What everyone is striving for is prediction of the biggest earthquakes.  Anyone who can consistently do that deserves our attention.

Monday, March 6, 2017 5:43 PM
When I launched the newgeology website in 2003 I was looking for a broadscope rebuttal to Plate Tectonics theory for visitors to read, and Pratt's 2000 article fit the bill.  While passing judgement on PT, it did not advocate an alternative theory.  I have not paid much attention to Surge Tectonics since then or communicated with David Pratt.

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Wed, March 08, 2017 1:08 am
Hi Mike. Do you have any idea how many times the locations of sedimentary rock strata would have had to move up and down in order to deposit at least close to 2 km of strata by the regular geologists' means? There are at least dozens of strata in most locations. The Surge Tectonics folks think the seafloors also are covered with sedimentary strata and granite, at least under the basalt. What do you think would have to happen in the asthenosphere or mantle for such up and down motions?
- I think my best argument is that it wouldn't be possible for just one or two kinds of sediments to be deposited for thousands of years followed by one or two other kinds. They'd have to mix together. Wouldn't they?
- I found an NCGT article that seems to explain Surge Tectonics theory pretty well, which I posted at http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/m-82/msg156/#msg156
- I highlighted the most relevant parts in Bold Type.
- It describes a worldwide network of surge channels and mentions some evidence for that.

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Wednesday, March 8, 2017 9:41 PM

Hi Lloyd, As you can imagine, sedimentary strata vary considerably according to location.  The two attached pictures provide some general insight.

The Surge Tectonics statements strike me as unrelated to reality.  While the rotational lag of the lithosphere relative to the mantle is correct, the "strictosphere" (upper mantle), and consequently Earth's radius, has not been found to be shrinking (nor expanding)  https://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/earth20110816.html  Without shrinking, lithosphere will not be compressed for "tectogenesis".  The lithosphere is buoyant anyway, and would not "collapse" into denser asthenosphere and mantle, even at Benioff zones   http://www.academia.edu/18543181/Continents_as_lithological_icebergs_the_importance_of_buoyant_lithospheric_roots  Without shrinking, magma in channels, if they exist, will not be pumped to "surge".

I think the late geophysicist Don Anderson was right in his view that near-surface mantle (at least) is not homogeneous but contains scattered hot or wet pools.  This is unexpected if the mantle has been churning from top to bottom for billions of years, yet seismic tomographic images reveal a generous distribution of dense and less dense anomalies.  However, I have not seen any that support the surge channel concept.  If you have any such images at hand, I would like to see them.
98
Updates / Re: Choi
« Last post by Admin on March 05, 2017, 10:03:11 pm »
Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm Under Threat
David Pratt © 2000
http://www.newgeology.us/presentation20.html
(First published in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 307-352, 2000)

Abstract.
_-- This paper looks at the challenges confronting plate tectonics -- the ruling paradigm in the earth sciences.
_The classical model of thin lithospheric plates moving over a global asthenosphere is shown to be implausible.
_Evidence is presented that appears to contradict continental drift, seafloor spreading and subduction, and the claim that the oceanic crust is relatively young.
_The problems posed by vertical tectonic movements are reviewed, including evidence for large areas of submerged continental crust in today's oceans.
_It is concluded that the fundamental tenets of plate tectonics might be wrong.

Introduction

_The idea of large-scale continental drift has been around for some 200 years, but the first detailed theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912.
_It met with widespread rejection, largely because the mechanism he suggested was inadequate -- the continents supposedly plowed slowly through the denser oceanic crust under the influence of gravitational and rotational forces.
_Interest was revived in the early 1950s with the rise of the new science of paleomagnetism, which seemed to provide strong support for continental drift.
_In the early 1960s new data from ocean exploration led to the idea of seafloor spreading.
_A few years later, these and other concepts were synthesized into the model of plate tectonics, which was originally called "the new global tectonics."
_According to the orthodox model of plate tectonics, the earth's outer shell, or lithosphere, is divided into a number of large, rigid plates that move over a soft layer of the mantle known as the asthenosphere, and interact at their boundaries, where they converge, diverge, or slide past one another.
_Such interactions are believed to be responsible for most of the seismic and volcanic activity of the earth.
_Plates cause mountains to rise where they push together, and continents to fracture and oceans to form where they rift apart.
_The continents, sitting passively on the backs of the plates, drift with them, at the rate of a few centimeters a year.
_At the end of the Permian, some 250 million years ago, all the present continents are said to have been gathered together in a single supercontinent, Pangaea, consisting of two major landmasses: Laurasia in the north, and Gondwanaland in the south.
_Pangaea is widely believed to have started fragmenting in the early Jurassic -- though this is sometimes said to have begun earlier, in the Triassic, or even as late as the Cretaceous -- resulting in the configuration of oceans and continents observed today.
_It has been said that "A hypothesis that is appealing for its unity or simplicity acts as a filter, accepting reinforcement with ease but tending to reject evidence that does not seem to fit" (Grad, 1971, p. 636). Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff (1974b, p. 411) argued that this is "an admirable description of what has happened in the field of earth dynamics, where one hypothesis -- the new global tectonics -- has been permitted to override and overrule all other hypotheses."
_ Nitecki et al. (1978) reported that in 1961 only 27% of western geologists accepted plate tectonics, but that during the mid-1960s a "chain reaction" took place and by 1977 it was embraced by as many as 87%.
_Some proponents of plate tectonics have admitted that a bandwagon atmosphere developed, and that data that did not fit into the model were not given sufficient consideration (e.g. Wyllie, 1976), resulting in "a somewhat disturbing dogmatism" (Dott and Batten, 1981, p. 151).
_McGeary and Plummer (1998, p. 97) acknowledge that "Geologists, like other people, are susceptible to fads."
_Maxwell (1974) stated that many earth-science papers were concerned with demonstrating that some particular feature or process may be explained by plate tectonics, but that such papers were of limited value in any unbiased assessment of the scientific validity of the hypothesis.
_Van Andel (1984) conceded that plate tectonics had serious flaws, and that the need for a growing number of ad hoc modifications cast doubt on its claim to be the ultimate unifying global theory.
_Lowman (1992a) argued that geology has largely become "a bland mixture of descriptive research and interpretive papers in which the interpretation is a facile cookbook application of plate-tectonics concepts ... used as confidently as trigonometric functions" (p. 3).
_Lyttleton and Bondi (1992) held that the difficulties facing plate tectonics and the lack of study of alternative explanations for seemingly supportive evidence reduced the plausibility of the theory.
_Saull (1986) pointed out that no global tectonic model should ever be considered definitive, since geological and geophysical observations are nearly always open to alternative explanations.
_He also stated that even if plate tectonics were false, it would be difficult to refute and replace, for the following reasons: the processes supposed to be responsible for plate dynamics are rooted in regions of the earth so poorly known that it is hard to prove or disprove any particular model of them; the hard core of belief in plate tectonics is protected from direct assault by auxiliary hypotheses that are still being generated; and the plate model is so widely believed to be correct that it is difficult to get alternative interpretations published in the scientific literature.
_When plate tectonics was first elaborated in the 1960s, less than 0.0001% of the deep ocean had been explored and less than 20% of the land area had been mapped in meaningful detail.
_Even by the mid-1990s, only about 3 to 5% of the deep ocean basins had been explored in any kind of detail, and not much more than 25 to 30% of the land area could be said to be truly known (Meyerhoff et al., 1996a).
_Scientific understanding of the earth's surface features is clearly still in its infancy, to say nothing of the earth's interior.
_Beloussov (1980, 1990) held that plate tectonics was a premature generalization of still very inadequate data on the structure of the ocean floor, and had proven to be far removed from geological reality.
_He wrote: It is ... quite understandable that attempts to employ this conception to explain concrete structural situations in a local rather than a global scale lead to increasingly complicated schemes in which it is suggested that local axes of spreading develop here and there, that they shift their position, die out, and reappear, that the rate of spreading alters repeatedly and often ceases altogether, and that lithospheric plates are broken up into an even greater number of secondary and tertiary plates.
_All these schemes are characterised by a complete absence of logic, and of patterns of any kind.
_The impression is given that certain rules of the game have been invented, and that the aim is to fit reality into these rules somehow or other. (1980, p. 303)
_Criticism of plate tectonics has increased in line with the growing number of observational anomalies.
_This paper outlines some of the main problems facing the theory.

Plates in Motion?
_According to the classical model of plate tectonics, lithospheric plates creep over a relatively plastic layer of partly molten rock known as the asthenosphere (or low-velocity zone).
_According to a modern geological textbook (McGeary and Plummer, 1998), the lithosphere, which comprises the earth's crust and uppermost mantle, averages about 70 km thick beneath oceans and is at least 125 km thick beneath continents, while the asthenosphere extends to a depth of perhaps 200 km.
_It points out that some geologists think that the lithosphere beneath continents is at least 250 km thick.
_Seismic tomography, which produces three-dimensional images of the earth's interior, appears to show that the oldest parts of the continents have deep roots extending to depths of 400 to 600 km, and that the asthenosphere is essentially absent beneath them.
_McGeary and Plummer (1998) say that these findings cast doubt on the original, simple lithosphere-asthenosphere model of plate behavior.
_They do not, however, consider any alternatives.

_Despite the compelling seismotomographic evidence for deep continental roots (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1984; Dziewonski and Woodhouse, 1987; Grand, 1987; Lerner-Lam, 1988; Forte, Dziewonski, and O'Connell, 1995; Gossler and Kind, 1996), some plate tectonicists have suggested that we just happen to live at a time when the continents have drifted over colder mantle (Anderson, Tanimoto, and Zhang, 1992), or that continental roots are really no more than about 200 km thick, but that they induce the downwelling of cold mantle material beneath them, giving the illusion of much deeper roots (Polet and Anderson, 1995).
_However, evidence from seismic-velocity, heat-flow, and gravity studies has been building up for several decades, showing that ancient continental shields have very deep roots and that the low-velocity asthenosphere is very thin or absent beneath them (e.g. MacDonald, 1963; Jordan, 1975, 1978; Pollack and Chapman, 1977).
_Seismic tomography has merely reinforced the message that continental cratons, especially those of Archean and Early Proterozoic age, are "welded" to the underlying mantle, and that the concept of thin (less than 250-km-thick) lithospheric plates moving thousands of kilometers over a global asthenosphere is unrealistic.
_Nevertheless, many textbooks continue to propagate the simplistic lithosphere-asthenosphere model, and fail to give the slightest indication that it faces any problems (e.g. McLeish, 1992; Skinner and Porter, 1995; Wicander and Monroe, 1999).
_Geophysical data show that, far from the asthenosphere being a continuous layer, there are disconnected lenses (asthenolenses), which are observed only in regions of tectonic activation and high heat flow.
_Although surface-wave observations suggested that the asthenosphere was universally present beneath the oceans, detailed seismic studies show that here, too, there are only asthenospheric lenses.
_Seismic research has revealed complicated zoning and inhomogeneity in the upper mantle, and the alternation of layers with higher and lower velocities and layers of different quality.
_Individual low-velocity layers are bedded at different depths in different regions and do not compose a single layer.
_This renders the very concept of the lithosphere ambiguous, at least that of its base.
_Indeed, the definition of the lithosphere and asthenosphere has become increasingly blurred with time (Pavlenkova, 1990, 1995, 1996).
_Thus, the lithosphere has a highly complex and irregular structure.
_Far from being homogeneous, "plates" are actually "a megabreccia, a 'pudding' of inhomogeneities whose nature, size and properties vary widely" (Chekunov, Gordienko, and Guterman, 1990, p. 404).
_The crust and uppermost mantle are divided by faults into a mosaic of separate, jostling blocks of different shapes and sizes, generally a few hundred kilometers across, and of varying internal structure and strength.
_Pavlenkova (1990, p. 78) concludes: "This means that the movement of lithospheric plates over long distances, as single rigid bodies, is hardly possible.
_Moreover, if we take into account the absence of the asthenosphere as a single continuous zone, then this movement seems utterly impossible."
_ She states that this is further confirmed by the strong evidence that regional geological features, too, are connected with deep (more than 400 km) inhomogeneities and that these connections remain stable during long periods of geologic time; considerable movement between the lithosphere and asthenosphere would detach near-surface structures from their deep mantle roots.
_Plate tectonicists who accept the evidence for deep continental roots have proposed that plates may extend to and glide along the 400-km or even 670-km seismic discontinuity (Seyfert, 1998; Jordan, 1975, 1978, 1979).
_Jordan, for instance, suggested that the oceanic lithosphere moves on the classical low-velocity zone, while the continental lithosphere moves along the 400-km discontinuity.
_However, there is no certainty that a superplastic zone exists at this discontinuity, and no evidence has been found of a shear zone connecting the two decoupling layers along the trailing edge of continents (Lowman, 1985).
_Moreover, even under the oceans there appears to be no continuous asthenosphere.
_Finally, the movement of such thick "plates" poses an even greater problem than that of thin lithospheric plates.
_The driving force of plate movements was initially claimed to be mantle-deep convection currents welling up beneath midocean ridges, with downwelling occurring beneath ocean trenches.
_Since the existence of layering in the mantle was considered to render whole-mantle convection unlikely, two-layer convection models were also proposed.
_Jeffreys (1974) argued that convection cannot take place because it is a self-damping process, as described by the Lomnitz law.
_Plate tectonicists expected seismic tomography to provide clear evidence of a well-organized convection-cell pattern, but it has actually provided strong evidence against the existence of large, plate-propelling convection cells in the upper mantle (Anderson, Tanimoto, and Zhang, 1992).
_Many geologists now think that mantle convection is a result of plate motion rather than its cause, and that it is shallow rather than mantle deep (McGeary and Plummer, 1998).
_The favored plate-driving mechanisms at present are "ridge-push" and "slab-pull," though their adequacy is very much in doubt.
_Slab-pull is believed to be the dominant mechanism, and refers to the gravitational subsidence of subducted slabs.
_However, it will not work for plates that are largely continental, or that have leading edges that are continental, because continental crust cannot be bodily subducted due to its low density, and it seems utterly unrealistic to imagine that ridge-push from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge alone could move the 120°-wide Eurasian plate (Lowman, 1986).
_Moreover, evidence for the long-term weakness of large rock masses casts doubt on the idea that edge forces can be transmitted from one margin of a "plate" to its interior or opposite margin (Keith, 1993).
_Thirteen major plates are currently recognized, ranging in size from about 400 by 2500 km to 10,000 by 10,000 km, together with a proliferating number of microplates (over 100 so far).
_Van Andel (1998) writes: Where plate boundaries adjoin continents, matters often become very complex and have demanded an ever denser thicket of ad hoc modifications and amendments to the theory and practice of plate tectonics in the form of microplates, obscure plate boundaries, and exotic terranes.
_A good example is the Mediterranean, where the collisions between Africa and a swarm of microcontinents have produced a tectonic nightmare that is far from resolved.
_More disturbingly, some of the present plate boundaries, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, appear to be so diffuse and so anomalous that they cannot be compared to the three types of plate boundaries of the basic theory.
_Plate boundaries are identified and defined mainly on the basis of earthquake and volcanic activity.
_The close correspondence between plate edges and belts of earthquakes and volcanoes is therefore to be expected and can hardly be regarded as one of the "successes" of plate tectonics (McGeary and Plummer, 1998).
_Moreover, the simple pattern of earthquakes around the Pacific Basin on which plate-tectonics models have hitherto been based has been seriously undermined by more recent studies showing a surprisingly large number of earthquakes in deep-sea regions previously thought to be aseismic (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Another major problem is that several "plate boundaries" are purely theoretical and appear to be nonexistent, including the northwest Pacific boundary of the Pacific, North American, and Eurasian plates, the southern boundary of the Philippine plate, part of the southern boundary of the Pacific plate, and most of the northern and southern boundaries of the South American plate (Stanley, 1989).

Continental Drift
_Geological field mapping provides evidence for horizontal crustal movements of up to several hundred kilometers (Jeffreys, 1976).
_Plate tectonics, however, claims that continents have moved up to 7000 km or more since the alleged breakup of Pangaea.
_Measurements using space-geodetic techniques -- very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser-ranging (SLR), and the global positioning system (GPS) -- have been hailed by some workers as having proved plate tectonics.
_Such measurements provide a guide to crustal strains, but do not provide evidence for plate motions of the kind predicted by plate tectonics unless the relative motions predicted among all plates are observed.
_However, many of the results have shown no definite pattern, and have been confusing and contradictory, giving rise to a variety of ad-hoc hypotheses (Fallon and Dillinger, 1992; Gordon and Stein, 1992; Smith et al., 1994).
_Japan and North America appear, as predicted, to be approaching each other, but distances from the Central South American Andes to Japan or Hawaii are more or less constant, whereas plate tectonics predicts significant separation (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Trans-Atlantic drift has not been demonstrated, because baselines within North America and western Europe have failed to establish that the plates are moving as rigid units; they suggest in fact significant intraplate deformation (Lowman, 1992b; James, 1994).
_Space-geodetic measurements to date have therefore not confirmed plate tectonics.
_Moreover, they are open to alternative explanations (e.g. Meyerhoff et al., 1996a; Storetvedt, 1997; Carey, 1994).
_It is clearly a hazardous exercise to extrapolate present crustal movements tens or hundreds of millions of years into the past or future.
_Indeed, geodetic surveys across "rift" zones (e.g. in Iceland and East Africa) have failed to detect any consistent and systematic widening as postulated by plate tectonics (Keith, 1993).

Fits and Misfits
_A "compelling" piece of evidence that all the continents were once united in one large landmass is said to be the fact that they can be fitted together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
_Many reconstructions have been attempted (e.g. Bullard, Everett, and Smith, 1965; Nafe and Drake, 1969; Dietz and Holden, 1970; Smith and Hallam, 1970; Tarling, 1971; Barron, Harrison, and Hay, 1978; Smith, Hurley, and Briden, 1981; Scotese, Gagahan, and Larson, 1988), but none are entirely acceptable.
_In the Bullard, Everett, and Smith (1965) computer-generated fit, for example, there are a number of glaring omissions.
_The whole of Central America and much of southern Mexico are left out, despite the fact that extensive areas of Paleozoic and Precambrian continental rocks occur there.
_This region of some 2,100,000 km² overlaps South America in a region consisting of a craton at least 2 billion years old.
_The entire West Indian archipelago has also been omitted.
_In fact, much of the Caribbean is underlain by ancient continental crust, and the total area involved, 300,000 km², overlaps Africa (Meyerhoff and Hatten, 1974).
_The Cape Verde Islands-Senegal basin, too, is underlain by ancient continental crust, creating an additional overlap of 800,000 km².
_Several major submarine structures that appear to be of continental origin are ignored in the Bullard, Everett, and Smith fit, including the Faeroe-Iceland-Greenland Ridge, Jan Mayen Ridge, Walvis Ridge, Rio Grande Rise, and the Falkland Plateau.
_However, the Rockall Plateau was included for the sole reason that it could be "slotted in."
_The Bullard fit postulates an east-west shear zone through the present Mediterranean and requires a rotation of Spain, but field geology does not support either of these suppositions (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Even the celebrated fit of South America and Africa is problematic as it is impossible to match all parts of the coastlines simultaneously; for instance, there is a gap between Guyana and Guinea (Eyles and Eyles, 1993).
_Like the Bullard, Everett, and Smith (1965) fit, the Smith and Hallam (1970) reconstruction of the Gondwanaland continents is based on the 500-fathom depth contour.
_The South Orkneys and South Georgia are omitted, as is Kerguelen Island in the Indian Ocean, and there is a large gap west of Australia.
_Fitting India against Australia, as in other fits, leaves a corresponding gap in the western Indian Ocean (Hallam, 1976).
_Dietz and Holden (1970) based their fit on the 1000-fathom (2-km) contour, but they still had to omit the Florida-Bahamas platform, ignoring the evidence that it predates the alleged commencement of drift.
_In many regions the boundary between continental and oceanic crust appears to occur beneath oceanic depths of 2-4 km or more (Hallam, 1979), and in some places the ocean-continent transition zone is several hundred kilometers wide (Van der Linden, 1977).
_This means that any reconstructions based on arbitrarily selected depth contours are flawed.
_Given the liberties that drifters have had to take to obtain the desired continental matches, their computer-generated fits may well be a case of "garbage in, garbage out" (Le Grand, 1988).
_The similarities of rock types and geological structures on coasts that were supposedly once juxtaposed are hailed by drifters as further evidence that the continents were once joined together.
_However, they rarely mention the many geological dissimilarities.
_For instance, western Africa and northern Brazil were supposedly once in contact, yet the structural trends of the former run N-S, while those of the latter run E-W (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Some predrift reconstructions show peninsular India against western Antarctica, yet Permian Indian basins do not correspond geographically or in sequence to the western Australian basins (Dickins and Choi, 1997).
_Gregory (1929) held that the geological resemblances of opposing Atlantic coastlines are due to the areas having belonged to the same tectonic belt, but that the differences are sufficient to show that the areas were situated in distant parts of the belt.
_Bucher (1933) showed that the paleontological and geological similarities between the eastern Alps and central Himalayas, 4000 miles apart, are just as remarkable as those between the Argentine and South Africa, separated by the same distance.
_The approximate parallelism of the coastlines of the Atlantic Ocean may be due to the boundaries between the continents and oceans having been formed by deep faults, which tend to be grouped into parallel systems (Beloussov, 1980).
_Moreover, the curvature of continental contours is often so similar that many of them can be joined together if they are given the necessary rotation.
_Lyustikh (1967) gave examples of 15 shorelines that can be fitted together quite well even though they can never have been in juxtaposition.
_Voisey (1958) showed that eastern Australia fits well with eastern North America if Cape York is placed next to Florida.
_He pointed out that the geological and paleontological similarities are remarkable, probably due to the similar tectonic backgrounds of the two regions.

Paleomagnetic Pitfalls
_One of the main props of continental drift is paleomagnetism -- the study of the magnetism of ancient rocks and sediments.
_The inclination and declination of fossil magnetism can be used to infer the location of a virtual magnetic pole relative to the location of the sample in question.
_When virtual poles are determined from progressively older rocks from the same continent, the poles appear to wander with time.
_Joining the former, averaged pole positions generates an apparent polar wander path.
_Different continents yield different polar wander paths, and from this it has been concluded that the apparent wandering of the magnetic poles is caused by the actual wandering of the continents over the earth's surface.
_The possibility that there has been some degree of true polar wander -- i.e. a shift of the whole earth relative to the rotation axis (the axial tilt remaining the same) -- has not, however, been ruled out.
_That paleomagnetism can be unreliable is well established (Barron, Harrison, and Hay, 1978; Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1972).
_For instance, paleomagnetic data imply that during the mid-Cretaceous Azerbaijan and Japan were in the same place (Meyerhoff, 1970a)! The literature is in fact bursting with inconsistencies (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Paleomagnetic studies of rocks of different ages suggest a different polar wander path not only for each continent, but also for different parts of each continent.
_When individual paleomagnetic pole positions, rather than averaged curves, are plotted on world maps, the scatter is huge, often wider than the Atlantic.
_Furthermore, paleomagnetism can determine only paleolatitude, not paleolongitude.
_Consequently, it cannot be used to prove continental drift.
_Paleomagnetism is plagued with uncertainties.
_Merrill, McElhinny, and McFadden (1996, p. 69) state: "there are numerous pitfalls that await the unwary: first, in sorting out the primary magnetization from secondary magnetizations (acquired subsequent to formation), and second, in extrapolating the properties of the primary magnetization to those of the earth's magnetic field."
_The interpretation of paleomagnetic data is founded on two basic assumptions:
1. when rocks are formed, they are magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field existing at the time and place of their formation, and the acquired magnetization is retained in the rocks at least partially over geologic time;
2. the geomagnetic field averaged for any time period of the order of 105 years (except magnetic-reversal epochs) is a dipole field oriented along the earth's rotation axis.
_Both these assumptions are questionable.
_The gradual northward shift of paleopole "scatter ellipses" through time and the gradual reduction in the diameters of the ellipses suggest that remanent magnetism becomes less stable with time.
_Rock magnetism is subject to modification by later magnetism, weathering, metamorphism, tectonic deformation, and chemical changes.
_Moreover, the geomagnetic field at the present time deviates substantially from that of a geocentric axial dipole.
_The magnetic axis is tilted by about 11° to the rotation axis, and on some planets much greater offsets are found: 46.8° in the case of Neptune, and 58.6° in the case of Uranus (Merrill, McElhinny, and McFadden, 1996).
_Nevertheless, because earth's magnetic field undergoes significant long-term secular variation (e.g.
_a westward drift), it is thought that the time-averaged field will closely approximate a geocentric axial dipole.
_However, there is strong evidence that the geomagnetic field had long-term nondipole components in the past, though they have largely been neglected (Van der Voo, 1998; Kent and Smethurst, 1998).
_To test the axial nature of the geomagnetic field in the past, paleoclimatic data have to be used.
_However, several major paleoclimatic indicators, along with paleontological data, provide powerful evidence against continental-drift models, and therefore against the current interpretation of paleomagnetic data (see below).
_It is possible that the magnetic poles have wandered considerably with respect to the geographic poles in former times.
_Also, if in past geological periods there were stable magnetic anomalies of the same intensity as the present-day East Asian anomaly (or slightly more intensive), this would render the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis invalid (Beloussov, 1990).
_Regional or semi-global magnetic fields might be generated by vortex-like cells of thermal-magmatic energy, rising and falling in the earth's mantle (Pratsch, 1990).
_Another important factor may be magnetostriction -- the alteration of the direction of magnetization by directed stress (Jeffreys, 1976; Munk and MacDonald, 1975).
_Some workers have shown that certain discordant paleomagnetic results that could be explained by large horizontal movements can be explained equally well by vertical block rotations and tilts and by inclination shallowing resulting from sediment compaction (Butler et al., 1989; Dickinson and Butler, 1998; Irving and Archibald, 1990; Hodych and Bijaksana, 1993).
_Storetvedt (1992, 1997) has developed a model known as global wrench tectonics in which paleomagnetic data are explained by in-situ horizontal rotations of continental blocks, together with true polar wander.
_The possibility that a combination of these factors could be at work simultaneously significantly undermines the use of paleomagnetism to support continental drift.

Drift versus Geology
_The opening of the Atlantic Ocean allegedly began in the Cretaceous by the rifting apart of the Eurasian and American plates.
_However, on the other side of the globe, northeastern Eurasia is joined to North America by the Bering-Chukotsk shelf, which is underlain by Precambrian continental crust that is continuous and unbroken from Alaska to Siberia.
_Geologically these regions constitute a single unit, and it is unrealistic to suppose that they were formerly divided by an ocean several thousand kilometers wide, which closed to compensate for the opening of the Atlantic.
_If a suture is absent there, one ought to be found in Eurasia or North America, but no such suture appears to exist (Beloussov, 1990; Shapiro, 1990).
_If Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea had formed by Greenland and North America drifting apart, this would have produced hundreds of kilometers of lateral offset across the Nares Strait between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, but geological field studies reveal no such offset (Grant, 1980, 1992).
_Greenland is separated from Europe west of Spitsbergen by only 50-75 km at the 1000-fathom depth contour, and it is joined to Europe by the continental Faeroe-Iceland-Greenland Ridge (Meyerhoff, 1974).
_All these facts rule out the possibility of east-west drift in the northern hemisphere.
_Geology indicates that there has been a direct tectonic connection between Europe and Africa across the zones of Gibraltar and Rif on the one hand, and Calabria and Sicily on the other, at least since the end of the Paleozoic, contradicting plate-tectonic claims of significant displacement between Europe and Africa during this period (Beloussov, 1990).
_Plate tectonicists hold widely varying opinions on the Middle East region.
_Some advocate the former presence of two or more plates, some postulate several microplates, others support island-arc interpretations, and a majority favor the existence of at least one suture zone that marks the location of a continent-continent collision.
_Kashfi (1992, p. 119) comments: "Nearly all of these hypotheses are mutually exclusive.
_Most would cease to exist if the field data were honored.
_These data show that there is nothing in the geologic record to support a past separation of Arabia-Africa from the remainder of the Middle East."
_India supposedly detached itself from Antarctica sometime during the Mesozoic, and then drifted northeastward up to 9000 km, over a period of up to 200 million years, until it finally collided with Asia in the mid-Tertiary, pushing up the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.
_That Asia happened to have an indentation of approximately the correct shape and size and in exactly the right place for India to "dock" into would amount to a remarkable coincidence (Mantura, 1972).
_There is, however, overwhelming geological and paleontological evidence that India has been an integral part of Asia since Proterozoic or earlier time (Chatterjee and Hotton, 1986; Ahmad, 1990; Saxena and Gupta, 1990; Meyerhoff et al., 1991).
_There is also abundant evidence that the Tethys Sea in the region of the present Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt was never a deep, wide ocean but rather a narrow, predominantly shallow, intracontinental seaway (Bhat, 1987; Dickins, 1987, 1994c; McKenzie, 1987; Stöcklin, 1989).
_If the long journey of India had actually occurred, it would have been an isolated island-continent for millions of years -- sufficient time to have evolved a highly distinct endemic fauna.
_However, the Mesozoic and Tertiary faunas show no such endemism, but indicate instead that India lay very close to Asia throughout this period, and not to Australia and Antarctica (Chatterjee and Hotton, 1986).
_The stratigraphic, structural, and paleontological continuity of India with Asia and Arabia means that the supposed "flight of India" is no more than a flight of fancy.
_A striking feature of the oceans and continents today is that they are arranged antipodally: the Arctic Ocean is precisely antipodal to Antarctica; North America is exactly antipodal to the Indian Ocean; Europe and Africa are antipodal to the central area of the Pacific Ocean; Australia is antipodal to the small basin of the North Atlantic; and the South Atlantic corresponds -- though less exactly -- to the eastern half of Asia (Gregory, 1899, 1901; Bucher, 1933; Steers, 1950).
_Only 7% of the earth's surface does not obey the antipodal rule.
_If the continents had slowly drifted thousands of kilometers to their present positions, the antipodal arrangement of land and water would have to be regarded as purely coincidental.
_Harrison et al. (1983) calculated that there is 1 chance in 7 that this arrangement is the result of a random process.

Paleoclimatology
_The paleoclimatic record is preserved from Proterozoic time to the present in the geographic distribution of evaporites, carbonate rocks, coals, and tillites.
_The locations of these paleoclimatic indicators are best explained by stable rather than shifting continents, and by periodic changes in climate, from globally warm or hot to globally cool (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a; Meyerhoff et al., 1996b).
_For instance, 95% of all evaporites -- a dry-climate indicator -- from the Proterozoic to the present lie in regions that now receive less than 100 cm of rainfall per year, i.e. in today's dry-wind belts.
_The evaporite and coal zones show a pronounced northward offset similar to today's northward offset of the thermal equator.
_Shifting the continents succeeds at best in explaining local or regional paleoclimatic features for a particular period, and invariably fails to explain the global climate for the same period.
_In the Carboniferous and Permian, glaciers covered parts of Antarctica, South Africa, South America, India, and Australia.
_Drifters claim that this glaciation can be explained in terms of Gondwanaland, which was then situated near the south pole.
_However, the Gondwanaland hypothesis defeats itself in this respect because large areas that were glaciated during this period would be removed too far inland for moist ocean-air currents to reach them.
_Glaciers would have formed only at its margins, while the interior would have been a vast, frigid desert (Meyerhoff, 1970a; Meyerhoff and Teichert, 1971).
_Shallow epicontinental seas within Pangaea could not have provided the required moisture because they would have been frozen during the winter months.
_This glaciation is easier to explain in terms of the continents' present positions: nearly all the continental ice centers were adjacent to or near present coastlines, or in high plateaus and/or mountainlands not far from present coasts.
_Drifters say that the continents have shifted little since the start of the Cenozoic (some 65 million years ago), yet this period has seen significant alterations in climatic conditions.
_Even since Early Pliocene time the width of the temperate zone has changed by more than 15° (1650 km) in both the northern and southern hemispheres.
_The uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau appears to have been a key factor in the Late Cenozoic climatic deterioration (Ruddiman and Kutzbach, 1989; Manabe and Broccoli, 1990).
_To decide whether past climates are compatible with the present latitudes of the regions concerned, it is clearly essential to take account of vertical crustal movements, which can bring about significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns by altering the topography of the continents and ocean floor, and the distribution of land and sea (Dickins, 1994a; Meyerhoff, 1970b; Brooks, 1949).

Biopaleogeography
_Meyerhoff et al. (1996b) showed in a detailed study that most major biogeographical boundaries, based on floral and faunal distributions, do not coincide with the partly computer-generated plate boundaries postulated by plate tectonics.
_Nor do the proposed movements of continents correspond with the known, or necessary, migration routes and directions of biogeographical boundaries.
_In most cases, the discrepancies are very large, and not even an approximate match can be claimed.
_The authors comment: "What is puzzling is that such major inconsistencies between plate tectonic postulates and field data, involving as they do boundaries that extend for thousands of kilometers, are permitted to stand unnoticed, unacknowledged, and unstudied" (p. 3).
_The known distributions of fossil organisms are more consistent with an earth model like that of today than with continental-drift models, and more migration problems are raised by joining the continents in the past than by keeping them separated (Smiley, 1974, 1976, 1992; Teichert, 1974; Khudoley, 1974; Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a; Teichert and Meyerhoff, 1972).
_It is unscientific to select a few faunal identities and ignore the vastly greater number of faunal dissimilarities from different continents which were supposedly once joined.
_The widespread distribution of the Glossopteris flora in the southern continents is frequently claimed to support the former existence of Gondwanaland, but it is rarely pointed out that this flora has also been found in northeast Asia (Smiley, 1976).
_Some of the paleontological evidence appears to require the alternate emergence and submergence of land dispersal routes only after the supposed breakup of Pangaea.
_For example, mammal distribution indicates that there were no direct physical connections between Europe and North America during Late Cretaceous and Paleocene times, but suggests a temporary connection with Europe during the Eocene (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Continental drift, on the other hand, would have resulted in an initial disconnection with no subsequent reconnection.
_A few drifters have recognized the need for intermittent land bridges after the supposed separation of the continents (e.g. Tarling, 1982; Briggs, 1987).
_Various oceanic ridges, rises, and plateaus could have served as land bridges, as many are known to have been partly above water at various times in the past.
_It is also possible that these land bridges formed part of larger former landmasses in the present oceans (see below).

Seafloor Spreading and Subduction
_According to the seafloor-spreading hypothesis, new oceanic lithosphere is generated at midocean ridges ("divergent plate boundaries") by the upwelling of molten material from the earth's mantle, and as the magma cools it spreads away from the flanks of the ridges.
_The horizontally moving plates are said to plunge back into the mantle at ocean trenches or "subduction zones" ("convergent plate boundaries").
_The melting of the descending slab is believed to give rise to the magmatic-volcanic arcs that lie adjacent to certain trenches.

Seafloor Spreading
_The ocean floor is far from having the uniform characteristics that conveyor-type spreading would imply (Keith, 1993).
_Although averaged surface-wave data seemed to confirm that the oceanic lithosphere was symmetrical in relation to the ridge axis and increased in thickness with distance from the axial zone, more detailed seismic research has contradicted this simple model.
_It has shown that the mantle is asymmetrical in relation to the midocean ridges and has a complicated mosaic structure independent of the strike of the ridge.
_Several low-velocity zones (asthenolenses) occur in the oceanic mantle, but it is difficult to establish any regularity between the depth of the zones and their distance from the midocean ridge (Pavlenkova, 1990).
_Boreholes drilled in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans have shown the extensive distribution of shallow-water sediments ranging from Triassic to Quaternary.
_The spatial distribution of shallow-water sediments and their vertical arrangement in some of the sections refute the spreading mechanism for the formation of oceanic lithosphere (Ruditch, 1990).
_The evidence implies that since the Jurassic, the present oceans have undergone large-amplitude subsidences, and that this occurred mosaically rather than showing a systematic relationship with distance from the ocean ridges.
_Younger, shallow-water sediments are often located farther from the axial zones of the ridges than older ones -- the opposite of what is required by the plate-tectonics model, which postulates that as newly-formed oceanic lithosphere moves away from the spreading axis and cools, it gradually subsides to greater depths.
_Furthermore, some areas of the oceans appear to have undergone continuous subsidence, whereas others underwent alternating subsidence and elevation.
_The height of the ridge along the Romanche fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic is 1 to 4 km above that expected by seafloor-spreading models.
_Large segments of it were close to or above sea level only 5 million years ago, and subsequent subsidence has been one order of magnitude faster than that predicted by plate tectonics (Bonatti and Chermak, 1981).
_According to the seafloor-spreading model, heat flow should be highest along ocean ridges and fall off steadily with increasing distance from the ridge crests.
_Actual measurements, however, contradict this simple picture: ridge crests show a very large scatter in heat-flow magnitudes, and there is generally little difference in thermal flux between the ridge and the rest of the ocean (Storetvedt, 1997; Keith, 1993).
_All parts of the Indian Ocean display a cold and rather featureless heat-flow picture except the Central Indian Basin.
_The broad region of intense tectonic deformation in this basin indicates that the basement has a block structure, and presents a major puzzle for plate tectonics, especially since it is located in a "midplate" setting.
_Smoot and Meyerhoff (1995) have shown that nearly all published charts of the world's ocean floors have been drawn deliberately to reflect the predictions of the plate-tectonics hypothesis.
_For example, the Atlantic Ocean floor is unvaryingly shown to be dominated by a sinuous, north-south midocean ridge, flanked on either side by abyssal plains, cleft at its crest by a rift valley, and offset at more or less regular 40- to 60-km intervals by east-west-striking fracture zones.
_New, detailed bathymetric surveys indicate that this oversimplified portrayal of the Atlantic Basin is largely wrong, yet the most accurate charts now available are widely ignored because they do not conform to plate-tectonic preconceptions.
_According to plate tectonics, the offset segments of "spreading" oceanic ridges should be connected by "transform fault" plate boundaries.
_Since the late 1960s, it has been claimed that first-motion studies in ocean fracture zones provide overwhelming support for the concept of transform faults.
_The results of these seismic surveys, however, were never clear-cut, and contradictory evidence and alternative explanations have been ignored (Storetvedt, 1997; Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Instead of being continuous and approximately parallel across the full width of each ridge, ridge-transverse fracture zones tend to be discontinuous, with many unpredicted bends, bifurcations, and changes in strike.
_In places, the fractures are diagonal rather than perpendicular to the ridge, and several parts of the ridge have no important fracture zones or even traces of them.
_For instance, they are absent from a 700-km-long portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between the Atlantis and Kane fracture zones.
_There is a growing recognition that the fracture patterns in the Atlantic "show anomalies that are neither predicted by nor ... yet built into plate tectonic understanding" (Shirley, 1998a, b).
_Side-scanning radar images show that the midocean ridges are cut by thousands of long, linear, ridge-parallel fissures, fractures, and faults.
_This strongly suggests that the ridges are underlain at shallow depth by interconnected magma channels, in which semi-fluid lava moves horizontally and parallel with the ridges rather than at right-angles to them.
_The fault pattern observed is therefore totally different from that predicted by plate tectonics, and it cannot be explained by upwelling mantle diapirs as some plate tectonicists have proposed (Meyerhoff et al., 1992a).
_A zone of thrust faults, 300-400 km wide, has been discovered flanking the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over a length of 1000 km (Antipov et al., 1990).
_Since it was produced under conditions of compression, it contradicts the plate-tectonic hypothesis that midocean ridges are dominated by tension.
_In Iceland, the largest landmass astride the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the predominant stresses in the axial zone are likewise compressive rather than extensional (Keith, 1993).
_Earthquake data compiled by Zoback et al. (1989) provide further evidence that ocean ridges are characterized by widespread compression, whereas recorded tensional earthquake activity associated with these ridges is rarer.
_The rough topography and strong tectonic deformation of much of the ocean ridges, especially in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, suggest that, instead of being "spreading centers," they are a type of foldbelt (Storetvedt, 1997).
_The continents and oceans are covered with a network of major structures or lineaments, many dating from the Precambrian, along which tectonic and magmatic activity and associated mineralization take place (Gay, 1973; Katterfeld and Charushin, 1973; O'Driscoll, 1980; Wezel, 1992; Anfiloff, 1992; Dickins and Choi, 1997).
_The oceanic lineaments are not readily compatible with seafloor spreading and subduction, and plate tectonics shows little interest in them.
_GEOSAT data and SASS multibeam sonar data show that there are NNW-SSE and WSW-ENE megatrends in the Pacific Ocean, composed primarily of fracture zones and linear seamount chains, and these orthogonal lineaments naturally intersect (Smoot, 1997b, 1998a, b, 1999).
_This is a physical impossibility in plate tectonics, as seamount chains supposedly indicate the direction of plate movement, and plates would therefore have to move in two directions at once! No satisfactory plate-tectonic explanation of any of these megatrends has been proposed outside the realm of ad-hoc "microplates," and they are largely ignored.
_The orthogonal lineaments in the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Tasmanian Sea are also ignored (Choi, 1997, 1999a, c).

Age of the Seafloor
_The oldest known rocks from the continents are just under 4 billion years old, whereas -- according to plate tectonics -- none of the ocean crust is older than 200 million years (Jurassic).
_This is cited as conclusive evidence that oceanic lithosphere is constantly being created at midocean ridges and consumed in subduction zones.
_There is in fact abundant evidence against the alleged youth of the ocean floor, though geological textbooks tend to pass over it in silence.
_The oceanic crust is commonly divided into three main layers: layer 1 consists of ocean floor sediments and averages 0.5 km in thickness; layer 2 consists largely of basalt and is 1.0 to 2.5 km thick; and layer 3 is assumed to consist of gabbro and is about 5 km thick.
_Scientists involved in the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) have given the impression that the basalt (layer 2) found at the base of many deep-sea drillholes is basement, and that there are no further, older sediments below it.
_However, the DSDP scientists were apparently motivated by a strong desire to confirm seafloor spreading (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Of the first 429 sites drilled (1968-77), only 165 (38%) reached basalt, and some penetrated more than one basalt.
_All but 12 of the 165 basalt penetrations were called basement, including 19 sites where the upper contact of the basalt with the sediments was baked (Meyerhoff et al., 1992a).
_Baked contacts suggest that the basalt is an intrusive sill, and in some cases this has been confirmed, as the basalts turned out to have radiometric dates younger than the overlying sediments (e.g. Macdougall, 1971).
_101 sediment-basalt contacts were never recovered in cores, and therefore never actually seen, yet they were still assumed to be depositional contacts.
_In 33 cases depositional contacts were observed, but the basalt sometimes contained sedimentary clasts, suggesting that there might be older sediments below.
_Indeed, boreholes that have penetrated layer 2 to some depth have revealed an alternation of basalts and sedimentary rocks (Hall and Robinson, 1979; Anderson et al., 1982).
_Kamen-Kaye (1970) warned that before drawing conclusions on the youth of the ocean floor, rocks must be penetrated to depths of up to 5 km to see whether there are Triassic, Paleozoic, or Precambrian sediments below the so-called basement.
_Plate tectonics predicts that the age of the oceanic crust should increase systematically with distance from the midocean ridge crests.
_Claims by DSDP scientists to have confirmed this are not supported by a detailed review of the drilling results.
_The dates exhibit a very large scatter, which becomes even larger if dredge hauls are included.
_On some marine magnetic anomalies the age scatter is tens of millions of years (Meyerhoff et al., 1992a).
_On one seamount just west of the crest of the East Pacific Rise, the radiometric dates range from 2.4 to 96 million years.
_Although a general trend is discernible from younger sediments at ridge crests to older sediments away from them, this is in fact to be expected, since the crest is the highest and most active part of the ridge; older sediments are likely to be buried beneath younger volcanic rocks.
_The basalt layer in the ocean crust suggests that magma flooding was once ocean-wide, but volcanism was subsequently restricted to an increasingly narrow zone centered on the ridge crests.
_Such magma floods were accompanied by progressive crustal subsidence in large sectors of the present oceans, beginning in the Jurassic (Keith, 1993; Beloussov, 1980).
_The numerous finds in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans of rocks far older than 200 million years, many of them continental in nature, provide strong evidence against the alleged youth of the underlying crust.
_In the Atlantic, rock and sediment age should range from Cretaceous (120 million years) adjacent to the continents to very recent at the ridge crest.
_During legs 37 and 43 of the DSDP, Paleozoic and Proterozoic igneous rocks were recovered in cores on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Bermuda Rise, yet not one of these occurrences of ancient rocks was mentioned in the Cruise Site Reports or Cruise Synthesis Reports (Meyerhoff et al., 1996a).
_Aumento and Loncarevic (1969) reported that 75% of 84 rock samples dredged from the Bald Mountain region just west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge crest at 45°N consisted of continental-type rocks, and commented that this was a "remarkable phenomenon" -- so remarkable, in fact, that they decided to classify these rocks as "glacial erratics" and to give them no further consideration.
_Another way of dealing with "anomalous" rock finds is to dismiss them as ship ballast.
_However, the Bald Mountain locality has an estimated volume of 80 km³, so it is hardly likely to have been rafted out to sea on an iceberg or dumped by a ship! It consists of granitic and silicic metamorphic rocks ranging in age from 1690 to 1550 million years, and is intruded by 785-million-year mafic rocks (Wanless et al., 1968).
_Ozima et al. (1976) found basalts of Middle Jurassic age (169 million years) at the junction of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone (30°N), an area where basalt should theoretically be extremely young, and stated that they were unlikely to be ice-rafted rocks.
_Van Hinte and Ruffman (1995) concluded that Paleozoic limestones dredged from Orphan Knoll in the northwest Atlantic were in situ and not ice rafted.
_In another attempt to explain away anomalously old rocks and anomalously shallow or emergent crust in certain parts of the ridges, some plate tectonicists have argued that "nonspreading blocks" can be left behind during rifting, and that the spreading axis and related transform faults can jump from place to place (e.g. Bonatti and Honnorez, 1971; Bonatti and Crane, 1982; Bonatti, 1990).
_This hypothesis was invoked by Pilot et al. (1998) to explain the presence of zircons with ages of 330 and 1600 million years in gabbros beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Kane fracture zone.
_Yet another way of dealing with anomalous rock ages is to reject them as unreliable.
_For instance, Reynolds and Clay (1977), reporting on a Proterozoic date (635 million years) near the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, wrote that the age must be wrong because the theoretical age of the site was only about 10 million years.
_Paleozoic trilobites and graptolites have been dredged from the King's Trough area, on the opposite side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to Bald Mountain, and at several localities near the Azores (Furon, 1949; Smoot and Meyerhoff, 1995).
_Detailed surveys of the equatorial segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have provided a wide variety of data contradicting the seafloor-spreading model, including numerous shallow-water and continental rocks, with ages up to 3.74 billion years (Udintsev, 1996; Udintsev et al., 1993; Timofeyev et al., 1992).
_Melson, Hart, and Thompson (1972), studying St. Peter and Paul's Rocks at the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge just north of the equator, found an 835-million-year rock associated with other rocks giving 350-, 450-, and 2000-million-year ages, whereas according to the seafloor-spreading model the rock should have been 35 million years.
_Numerous igneous and metamorphic rocks giving late Precambrian and Paleozoic radiometric ages have been dredged from the crests of the southern Mid-Atlantic, Mid-Indian, and Carlsberg ridges (Afanas'yev et al., 1967).
_Precambrian and Paleozoic granites have been found in several "oceanic" plateaus and islands with anomalously thick crusts, including Rockall Plateau, Agulhas Plateau, the Seychelles, the Obruchev Rise, Papua New Guinea, and the Paracel Islands (Ben-Avraham et al., 1981; Sanchez Cela, 1999).
_In many cases, structural and petrological continuity exists between continents and anomalous "oceanic" crusts -- a fact incompatible with seafloor spreading; this applies, for example, in the North Atlantic, where there is a continuous sialic basement, partly of Precambrian age, from North America to Europe.
_Major Precambrian lineaments in Australia and South America continue into the ocean floors, implying that the "oceanic" crust is at least partly composed of Precambrian rocks, and this has been confirmed by deep-sea dredging, drilling, and seismic data, and by evidence for submerged continental crust (ancient paleolands) in the present southeast and northwest Pacific (Choi, 1997, 1998; see below).

Marine Magnetic Anomalies
_Powerful support for seafloor spreading is said to be provided by marine magnetic anomalies -- approximately parallel stripes of alternating high and low magnetic intensity that characterize much of the world's midocean ridges.
_According to the Morley-Vine-Matthews hypothesis, first proposed in 1963, as the fluid basalt welling up along the midocean ridges spreads horizontally and cools, it is magnetized by the earth's magnetic field.
_Bands of high intensity are believed to have formed during periods of normal magnetic polarity, and bands of low intensity during periods of reversed polarity.
_They are therefore regarded as time lines or isochrons.
_As plate tectonics became accepted, attempts to test this hypothesis or to find alternative hypotheses ceased.
_Correlations have been made between linear magnetic anomalies on either side of a ridge, in different parts of the oceans, and with radiometrically-dated magnetic events on land.
_The results have been used to produce maps showing how the age of the ocean floor increases steadily with increasing distance from the ridge axis (McGeary and Plummer, 1998, Fig. 4.19).
_As shown above, this simple picture can be sustained only by dismissing the possibility of older sediments beneath the basalt "basement" and by ignoring numerous "anomalously" old rock ages.
_The claimed correlations have been largely qualitative and subjective, and are therefore highly suspect; virtually no effort has been made to test them quantitatively by transforming them to the pole (i.e. recalculating each magnetic profile to a common latitude).
_In one instance where transformation to the pole was carried out, the plate-tectonic interpretation of the magnetic anomalies in the Bay of Biscay was seriously undermined (Storetvedt, 1997).
_Agocs, Meyerhoff, and Kis (1992) applied the same technique in their detailed, quantitative study of the magnetic anomalies of the Reykjanes Ridge near Iceland, and found that the correlations were very poor; the correlation coefficient along strike averaged 0.31 and that across the ridge 0.17, with limits of +1 to -1.
_Linear anomalies are known from only 70% of the seismically active midocean ridges.
_Moreover, the diagrams of symmetrical, parallel, linear bands of anomalies displayed in many plate-tectonics publications bear little resemblance to reality (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974b; Beloussov, 1970).
_The anomalies are symmetrical to the ridge axis in less than 50% of the ridge system where they are present, and in about 21% of it they are oblique to the trend of the ridge.
_In some areas, linear anomalies are present where a ridge system is completely absent.
_Magnetic measurements by instruments towed near the sea bottom have indicated that magnetic bands actually consist of many isolated ovals that may be joined together in different ways.
_The initial, highly simplistic seafloor-spreading model for the origin of magnetic anomalies has been disproven by ocean drilling (Pratsch, 1986; Hall and Robinson, 1979).
_First, the hypothesis that the anomalies are produced in the upper 500 meters of oceanic crust has had to be abandoned.
_Magnetic intensities, general polarization directions, and often the existence of different polarity zones at different depths suggest that the source for oceanic magnetic anomalies lies in deeper levels of oceanic crust not yet drilled (or dated).
_Second, the vertically alternating layers of opposing magnetic polarization directions disprove the theory that the oceanic crust was magnetized entirely as it spread laterally from the magmatic center, and strongly indicate that oceanic crustal sequences represent longer geologic times than is now believed.
_A more likely explanation of marine magnetic anomalies is that they are caused by fault-related bands of rock of different magnetic properties and have nothing to do with seafloor spreading (Morris et al., 1990; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Tuezov, 1990; Pratsch, 1986; Grant, 1980).
_The fact that not all the charted magnetic anomalies are formed of oceanic crustal materials further undermines the plate-tectonic explanation.
_In the Labrador Sea some anomalies occur in an area of continental crust that had previously been defined as oceanic (Grant, 1980).
_In the northwestern Pacific some magnetic anomalies are likewise located within an area of continental crust -- a submerged paleoland (Choi, Vasil'yev, and Tuezov, 1990; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Bhat, 1992).
_Magnetic-anomaly bands strike into the continents in at least 15 places and "dive" beneath Proterozoic or younger rocks.
_Furthermore, they are approximately concentric with respect to Archean continental shields (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1972, 1974b).
_These facts imply that instead of being a "taped record" of seafloor spreading and geomagnetic field reversals during the past 200 million years, most oceanic magnetic anomalies are the sites of ancient fractures, which partly formed during the Proterozoic and have been rejuvenated since.
_The evidence also suggests that Archean continental nuclei have held approximately the same positions with respect to one another since their formation -- which is utterly at variance with continental drift.

Subduction
_Benioff zones are distinct earthquake zones that begin at an ocean trench and slope landward and downward into the earth.
_In plate tectonics, these deep-rooted fault zones are interpreted as "subduction zones" where plates descend into the mantle.
_They are generally depicted as 100-km-thick slabs descending into the earth either at a constant angle, or at a shallow angle near the earth's surface and gradually curving around to an angle of between 60° and 75°.
_Neither representation is correct.
_Benioff zones often consist of two separate sections: an upper zone with an average dip of 33° extending to a depth of 70-400 km, and a lower zone with an average dip of 60° extending to a depth of up to 700 km (Benioff, 1954; Isacks and Barazangi, 1977).
_The upper and lower segments are sometimes offset by 100-200 km, and in one case by 350 km (Benioff, 1954, Smoot, 1997a).
_Furthermore, deep earthquakes are disconnected from shallow ones; very few intermediate earthquakes exist (Smoot, 1997a).
_Many studies have found transverse as well as vertical discontinuities and segmentation in Benioff zones (e.g. Carr, Stoiber, and Drake, 1973; Swift and Carr, 1974; Teisseyre et al., 1974; Carr, 1976; Spence, 1977; Ranneft, 1979).
_The evidence therefore does not favor the notion of a continuous, downgoing slab.
_Plate tectonicists insist that the volume of crust generated at midocean ridges is equaled by the volume subducted.
_But whereas 80,000 km of midocean ridges are supposedly producing new crust, only 30,500 km of trenches exist.
_Even if we add the 9000 km of "collision zones," the figure is still only half that of the "spreading centers" (Smoot, 1997a).
_With two minor exceptions (the Scotia and Lesser Antilles trench/arc systems), Benioff zones are absent from the margins of the Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
_Many geological facts demonstrate that subduction is not taking place in the Lesser Antilles arc; if it were, the continental Barbados Ridge should now be 200-400 km beneath the Lesser Antilles (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_Kiskyras (1990) presented geological, volcanological, petrochemical, and seismological data contradicting the belief that the African plate is being subducted under the Aegean Sea.
_Africa is allegedly being converged on by plates spreading from the east, south, and west, yet it exhibits no evidence whatsoever for the existence of subduction zones or orogenic belts.
_Antarctica, too, is almost entirely surrounded by alleged "spreading" ridges without any corresponding subduction zones, but fails to show any signs of being crushed.
_It has been suggested that Africa and Antarctica may remain stationary while the surrounding ridge system migrates away from them, but this would require the ridge marking the "plate boundary" between Africa and Antarctica to move in opposite directions simultaneously (Storetvedt, 1997)!
_If up to 13,000 kilometers of lithosphere had really been subducted in circum-Pacific deep-sea trenches, vast amounts of oceanic sediments should have been scraped off the ocean floor and piled up against the landward margin of the trenches.
_However, sediments in the trenches are generally not present in the volumes required, nor do they display the expected degree of deformation (Storetvedt, 1997; Choi, 1999b; Gnibidenko, Krasny, and Popov, 1978; Suzuki et al., 1997).
_Scholl and Marlow (1974), who support plate tectonics, admitted to being "genuinely perplexed as to why evidence for subduction or offscraping of trench deposits is not glaringly apparent" (p. 268).
_Plate tectonicists have had to resort to the highly dubious notion that unconsolidated deep-ocean sediments can slide smoothly into a Benioff zone without leaving any significant trace.
_Moreover, fore-arc sediments, where they have been analyzed, have generally been found to be derived from the volcanic arc and the adjacent continental block, not from the oceanic region (Pratsch, 1990; Wezel, 1986).
_The very low level of seismicity, the lack of a megathrust, and the existence of flat-lying sediments at the base of oceanic trenches contradict the alleged presence of a downgoing slab (Dickins and Choi, 1998).
_Attempts by Murdock (1997), who accepts many elements of plate tectonics, to publicize the lack of a megathrust in the Aleutian trench (i.e. a million or more meters of displacement of the Pacific plate as it supposedly underthrusts the North American plate) have met with vigorous resistance and suppression by the plate-tectonics establishment.
_Subduction along Pacific trenches is also refuted by the fact that the Benioff zone often lies 80 to 150 km landward from the trench; by the evidence that Precambrian continental structures continue into the ocean floor; and by the evidence for submerged continental crust under the northwestern and southeastern Pacific, where there are now deep abyssal plains and trenches (Choi, 1987, 1998, 1999c; Smoot 1998b; Tuezov, 1998).
_If the "Pacific plate" is colliding with and diving under the "North American plate", there should be a stress buildup along the San Andreas Fault.
_The deep Cajon Pass drillhole was intended to confirm this but showed instead that no such stress is present (C. W. Hunt, 1992).
_In the active island-arc complexes of southeast Asia, the arcs bend back on themselves, forming hairpin-like shapes that sometimes involve full 180° changes in direction.
_This also applies to the postulated subduction zone around India.
_How plate collisions could produce such a geometry remains a mystery (Meyerhoff, 1995; H. A. Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1977).
_Rather than being continuous curves, trenches tend to consist of a row of straight segments, which sometimes differ in depth by more than 4 km.
_Aseismic buoyant features (e.g. seamounts), which are frequently found at the juncture of these segments, are connected with increased deep-earthquake and volcanic activity on the landward side of the trench, whereas theoretically their "arrival" at a subduction zone should reduce or halt such activity (Smoot, 1997a).
_Plate tectonicists admit that it is hard to see how the subduction of a cold slab could result in the high heat flow or arc volcanism in back-arc regions or how plate convergence could give rise to back-arc spreading (Uyeda, 1986).
_Evidence suggests that oceanic, continental, and back-arc rifts are actually tensional structures developed to relieve stress in a strong compressional stress system, and therefore have nothing to do with seafloor spreading (Dickins, 1997).
_An alternative view of Benioff zones is that they are very ancient contraction fractures produced by the cooling of the earth (Meyerhoff et al., 1992b, 1996a).
_The fact that the upper part of the Benioff zones usually dips at less than 45° and the lower part at more than 45° suggests that the lithosphere is under compression and the lower mantle under tension.
_Furthermore, since a contracting sphere fractures along great circles (Bucher, 1956), this would account for the fact that both the circum-Pacific seismotectonic belt and the Alpine-Himalayan (Tethyan) belt lie on approximate circles.
_Finally, instead of oceanic crust being absorbed beneath the continents along ocean trenches, continents may actually be overriding adjacent oceanic areas to a limited extent, as is indicated by the historical geology of China, Indonesia, and the western Americas (Storetvedt, 1997; Pratsch, 1986; Krebs, 1975).

Uplift and Subsidence
Vertical Tectonics
_Classical plate tectonics seeks to explain all geologic structures primarily in terms of simple lateral movements of lithospheric plates -- their rifting, extension, collision, and subduction.
_But random plate interactions are unable to explain the periodic character of geological processes, i.e. the geotectonic cycle, which sometimes operates on a global scale (Wezel, 1992).
_Nor can they explain the large-scale uplifts and subsidences that have characterized the evolution of the earth's crust, especially those occurring far from "plate boundaries" such as in continental interiors, and vertical oscillatory motions involving vast regions (Ilich, 1972; Beloussov, 1980, 1990; Chekunov, Gordienko, and Guterman, 1990; Genshaft and Saltykowski, 1990).
_The presence of marine strata thousands of meters above sea level (e.g. near the summit of Mount Everest) and the great thicknesses of shallow-water sediment in some old basins indicate that vertical crustal movements of at least 9 km above sea level and 10-15 km below sea level have taken place (Spencer, 1977).
_Major vertical movements have also taken place along continental margins.
_For example, the Atlantic continental margin of North America has subsided by up to 12 km since the Jurassic (Sheridan, 1974).
_In Barbados, Tertiary coals representing a shallow-water, tropical environment occur beneath deep-sea oozes, indicating that during the last 12 million years, the crust sank to over 4-5 km depth for the deposition of the ooze and was then raised again.
_A similar situation occurs in Indonesia, where deep-sea oozes occur above sea level, sandwiched between shallow-water Tertiary sediments (James, 1994).
_The primary mountain-building mechanism in plate tectonics is lateral compression caused by collisions -- of continents, island arcs, oceanic plateaus, seamounts, and ridges.
_In this model, subduction proceeds without mountain building until collision occurs, whereas in the noncollision model subduction alone is supposed to cause mountain building.
_As well as being mutually contradictory, both models are inadequate, as several supporters of plate tectonics have pointed out (e.g. Cebull and Shurbet, 1990, 1992; Van Andel, 1998).
_The noncollision model fails to explain how continuous subduction can give rise to discontinuous orogeny, while the collision model is challenged by occurrences of mountain building where no continental collision can be assumed, and it fails to explain contemporary mountain-building activity along such chains as the Andes and around much of the rest of the Pacific rim.
_Asia supposedly collided with Europe in the late Paleozoic, producing the Ural mountains, but abundant geological field data demonstrate that the Siberian and East European (Russian) platforms have formed a single continent since Precambrian times (Meyerhoff and Meyerhoff, 1974a).
_McGeary and Plummer (1998) state that the plate-tectonic reconstruction of the formation of the Appalachians in terms of three successive collisions of North America seems "too implausible even for a science fiction plot" (p. 114), but add that an understanding of plate tectonics makes the theory more palatable.
_Ollier (1990), on the other hand, states that fanciful plate-tectonic explanations ignore all the geomorphology and much of the known geological history of the Appalachians.
_He also says that of all the possible mechanisms that might account for the Alps, the collision of the African and European plates is the most naive.
_The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau were supposedly uplifted by the collision of the Indian plate with the Asian plate.
_However, this fails to explain why the beds on either side of the supposed collision zone remain comparatively undisturbed and low-dipping, whereas the Himalayas have been uplifted, supposedly as a consequence, some 100 km away, along with the Kunlun mountains to the north of the Tibetan Plateau.
_River terraces in various parts of the Himalayas are almost perfectly horizontal and untilted, suggesting that the Himalayas were uplifted vertically, rather than as the result of horizontal compression (Ahmad, 1990).
_Collision models generally assume that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau began during or after the early Eocene (post-50 million years), but paleontological, paleoclimatological, paleoecological, and sedimentological data conclusively show that major uplift could not have occurred before earliest Pliocene time (5 million years ago) (Meyerhoff, 1995).
_There is ample evidence that mantle heat flow and material transport can cause significant changes in crustal thickness, composition, and density, resulting in substantial uplifts and subsidences.
_This is emphasized in many of the alternative hypotheses to plate tectonics (for an overview, see Yano and Suzuki, 1999), such as the model of endogenous regimes (Beloussov, 1980, 1981, 1990, 1992; Pavlenkova, 1995, 1998).
_Plate tectonicists, too, increasingly invoke mantle diapirism as a mechanism for generating or promoting tectogenesis; there is now abundant evidence that shallow magma chambers are ubiquitous beneath active tectonic belts.
_The popular hypothesis that crustal stretching was the main cause of the formation of deep sedimentary basins on continental crust has been contradicted by numerous studies; mantle upwelling processes and lithospheric density increases are increasingly being recognized as an alternative mechanism (Pavlenkova, 1998; Artyushkov 1992; Artyushkov and Baer, 1983; Anfiloff, 1992; Zorin and Lepina, 1989).
_This may involve gabbro-eclogite phase transformations in the lower crust (Artyushkov 1992; Haxby, Turcotte, and Bird, 1976; Joyner, 1967), a process that has also been proposed as a possible explanation for the continuing subsidence of the North Sea Basin, where there is likewise no evidence of large-scale stretching (Collette, 1968).
_Plate tectonics predicts simple heat-flow patterns around the earth.
_There should be a broad band of high heat flow beneath the full length of the midocean rift system, and parallel bands of high and low heat flow along the Benioff zones.
_Intraplate regions are predicted to have low heat flow.
_The pattern actually observed is quite different.
_There are criss-crossing bands of high heat flow covering the entire surface of the earth (Meyerhoff et al., 1996a).
_Intra-plate volcanism is usually attributed to "mantle plumes" -- upwellings of hot material from deep in the mantle, presumably the core-mantle boundary.
_The movement of plates over the plumes is said to give rise to hotspot trails (chains of volcanic islands and seamounts).
_Such trails should therefore show an age progression from one end to the other, but a large majority show little or no age progression (Keith, 1993; Baksi, 1999).
_On the basis of geological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, Sheth (1999) argued that the plume hypothesis is ill-founded, artificial, and invalid, and has led earth scientists up a blind alley.
_Active tectonic belts are located in bands of high heat flow, which are also characterized by several other phenomena that do not readily fit in with the plate-tectonics hypothesis.
_These include: bands of microearthquakes (including "diffuse plate boundaries") that do not coincide with plate-tectonic predicted locations; segmented belts of linear faults, fractures, and fissures; segmented belts of mantle upwellings and diapirs; vortical geological structures; linear lenses of anomalous (low-velocity) upper mantle that are commonly overlain by shallower, smaller low-velocity zones; the existence of bisymmetrical deformation in all foldbelts, with coexisting states of compression and tension; strike-slip zones and similar tectonic lines ranging from simple rifts to Verschluckungszonen ("engulfment zones"); eastward-shifting tectonic-magmatic belts; and geothermal zones.
_Investigation of these phenomena has led to the development of a major new hypothesis of geodynamics, known as surge tectonics, which rejects both seafloor spreading and continental drift (Meyerhoff et al., 1992b, 1996a; Meyerhoff, 1995).
_Surge tectonics postulates that all the major features of the earth's surface, including rifts, foldbelts, metamorphic belts, and strike-slip zones, are underlain by shallow (less than 80 km) magma chambers and channels (known as "surge channels").
_Seismotomographic data suggest that surge channels form an interconnected worldwide network, which has been dubbed "the earth's cardiovascular system."
_Surge channels coincide with the lenses of anomalous mantle and associated low-velocity zones referred to above, and active channels are also characterized by high heat flow and microseismicity.
_Magma from the asthenosphere flows slowly through active channels at the rate of a few centimeters a year.
_Horizontal flow is demonstrated by two major surface features: linear, belt-parallel faults, fractures, and fissures; and the division of tectonic belts into fairly uniform segments.
_The same features characterize all lava flows and tunnels, and have also been observed on Mars, Venus, and several moons of the outer planets.
_Surge tectonics postulates that the main cause of geodynamics is lithosphere compression, generated by the cooling and contraction of the earth.
_As compression increases during a geotectonic cycle, it causes the magma to move through a channel in pulsed surges and eventually to rupture it, so that the contents of the channel surge bilaterally upward and outward to initiate tectogenesis.
_The asthenosphere (in regions where it is present) alternately contracts during periods of tectonic activity and expands during periods of tectonic quiescence.
_The earth's rotation, combined with differential lag between the more rigid lithosphere above and the more fluid asthenosphere below, causes the fluid or semifluid materials to move predominantly eastward.
_This explains the eastward migration through time of many magmatic or volcanic arcs, batholiths, rifts, depocenters, and foldbelts.

The Continents
_It is a striking fact that nearly all the sedimentary rocks composing the continents were laid down under the sea.
_The continents have suffered repeated marine inundations, but because sediments were mostly deposited in shallow water (less than 250 m), the seas are described as "epicontinental."
_Marine transgressions and regressions are usually attributed mainly to eustatic changes of sea level caused by alterations in the volume of midocean ridges.
_Van Andel (1994) points out that this explanation cannot account for the 100 or so briefer cycles of sea-level changes, especially since transgressions and regressions are not always simultaneous all over the globe.
_He proposes that large regions or whole continents must undergo slow vertical, epeirogenic movements, which he attributes to an uneven distribution of temperature and density in the mantle, combined with convective flow.
_Some workers have linked marine inundations and withdrawals to a global thermal cycle, bringing about continental uplift and subsidence (Rutland, 1982; Sloss and Speed, 1974).
_Van Andel (1994) admits that epeirogenic movements "fit poorly into plate tectonics" (p. 170), and are therefore largely ignored.
_Van Andel (1994) asserts that "plates" rise or fall by no more than a few hundred meters -- this being the maximum depth of most "epicontinental" seas.
_However, this overlooks an elementary fact: huge thicknesses of sediments were often deposited during marine incursions, often requiring vertical crustal movements of many kilometers.
_Sediments accumulate in regions of subsidence, and their thickness is usually close to the degree of downwarping.
_In the unstable, mobile belts bordering stable continental platforms, many geosynclinal troughs and circular depressions have accumulated sedimentary thicknesses of 10 to 14 km, and in some cases of 20 km.
_Although the sedimentary cover on the platforms themselves is often less than 1.5 km thick, basins with sedimentary thicknesses of 10 km and even 20 km are not unknown (C. B. Hunt, 1992; Dillon, 1974; Beloussov, 1981; Pavlenkova, 1998).
_Subsidence cannot be attributed solely to the weight of the accumulating sediments because the density of sedimentary rocks is much lower than that of the subcrustal material; for instance, the deposition of 1 km of marine sediment will cause only half a kilometer or so of subsidence (Holmes, 1965; Jeffreys, 1976).
_Moreover, sedimentary basins require not only continual depression of the base of the basin to accommodate more sediments, but also continuous uplift of adjacent land to provide a source for the sediments.
_In geosynclines, subsidence has commonly been followed by uplift and folding to produce mountain ranges, and this can obviously not be accounted for by changes in surface loading.
_The complex history of the oscillating uplift and subsidence of the crust appears to require deep-seated changes in lithospheric composition and density, and vertical and horizontal movements of mantle material.
_That density is not the only factor involved is shown by the fact that in regions of tectonic activity vertical movements often intensify gravity anomalies rather than acting to restore isostatic equilibrium.
_For example, the Greater Caucasus is overloaded, yet it is rising rather than subsiding (Beloussov, 1980; Jeffreys, 1976).
_In regions where all the sediments were laid down in shallow water, subsidence must somehow have kept pace with sedimentation.
_In eugeosynclines, on the other hand, subsidence proceeded faster than sedimentation, resulting in a marine basin several kilometers deep.
_Examples of eugeosynclines prior to the uplift stage are the Sayans in the Early Paleozoic, the eastern slope of the Urals in the Early and Middle Paleozoic, the Alps in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and the Sierra Nevada in the Triassic (Beloussov, 1980).
_Plate tectonicists often claim that geosynclines are formed solely at plate margins at the boundaries between continents and oceans.
_However, there are many examples of geosynclines having formed in intracontinental settings (Holmes, 1965), and the belief that the ophiolites found in certain geosynclinal areas are invariably remnants of oceanic crust is contradicted by a large volume of evidence (Beloussov, 1981; Bhat, 1987; Luts, 1990; Sheth, 1997).

The Oceans
_In the past, sialic clastic material has been transported to today's continents from the direction of the present-day oceans, where there must have been considerable areas of land that underwent erosion (Dickins, Choi, and Yeates, 1992; Beloussov, 1962).
_For instance, the Paleozoic geosyncline along the seaboard of eastern North America, an area now occupied by the Appalachian mountains, was fed by sialic clasts from a borderland ("Appalachia") in the adjacent Atlantic.
_Other submerged borderlands include the North Atlantic Continent or Scandia (west of Spitsbergen and Scotland), Cascadia (west of the Sierra Nevada), and Melanesia (southeast of Asia and east of Australia) (Umbgrove, 1947; Gilluly, 1955; Holmes, 1965).
_A million cubic kilometers of Devonian micaceous sediments from Bolivia to Argentina imply an extensive continental source to the west where there is now the deep Pacific Ocean (Carey, 1994).
_During Paleozoic-Mesozoic-Paleogene times, the Japanese geosyncline was supplied with sediments from land areas in the Pacific (Choi, 1984, 1987).
_When trying to explain sediment sources, plate tectonicists sometimes argue that sediments were derived from the existing continents during periods when they were supposedly closer together (Bahlburg, 1993; Dickins, 1994a; Holmes, 1965).
_Where necessary, they postulate small former land areas (microcontinents or island arcs), which have since been either subducted or accreted against continental margins as "exotic terranes" (Nur and Ben-Avraham, 1982; Kumon et al., 1988; Choi, 1984).
_However, mounting evidence is being uncovered that favors the foundering of sizable continental landmasses, whose remnants are still present under the ocean floor (see below).
_Oceanic crust is regarded as much thinner and denser than continental crust: the crust beneath oceans is said to average about 7 km thick and to be composed largely of basalt and gabbro, whereas continental crust averages about 35 km thick and consists chiefly of granitic rock capped by sedimentary rocks.
_However, ancient continental rocks and crustal types intermediate between standard "continental" and "oceanic" crust are increasingly being discovered in the oceans (Sanchez Cela, 1999), and this is a serious embarrassment for plate tectonics.
_The traditional picture of the crust beneath oceans being universally thin and graniteless may well be further undermined in the future, as oceanic drilling and seismic research continue.
_One difficulty is to distinguish the boundary between the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle in areas where high- and low-velocity layers alternate (Orlenok, 1986; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Bhat, 1992).
_For example, the crust under the Kuril deep-sea basin is 8 km thick if the 7.9 km/s velocity layer is taken as the crust-mantle boundary (Moho), but 20-30 km thick if the 8.2 or 8.4 km/s layer is taken as the Moho (Tuezov, 1998).
_Small ocean basins cover an area equal to about 5% of that of the continents, and are characterized by transitional types of crust (Menard, 1967).
_This applies to the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the Japan Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean, the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, and the marginal (back-arc) basins along the western side of the Pacific (Beloussov and Ruditch, 1961; Ross, 1974; Sheridan, 1974; Choi, 1984; Grant, 1992).
_In plate tectonics, the origin of marginal basins, with their complex crustal structure, has remained an enigma, and there is no basis for the assumption that some kind of seafloor spreading must be involved; rather, they appear to have originated by vertical tectonics (Storetvedt, 1997; Wezel, 1986).
_Some plate tectonicists have tried to explain the transitional crust of the Caribbean in terms of the continentalization of a former deep ocean area, thereby ignoring the stratigraphic evidence that the Caribbean was a land area in the Early Mesozoic (Van Bemmelen, 1972).
_There are over 100 submarine plateaus and aseismic ridges scattered throughout the oceans, many of which were once subaerially exposed (Nur and Ben-Avraham, 1982; Dickins, Choi, and Yeates, 1992; Storetvedt, 1997).
_They make up about 10% of the ocean floor.
_Many appear to be composed of modified continental crust 20-40 km thick -- far thicker than "normal" oceanic crust.
_They often have an upper 10-15 km crust with compressional-wave velocities typical of granitic rocks in continental crust.
_They have remained obstacles to predrift continental fits, and have therefore been interpreted as extinct spreading ridges, anomalously thickened oceanic crust, or subsided continental fragments carried along by the "migrating" seafloor.
_If seafloor spreading is rejected, they cease to be anomalous and can be interpreted as submerged, in-situ continental fragments that have not been completely "oceanized."
_Shallow-water deposits ranging in age from mid-Jurassic to Miocene, as well as igneous rocks showing evidence of subaerial weathering, were found in 149 of the first 493 boreholes drilled in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
_These shallow-water deposits are now found at depths ranging from 1 to 7 km, demonstrating that many parts of the present ocean floor were once shallow seas, shallow marshes, or land areas (Orlenok, 1986; Timofeyev and Kholodov, 1984).
_From a study of 402 oceanic boreholes in which shallow-water or relatively shallow-water sediments were found, Ruditch (1990) concluded that there is no systematic correlation between the age of shallow-water accumulations and their distance from the axes of the midoceanic ridges, thereby disproving the seafloor-spreading model.
_Some areas of the oceans appear to have undergone continuous subsidence, whereas others experienced alternating episodes of subsidence and elevation.
_The Pacific Ocean appears to have formed mainly from the Late Jurassic to the Miocene, the Atlantic Ocean from the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Eocene, and the Indian Ocean during the Paleocene and Eocene.
_In the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, modified continental crust (mostly 10-20 km thick) underlies not only ridges and plateaus but most of the ocean floor; only in deep-water depressions is typical oceanic crust found.
_Since deep-sea drilling has shown that large areas of the North Atlantic were previously covered with shallow seas, it is possible that much of the North Atlantic was continental crust before its rapid subsidence (Pavlenkova, 1995, 1998; Sanchez Cela, 1999).
_Lower Paleozoic continental rocks with trilobite fossils have been dredged from seamounts scattered over a large area northeast of the Azores.
_Furon (1949) concluded that the continental cobbles had not been carried there by icebergs and that the area concerned was a submerged continental zone.
_Bald Mountain, from which a variety of ancient continental material has been dredged, could certainly be a foundered continental fragment.
_In the equatorial Atlantic, shallow-water and continental rocks are ubiquitous (Timofeyev et al., 1992; Udintsev, 1996).
_There is evidence that the midocean ridge system was shallow or partially emergent in Cretaceous to Early Tertiary time.
_For instance, in the Atlantic subaerial deposits have been found on the North Brazilian Ridge (Bader et al., 1971), near the Romanche and Vema fracture zones adjacent to equatorial sectors of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Bonatti and Chermak, 1981; Bonatti and Honnorez, 1971), on the crest of the Reykjanes Ridge, and in the Faeroe-Shetland region (Keith, 1993).
_Oceanographic and geological data suggest that a large part of the Indian Ocean, especially the eastern part, was land ("Lemuria") from the Jurassic until the Miocene.
_The evidence includes seismic and palynological data and subaerial weathering which suggest that the Broken and Ninety East Ridges were part of an extensive, now sunken landmass; extensive drilling, seismic, magnetic, and gravity data pointing to the existence an Alpine-Himalayan foldbelt in the northwestern Indian Ocean, associated with a foundered continental basement; data that continental basement underlies the Scott, Exmouth, and Naturaliste plateaus west of Australia; and thick Triassic and Jurassic sedimentation on the western and northwestern shelves of the Australian continent which shows progradation and current direction indicating a western source (Dickins, 1994a; Udintsev, Illarionov, and Kalinin, 1990; Udintsev and Koreneva, 1982; Wezel, 1988).
_Geological, geophysical, and dredging data provide strong evidence for the presence of Precambrian and younger continental crust under the deep abyssal plains of the present northwest Pacific (Choi, Vasil'yev, and Tuezov, 1990; Choi, Vasil'yev, and Bhat, 1992).
_Most of this region was either subaerially exposed or very shallow sea during the Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic, and first became deep sea about the end of the Jurassic.
_Paleolands apparently existed on both sides of the Japanese islands.
_They were largely emergent during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic-Paleogene, but were totally submerged during Paleogene to Miocene times.
_Those on the Pacific side included the great Oyashio paleoland and the Kuroshio paleoland.
_The latter, which was as large as the present Japanese islands and occupied the present Nankai Trough area, subsided in the Miocene, at the same time as the upheaval of the Shimanto geosyncline, to which it had supplied vast amounts of sediments (Choi, 1984, 1987; Harata et al., 1978; Kumon et al., 1988).
_There is also evidence of paleolands in the southwest Pacific around Australia (Choi, 1997) and in the southeast Pacific during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Choi, 1998; Isaacson, 1975; Bahlburg, 1993; Isaacson and Martinez, 1995).
_After surveying the extensive evidence for former continental land areas in the present oceans, Dickins, Choi, and Yeates (1992) concluded:
_We are surprised and concerned for the objectivity and honesty of science that such data can be overlooked or ignored. ...
_There is a vast need for future Ocean Drilling Program initiatives to drill below the base of the basaltic ocean floor crust to confirm the real composition of what is currently designated oceanic crust.
_(p. 198)

Conclusion
_Plate tectonics -- the reigning paradigm in the earth sciences -- faces some very severe and apparently fatal problems.
_Far from being a simple, elegant, all-embracing global theory, it is confronted with a multitude of observational anomalies, and has had to be patched up with a complex variety of ad-hoc modifications and auxiliary hypotheses.
_The existence of deep continental roots and the absence of a continuous, global asthenosphere to "lubricate" plate motions, have rendered the classical model of plate movements untenable.
_There is no consensus on the thickness of the "plates" and no certainty as to the forces responsible for their supposed movement.
_The hypotheses of large-scale continental movements, seafloor spreading and subduction, and the relative youth of the oceanic crust are contradicted by a substantial volume of data.
_Evidence for significant amounts of submerged continental crust in the present-day oceans provides another major challenge to plate tectonics.
_The fundamental principles of plate tectonics therefore require critical reexamination, revision, or rejection.
99
Updates / Choi NewMad Paper
« Last post by Admin on March 02, 2017, 08:53:38 pm »
NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 1,March 2014. www.ncgt.org 61
SEISMO-ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY FLOW OBSERVED IN THE 16 MARCH 2014 M6.7 EARTHQUAKE OFF TARAPACÁ, CHILE
Dong R. CHOI
International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center (IEVPC), Canberra, Australia
dchoi@ievpc.org
- Abstract: The strong M6.7 offshore Tarapacá earthquake in March 2014 was generated by the convergence of two seismo-electromagnetic energies at the junction of two major fault systems. The deep northwestward flow is proven by two precursory intermediate-depth quakes which are linked to the offshore Tarapacá mainshock by Blot’s energy transmigration law. Another energy flow, southward along the continental margin of South America, is verified by the latitude vs year plot of shallow (50 km or less) quakes from 1970 to 2014 (March).
The average speed of the shallow southward-flowing energy along the continental margin is 0.25 km/day (28-year average), whereas the northwestward energy speed (from 128 km to 35 km depths) was an average of 0.34 km/day. The convergence of two energies contributed to enhancing the magnitude of the shallow mainshock (6.7), which was larger than the two foreshocks: 6.4 at 128 km and 6.2 at 214 km. The increased magnitude of shallow mainshocks as compared to deeper foreshocks is observed in many of the past major quakes, which will help forecast future catastrophic earthquakes.
- Keywords: Offshore Tarapacá earthquake, energy transmigration, convergence and flow, surge tectonics
- Introduction
A conspicuous anomaly in total electron content (TEC) appeared in the coastal area of northern Chile in early March 2014 off Tarapacá, Chile. Based on IEVPC’s experience, we considered it to indicate an imminent strong earthquake. The author immediately examined other data: outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), sea surface temperature (SST), cloud images, geology, and earthquake archives. He also conducted Blot’s energy transmigration analysis (Blot, 1976; Grover, 1999) for two intermediate-depth earthquakes that occurred in the southeast of the Tarapacá area in 2009 and 2011. The results of the analysis convinced him of the imminence of a strong quake north of Antofagasta. Because the expected magnitude was around 6.4, which is below the threshold of what IVEPC classifies as a catastrophic geophysical event (CGE, M7.0 or greater), he notified only his IEVPC associates on 3 March without any public announcement.
- As expected, an M6.7 (originally 7.0) mainshock occurred off Tarapacá, about 400 km north of Antofagasta, on 16 March, 13 days after the announcement. The author’s prediction proved to be of almost pinpoint accuracy in terms of epicentre, time and magnitude. A post-mortem analysis of the quake revealed that two energy flows had converged in the offshore Tarapacá area where two major fracture systems meet. Energy flow is a particularly important concept when considering earthquake formation mechanisms and in earthquake prediction. The author briefly describes here some of the new findings, focusing on the energy flow observed in this particular quake.
- 2.Precursory signals and fracture systems
- Before discussing energy flow, I will first summarize some of the precursory signals that appeared prior to the Tarapacá mainshock (see Fig. 1). The OLR trend shows a clear NW-SE trending linear high anomaly, 10-30 W/m2 above average, from 2 to 8 March. The linear trend coincides with a deep fracture zone where two precursory shocks occurred in 2009 and 2011. The fracture zone extends northward into the ocean floor where a deep trench develops.
- Figure 1. Seismo-tectonic map (top), total electron content (lower right), sea surface temperature anomaly (middle left) and outgoing longwave radiation anomaly (bottom left). Anomalies are detected in total electron content and outgoing longwave radiation, but none in sea surface temperature. The offshore Tarapacá quake occurred at the junction of two fault systems. Note two energy flows converging at the mainshock.
- The most outstanding anomaly signal among others is seen in the TEC pattern. It appeared in late February, became conspicuous in early March, peaked on 10 to 11 March, then slightly decreased from 13 to 15 March, before the mainshock on 16 March.
- Sea surface temperature (SST) did not show any particular anomalies during the entire incubation period. This is the stark contrast with other large quakes such as the November 2012 Myanmar quake (NCGT Newsletter no. 65, Editorial, p. 2-4).
Clear earthquake clouds were observed on satellite images (Dundee Satellite Receiving Station; http://www.sat.dundee.ac.uk/geobrowse/geobrowse.php) on 28 January at 1200 hrs from the nearby trench, 47 days prior to the mainshock. Some limited energy release features are observed beginning in early February, about one month to 40 days prior to the mainshock, mainly from the trench area. On the whole, however, relatively little activity was seen on the satellite images from the region.
- 3. Energy flow
- Two energy flow channels were identified in this prediction exercise. One of them is the northwestward deep flow along a deep-seated fracture system, and the second is a southward flow in the shallow Earth along the continental margin. The former is confirmed by three strong earthquakes lying on a NW-SE fault line: no. 1, M6.2 on 29 Nov. 2009 at 214 km depth; no. 2, M6.4 on 20 June 2011 at 128 km; and no. 3, main shallow shock on 16 March, M6.7 at 35 km (see Fig. 1). This fault is obviously a deep fault zone with its northern extension reaching the Chile Trench. The author (Choi, 2005, fig. 21) recognized a NW-SE trending structural high running through Antofagasta based on various data sources. The NW-SE fault in question is situated on the northern wing of this basement high.
- These three quakes are linked by the energy transmigration (ET) formula (Fig. 2). According to the formula, applied from Nos. 1 to 2, the No. 2 quake shows an approximately seven-month delay in its occurrence. This might be the result of inaccuracies in the depth and locality of quakes, a longer incubation time at the trap before release, or a longer travel distance due to the complex fault system through which the energy travels. On the other hand, the flow from No. 2 to No. 1 occurred almost exactly in conformity with the ET formula.
- The average speed from No. 1 (214 km depth) to No. 2 (128 km depth) quakes is 0.41 km/day, and from No. 2 to No. 3 (from 128 km to 35 km depth) 0.36 km/day.
The shallow southbound flow was calculated by plotting a latitude vs year diagram for M7+ shallow (50 km or shallower) quakes from 1970 to 2014 (Fig. 2). The average speed is 0.25 km/day. A similar trend is also seen in the M6.0+ quake trend in the same area. The energy flow can be disrupted by local energy trap structures which slow down the flow speed, but on the whole, the energy movement indicated in the shift of major quakes with time in a broad corridor is unmistakably traceable. The author also found the same fact in California earthquake patterns (Choi et al., in preparation). Tsunoda (2011) and Tsunoda et al. (2013) described the systematic northward energy flow along the Izu-Ogasawara Ridge to Japan. These observations confirm that constant energy movement is taking place under active tectonic belts, as proposed by surge tectonics (Meyerhoff et al., 1996).
64 NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 1,March 2014. www.ncgt.org
- Figure 2. Latitude vs year plot of M7+ shallow quakes, 50 km or less. An overall southward flow is observed.
- 4. Discussion
- The most significant discovery during the analysis of the offshore Tarapacá quake is the convergence of two energy flows, and their enhancing effect on magnitude. Energy convergence and its magnitude-enhancing effect have been seen in many catastrophic earthquakes, including the 2004 Boxing Day earthquake in Sumatra (Blot and Choi, 2004) and the Great East Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake in March 2011 (Choi, 2011), to name only two. The same phenomenon was observed in the present offshore Tarapacá quake too. In this regard, Grover’s remark (1998) is noteworthy:
“Deep-focus shocks of magnitude 6+ appear to engender great earthquakes of magnitude 7+ and 8+ and accompanying seismic crises when their ‘phenomena’ converge….with convergence even quite small magnitude shocks could be boosted to produce much higher magnitude.”
- We are currently collating energy-transmigration and speed data for various geological and geographic settings. The general trend was discussed in Tsunoda et al. (2013). A comprehensive updated report will be published in the near future.
- 5. Conclusions
- This note presented observations on two energy flow patterns and their convergence, which generated a strong shock off Tarapacá, Chile, in March 2014. This convergence generated a quake of greater magnitude than the two deeper foreshocks that occurred five and three years earlier.
- The Tarapacá quake was predicted 13 days in advance with almost pinpoint accuracy. The prediction was based solely on publicly available data without local monitoring stations. This is mainly thanks to Blot’s ET concept, as well as the IEVPC’s comprehensive data analysis capability, augmented by accumulated know-how and acumen that allow strong quakes to be detected even several years before they occur, and based on an understanding of the significance of various short-term signals. If we had had local monitoring stations, the prediction would have been much more precise and accurate.
- Acknowledgements: The author thanks Fumio Tsunoda for his constructive comments on the manuscript, and other IEVPC associates who contributed to a better understanding of precursory signals. This paper is an outcome of IEVPC’s collective effort. The author also thanks David Pratt for English editing.
- References cited
Blot, C., 1976. Volcanisme et sismicité dans les arcs insulaires. Prévision de ces phénomènes. Géophysique,
v. 13, Orstom, Paris, 206p.
Blot, C. and Choi, D.R., 2004. Recent devastating earthquakes in Japan and Indonesia viewed from the seismic
energy transmigration concept. NCGT Newsletter, no. 33, p. 3-12.
Choi, D.R., 2005. Deep earthquakes and deep-seated tectonic zones: A new interpretation of the Wadati-Benioff
zone. Boll. Soc. Geol. It., vol. spec. 5, p. 79-118.
Choi, D.R., 2010. Blot’s energy transmigration concept applied for forecasting shallow earthquakes; a swarm of
strong deep earthquake in the northern Celebes Sea in July 2010. NCGT Newsletter, no. 56, p. 75-85.
Choi, D.R., 2011. Geological analysis of the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011. NCGT Newsletter,
no. 59, p. 55-68.
Grover, J.C., 1998. Volcanic eruptions and great earthquakes. Advanced warning techniques to master the
deadly science. CopyRight Publishing Co. Pty Ltd., Brisbane. 272p.
Meyerhoff, A.A., Taner, I., Morris, A.E.L., Agocs, W.B., Kamen-Kaye, M., Bhat, M.I., Smoot, N.C. and Choi,
D.R. (Ed., Meyherhoff-Hull, D.), 1996. Surge tectonics: a new hypothesis of global geodynamics. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 323p.
Tsunoda, F., 2011. The March 2011 Great Offshore Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake from the perspective of the VE
process. NCGT Newsletter, no. 59, p. 69-77.
Tsunoda, F., Choi, D.R. and Kawabe, T., 2013. Thermal energy transmigration and fluctuation. NCGT
Journal, v. 1, no. 2, p. 65-80.
- Postscript: When the new NCGT issue including this paper was just about to be aired, a gigantic M8.0 earthquake hit the same area on 1 April, 2014 with a small tsunami. This is the mainshock, and the 16 March M6.7 quake described in this article is now considered the foreshock. They occurred 15 days apart. After the 16 March foreshock, TEC remained high, SST became high from the late March, but OLR went low.
- The huge magnitude of the mainshock is considered the combined effect of energy convergence and a large trap structure (Precambrian structural high occupying the south of the NW-SE deep fault system). The southward flowing energy along the continental margin had been trapped in this structure, and stored a huge energy. Another energy flow arrived from the southeast along the deep fault played a role as a trigger. We have seen the similar pattern in the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Energy flow, trap structure, and energy convergence are the keys to understand the mechanism of gigantic earthquakes like the present off Tarapacá quake.

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Re: MF 2/24 NuMadPapr « Reply #4 on: March 01, 2017, 03:38:28 pm »

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4. Paper by Dr. Dong Choi and Mr. John L. Casey

New Madrid Seismic Zone, central USA:
The great 1811-12 earthquakes, their relationship to solar cycles,
and tectonic settings
Dong R. CHOI
Raax Australia Pty Ltd. Dong.Choi@raax.com.au; www.raax.com.au
International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center. dchoi@ievpc.org; www.ievpc.org
John L. CASEY
Space and Science Research Corporation, mail@spaceandscience.net; www.spaceandscience.net
International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center, jcasey@ievpc.org; www.ievpc.org
Abstract: The 1811-1812 New Madrid series of earthquakes were the largest in magnitude (estimated to be M8.0 or greater) in the continental North America in the history. The quakes occurred in the midst of Dalton Solar Minimum (1793-1830). Other major historic earthquakes in the same region also occurred during major solar minimums, or “solar hibernations.” From a tectonic viewpoint, the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is situated on the axis of the N-S American Geanticline or Super Anticline which is Archean in origin. It has been subject to repeated magmatic and tectonic activities in Proterozoic and Phanerozoic – the Caribbean dome (now oceanized to form the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico) has been the site for rising thermal energy from the outer core since the Mesozoic. Energy transmigrates northward along the anticlinal axis (or surge channel) and is trapped at the embayment bounded by less permeable Precambrian-Paleozoic basement highs in the north of the New Madrid area. The arrival of a major, prolonged solar low period or “hibernation” in the coming 30 years, which are considered comparable to the Dalton or even Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), increases the likelihood of repeating the 1811-12 class seismic events. Heightened awareness, monitoring of precursory signals, and disaster mitigation planning are required.
Keywords: 1811-12 New Madrid Earthquakes, Dalton Minimum, solar hibernation, N-S American Super Anticline, surge channel, seismic energy transmigration, earthquake-solar cycle anti-correlation
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Introduction
The New Madrid area, mid-Mississippi River, central United State, was rocked by a spate of powerful earthquakes from 1811 to 1812 (Fig. 1). According to the USGS records, there were three main shocks, M7.5, 7.3 and 7.5, on 16 December 1811, 23 January 1812, and 7 February 1812, respectively, with a major aftershock M7.0 on the first day (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1811-1812.php). Other researchers, such as Nuttli (1987) listed six M7.0+ quakes that include two M8.0+ earthquakes. Of them, two largest quakes were considered the greatest earthquakes in continental North America (Johnston and Schweig, 1996).
The sequence of the great earthquakes in the NMSZ has a unique attribute – it occurred in the middle of a major solar low period, Dalton Minimum, 1793 to 1830 (Fig. 2). This prompted the authors to study seismic history of the NMSZ and their relation to solar cycles, together with geological settings of the surrounding region. The rationales of this study are, 1) the arrival of a prolonged solar low period as advocated by Casey (2008, 2012 and 2014), and 2) the well-established reversed correlation between the solar activity cycle and earthquake energy (Choi and Maslov, 2010), and 3) new interpretation of geological structure of the region and seismic energy transmigration mechanism in the Caribbean-Gulf of Mexico-Mississippi River (Choi, 2013; Choi, 2014; Choi et al., 2014).
The Global Climate Status Report (GCSR)© is a product of the Space and Science Research Corporation, (SSRC), P.O. Box 607841, Orlando, Florida, 32860, USA. Tel: (407) 985-3509 mail@spaceandscience.net. This publication is intended only for those who have purchased it from the SSRC for individual use. Copying or reproducing this publication or any portion thereof is prohibited without the permission of the SSRC. Page 18
Fig. 1. Map of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12. Base map cited from Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1421133/New-Madrid-earthquakes-of-1811-12). Wabash Valley Seismic Zone is added.
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Seismic activity in the NMSZ and solar cycles
Historic records show that the New Madrid region has been subject to repeated seismic activities. Based on artifacts found buried by sand blow deposits and from carbon-14 studies, previous large earthquakes like those of 1811-1812 appear to have happened around 4800BC, 3500BC, 2350 BC, AD300, AD900 and AD1450. In addition, the first known written record of an earthquake felt in the New Madrid Seismic Zone occurred on Christmas Day of 1699. An M6.6 earthquake in 1895 has also been registered (Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Madrid_Seismic_Zone).
Most of the years listed above belong to solar low periods (Figs. 2 and 3): The years 1811-1812 is in the midst of a major solar low period, Dalton Minimum. The year 1699 sits in another major solar low period, Maunder Minimum, 1645-1715. AD1450 corresponds to the lowering period of Spörer Minimum, and another one in 1895, centennial low cycle (1885-1915; Casey, 2008; Fig. 2).
Importantly, all major Earthquakes in the NMSZ since 1400 AD have occurred during these solar low points or solar hibernations.
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Fig. 2. Solar cycle and world volcanic/seismic activities. All of the NMSZ quakes occurred around the middle of the solar low periods. Cited from Choi and Tsunoda, 2011 and Choi, 2013b.
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Fig. 3. History of New Madrid earthquakes compared to solar minimums or “solar hibernations” from 1400-1950 AD. Solar activity deduced from C14 proxy variation. The years of major New Madrid earthquakes are shown in red stars with dates. Source: Casey, Data: Reimar et al., INTCAL04.
The NMSZ quakes and solar cycles indicate their reversed correlation. The anti-correlation between solar cycles and seismic/volcanic activities has been well established by the senior author of this paper with co-workers (Fig. 4; Choi and Maslov, 2010; Choi and Tsunoda, 2011). Casey (2010) also noted that the catastrophic volcanic eruptions had taken place during the solar low periods.
Fig. 4. Anti-correlation between the solar and earthquake cycles (Choi and Maslov, 2010).
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The cause of this anti-correlation awaits further study. One of the feasible explanations was presented by Gregori (2002) who attributed to the Earth’s core being a leaky capacitor or a battery; when solar activity is high, the Earth’s core is charged, whereas when the Sun’s activity is in low phase, the core in turn discharges energy.





Discussion
1) Geological structures responsible for the NMSZ earthquakes

The earthquakes occurred in the NMSZ come from the unique tectonic settings. It is strongly related to the global-scale geological structure; North-South American Geanticline or Super Anticline that runs from South America, via the Caribbean and Mississippi Valley, to the Canadian Shield (Choi, 2013; Figs. 5 and 6). It is a fundamental geological structure formed in the early stage of the Earth’s formation – in Archean. There is another antipodal super anticline that extends from SW Pacific, via SE Asia and South China, to Siberia. These anticlinal structures have influenced the subsequent development of the Earth by repeated magmatic and tectonic activities throughout the Phanerozoic, especially since Mesozoic.
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Fig. 5. Earth’s fundamental structures; two antipodal super anticlines (Choi, 2013a). Note that the Caribbean Sea and the Mississippi Valley are situated on the axis of the anticline. Base map, World magnetic anomaly map, by Korhonen et al., 2007.
In his 2010 and 2014 papers, the senior author argued the origin of the Caribbean - Gulf of Mexico, which developed in the axial part of the anticline and formed the Caribbean dome; the crust in the site where energy rose from the outer core has been oceanized since Mesozoic. The initial basin formation however may go back to Paleozoic time (Pratch, 2008 and 2010). The axial area, being highly fractured and permeable, became a channel of energy flow, or surge channel (Meyerhoff et al., 1996). The thermal seismic energy, derived from the outer core through the Caribbean dome and transmigrated along the surge channel developed under the Mississippi Valley, is responsible for the NMSZ earthquakes (Fig. 6). This assertion is supported by the fact that, along the Pacific coast of Central America, the seismo-volcanic energy which was originated from the deep Caribbean was found to transmigrate northward during the solar low cycles but southward during the rising cycles (Choi, 2014). The energy from the outer core was stronger during the time of solar low phase, as evidenced by the well-established solar cycle-earthquake anti-correlation (Fig. 4).
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Fig. 6. N-S American Geanticline, the NMSZ and deep structure of the North America represented by Precambrian structures (Kosygin et al., 1970). Energy flow direction along the N-S American Geanticlinal axis from Choi (2014), and for California-Mexico from Choi et al. (2014). Note the prevailing NE-SW deep structural trends which seemingly continue into the Pacific Ocean.
A geological map, Fig. 7, well illustrates a Mesozoic embayment developed along the Mississippi Valley. The NMSZ area is the northern end of the Mesozoic basin that covers the present Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. The NMSZ region is surrounded by older, less permeable, Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks – which form a trap structure for thermal seismic energy in the form of liquid and gas. The trap structures were controlled by deep fault systems, which are NE-SW and NW-SE in direction (Johnson and Schweig, 1996).
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3) Arrival of a major, prolonged, solar low period, or solar hibernation.
The correlation of major earthquakes and solar activity, while relatively recently discussed, is nonetheless one of the strongest in terms of climate change and geophysical associations. The initial paper (Casey, 2008) on the regular pattern of climate oscillations linked to solar activity using the Relational Cycle Theory (RC Theory) has demonstrated itself to be among the most successful in climate prediction underscoring the basic reliability of the theory and its associated seven elements of climate change. Subsequently (Casey, 2010) in a preliminary paper, proposed the connection between the RC Theory and major earthquakes and volcanic activity. Others noted above (Choi, Maslov, et al.), have also found the strong relationship between solar activity lows and increased seismic and volcanic activities.
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Fig. 7. Geologic map by Jatskevich et al. (2000) superimposed by tectonic elements and the NMSZ which is located at the northern end of the Mesozoic-Paleogene basin (labelled as K, K1, K2 and ).
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Conclusions
This study revealed several important factual data regarding the strong earthquakes in the NMSZ and their relation to solar cycle. It also presented new interpretation of tectonic settings of the region. They are summarized as follows:
1. The NMSZ developed on the major Precambrian-origin geanticlinal axis where magmatic, thermal, and tectonic activities have been concentrated, particularly since Mesozoic when the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have started to form. This activity is still continuing today.
2. The historic record clearly shows that large seismic events in the NMSZ have occurred during the Sun’s inactive periods. The sequence of 1811-12 quakes is one of them.
3. In the light of the now confirmed start of a prolonged, solar hibernation for the coming 30 years or so, which are comparable to Dalton Minimum or worst case, a Maunder Minimum (“Little Ice Age”), a repeat of the 1811-12 earthquakes should be expected.
4. The window of highest risk for another major New Madrid zone earthquake is between 2017 and 2038.
5. Planning for a repeat of the 1811-1812 series of earthquakes that devastated the region back then should begin immediately. Considerations should include:

a. A US nationwide plan is required based on one or more M8.0+ earthquakes in the NMSZ on the assumption that substantial regional loss of life and massive infrastructure damage will take place on a scale never before witnessed in the USA.
b. This plan should include heightened levels of public education, monitoring of the seismic precursory signals, federal, state and local emergency management exercises and damage mitigation where practicable.
c. Planning should address the real possibility of complete loss of major ground and air
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transportation nodes and routes including substantial long term damage to airport facilities and runways and interstate and city highway systems especially across the Mississippi River.
d. Planning should also include the assumption that major aftershocks will prevent meaningful rebuilding of permanent structures over several months to a year.
e. Should a repeat of a series of quakes take place similar to the 1811-1812 events or even a repeat of the 1895 M6.6 earthquake, the power grid in the central Mississippi region may be unavailable for essential needs of radio and TV communications, emergency management, search and rescue etc for several months to a half year or more.
f. In the case where there may be NMSZ nuclear facilities not designed to withstand a series of M7.5 to M8.0+ earthquakes, a new added risk may exist. All nuclear facilities must be reviewed (if not already done so) to insure they and their back-up power systems for coolant systems etc., can withstand a worst case series of major quakes. Failure to do so could result in multiple instances of the March 11, 2011 Japanese, Fukushima nuclear reactor style catastrophes in the middle of the United States. This could directly affect the safety of all citizens east of the central Mississippi River subject to prevailing winds during the time of the year such a scenario might happen.
References
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10.PDF).
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centennial scale, as significant models of climate change on Earth. Space and Science
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events. Space and Science Research Center, Research Report 1-2010 (Preliminary), p. 1-5.
The Global Climate Status Report (GCSR)© is a product of the Space and Science Research Corporation, (SSRC), P.O. Box 607841, Orlando, Florida, 32860, USA. Tel: (407) 985-3509 mail@spaceandscience.net. This publication is intended only for those who have purchased it from the SSRC for individual use. Copying or reproducing this publication or any portion thereof is prohibited without the permission of the SSRC. Page 29
Casey, J.L., 2012. Cold Sun. Trafford Publishing, 167p.
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relationship to solar cycles. NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 1, p. 19-28.
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p. 36-44.
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Islands and North America. NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 2, p. 13-22.
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Kosmischen Physik, Band 3, Heft 4, 471p.
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Korhonen, J.V., Fairhead, J.D., Hamoudi, M, Hemant, K., Lesur, V., Mandea, M., Maus, S., Purucker, M.
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100
Updates / Re: MF 3/1-3/2
« Last post by Admin on March 02, 2017, 08:27:56 pm »
Date: Wednesday, March 1, 2017, 8:15 PM
Hi Lloyd,Thanks for bringing up the Grand Canyon.  Perhaps surprisingly, I have not paid much attention to it in the past, aside from purchasing Steve Austin's book on the subject.  On a global scale it is a small feature despite being a geologic monument.  The YEC scenario for the lowest sedimentary rock layers (Unkar to Chuar Groups) awkwardly attributes them to the Creation Week, so that block faulting, tilting, erosion, and deposition of overlying sedimentary layers can happen during the Flood (or near the end?).  Since I have two global catastrophes at hand instead of one, I assume the lowest sedimentary rock layers are Flood deposits.  Uplift and block faulting of the Colorado Plateau would occur as North America moved west during the SD event, eroding the Great Unconformity as tsunamis rushed eastward from the coast, then depositing all the sedimentary layers above it.  A large quantity of ocean water trapped inland of the new western mountain chain eventually eroded the canyon either as runoff or as a consequence of the subsequent ice age, such as dam breaching. You will have to rely on Dong Choi to explain his reports.  I am unfamiliar with his claims about
Earth's temperature, and have never heard of two major hemispheric anticlines.  The map on which the anticlines are drawn illustrates some undefined data, yet it shows no apparent support for the position of the blue lines.

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Date: Thu, March 02, 2017 12:14 am
Mike, I just found their New Madrid paper online as a PDF at:
.pdf" class="bbc_link" target="_blank">https://larouchepac.com/sites/default/files/GCSR1-2015NewMadridChoi%26Casey%20(8).pdf
 
So you can see the caption for the map of the super anticlines there. It references Choi 2013, so I'll try to check the 2013 issues of NCGT and maybe I'll find it there. It'll be interesting to see his data or source for the map.

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On Thu, 3/2/17, mike@newgeology.us <mike@newgeology.us> wrote:
Subject: RE: Submit NCGT Discussion?
 Lloyd, it does help to see the paper - thanks.  The "super anticline" concept seems to be a minority construct; I have not encountered it before, and I still don't see what identifies one.  On the other hand, Figure 3 in the Choi and Casey paper (New Madrid earthquakes compared to solar minimums or “solar hibernations”) is sobering if the data is accurate.  It is counterintuitive, yet deserves further study.

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Thu 3/2/17 8:30PM
Hi Mike. I'm finding Choi's & Co's ideas pretty far-fetched. I spent much of today copying and reading some of his and other papers from NCGT.org. I posted them on my forum at http://funday.createaforum.com/mike-messages/m-82 so you can read what I found. I did find one of the papers Choi had referenced in one of the illustrations in that separate paper that I found online. So that's one of the papers I now posted at that link above. It's actually a few of his papers all collected together in the first two posts on that page. I also posted Tassos' paper there about 5 myths in geology. I had read one of Tassos' papers online a few years ago, but not one that's in NCGT, as far as I know.

By the way, I left the most interesting parts in black text, although Tassos' paper was too brief to color. The rest, less interesting parts, I colored limegreen. So you can skip most of the green text and concentrate on the black, probably.

Then I copied the Norwegian guy's Wrench Tectonics, that you made light of the other day, along with his criticisms of Surge Tectonics. Following his paper are a couple of papers criticizing Wrench Tectonics and defending Surge Tectonics. I thought it might be good to see what kinds of theories are circulating in NCGT, so maybe we can address their flaws while discussing your model there. I didn't have time to highlight the best parts of those last papers yet, assuming there are any best parts, Haha.

I think the reason those folks feel so confident about their, what's it called, non-mobilist?, models is they've apparently been making a lot of progress at predicting earthquakes. Choi mentions surges in his papers a little and I think it refers to surges of energy that are detectable and the surges migrate along those geanticlines and it's predictable where and when they'll cause serious quakes. I think the geanticlines are supposed to be in the bedrock precambrian granite etc. They have some interesting maps on that, but they're hard to read. Choi says heat is a major driver of geodynamics. One of the wierdest ideas he mentioned is that the continents and oceans rise and fall over millions of years. They call subsidence of land oceanization, I think. Choi started off by criticizing Plate Tectonics. The problems with PT are what got these guys going off on this rebel path. They say the ocean floors have a lot of evidence of being continental sedimentary rock. They talk about plumes coming up from the outer core.

If you have time to read it over, I'll be interested in your comments. I haven't read much of the debate between Wrench and Surge Tectonics yet, but I assume that the surging is what I mentioned above, but not sure yet. They favor the theory of vertical mobility over horizontal mobility, of course.

When I first wrote to you years ago, I suggested that lightning is what produced the SD impact and others, but Charles Chandler helped convince me that bolides are the real impactors. He found that electrical forces do seem to be mainly responsible for star and planet formation, which store electrical energy in internal double layers. He found reasonable explanations of how earthquakes and volcanoes are due to electrical ohmic heating. He learned from Tassos that bedrock contains microfractures, so that's where the electrical energy goes to make quakes etc. See his papers at http://qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=6199 He's great at debating, so I wish he would get involved, but he's not been into science as much lately. If he thought it might help save lives, I think he may be more inclined to get interested.

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