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Off Topic / Abuse Book: Anne Marie Aikins
« Last post by Admin on February 18, 2017, 06:20:01 am »
2. COMMON ABUSE, Anne Marie Aikins

AMA COMMUNICATIONS ON ABUSE & SOCIAL JUSTICE
As the owner of AMA COMMUNICATIONS Anne Marie Aikins provides freelance media training, writing, editing and profiling. After working in the anti-violence movement for 18 years, she started writing full-time in 1998 and her work has been published in the Toronto Star, Globe and Mail and Macleans Magazine. Anne Marie is the Editor and Senior Writer for Your Time Magazine and writes regularly for WORD Magazine, Rabble webzine and Health Connection. She specializes in social justice and health-related issues, as well as entertainment and humour. The author of two books, Anne Marie is an award-winning writer and dynamic and informative speaker.

IMPRISONED BY THEIR STORIES - By Anne Marie Aikins.
For more than sixteen years I was a vessel for pain, working at a **** crisis centre. People, mostly women, but lots of men and children, called to tell their stories of **** and abuse. Each one unique but with so many similarities: powerlessness, self-contempt, self-blame, a fruitless search for justice, overwhelming shame, isolation, secrets never told.
Every time I thought I had heard it all, a new spin on depravity would reach across the phone lines - (!!!) Incest, Pedophilia, ****, Bestiality, Mutilation, Multiple victims (I refuse to use the civilized words, like molestation, domestic abuse, fondling). The continuum of violence morphed beyond the imagination of even the most depraved, [as victims included:] (!!!)A six-week-old baby, An 88-year-old woman, A disabled teenager, Hundreds of aboriginals stolen from their homes, Twenty-two foster children, Fifteen alter boys, Ten patients, Six students. No one is safe, ever.
And sometimes the fog made me look at every man as if he had a beast hiding within - The police officer, The doctor, The lawyer, The teacher, The repairman, The lover, The friend. Sexual offenders conceal themselves so well, even as women, all hiding behind their deviance, or culturally derived motives.
After the government took the funding away from our centre, the files were shredded. All that remained was millions of illegible strips of paper sent to a garbage heap someplace in southern Ontario. As if their lives, their stories didn't matter, like it never happened. Poof! It was all invalidated.
In spite of all the forensic evidence, the judge dispensed justice by dismissing the charges against the monster. He said the children's fragile memories, caused by paralyzing fear, created reasonable doubt.
I struggle most days between trying to erase the hundreds of images of people reaching out to me for help and agonizing over every detail of every call I answered, as if forgetting were criminal.
I have stopped telling my own story of ****, which brought me to this work over 20 years ago. Speaking out to anyone who would listen helped me survive and released me from the strain of keeping a secret. As did fighting, naively it appears, for equity within an unjust system more committed to the sin of denial. .Lately, as a writer, I blow off steam by exposing, as if it were ever hidden, the systemic failure of police to investigate sex crimes (as they like to call them - like sex had anything to do with it) in a manner that is free of gender and race discrimination.
Resist turning away and listen, please, like our collective survival depends on it. Because if we can't live with the truth, its chains will bind us forever.

THE BOY CODE - By Anne Marie Aikins
If aliens were to arrive on earth and watch a newscast, they would no doubt return to their homeland believing we are a world in a whole lot of trouble and the male gender was chosen to lead us to battle. The tragic events of Sept. 11 has created a platform for our men to thump their chests as they jump on the war bandwagon, eager to seek justice or revenge. Women too have been supportive of the retaliatory violence and are occasionally even elected as leaders, but generally it's the men, through centuries of patriarchal conditioning, who are still very much in control throughout the world.
This gender conditioning, as described in the groundbreaking book Real Boys' Voices by Dr. William Pollack (Owl Books 2000), demands that boys: Stand on their own two feet; Always be independent; Separate from Mom and all things female or feminine; Never show feelings except anger; Use sex as a conquest; Never show fear of violence; Be macho and tough; Always be on top and in the limelight. Pollack names this male conditioning the "boy code", which he says perpetuates a terrible injustice, not only for boys who are denied their full range of emotions and capabilities, but for the women and girls who love them.
Education Wife Assault (http://www.springtideresources.org), a group based in Toronto "whose sole purpose is to prevent violence against women," describes male violence as a learned behaviour occurring in all classes, races and cultures. Their members believe it is a choice and a belief about male roles that contributes to violence. Boys grow up believing it is okay for men to use force to get their power and it is acceptable to express anger with violence. We don't have to look to Afghanistan to see the impact sexism has on the lives of boys and girls.
Canadian mothers are often encouraged to stop breastfeeding early, so as not to make their sons dependent. Parents are compelled to abandon their weeping five year old at the steps of his school to help make him into a real man - God forbid he be a sissy. Boys witness their fathers abuse their mothers. "Big boys don't cry", we tell our sons. All these sexist parenting myths create a gender straightjacket never allowing boys to be their authentic selves.
Sexism teaches mothers to have misgivings about forming close bonds with their sons and encourages and in some cases insists [on] early separation. When boys appear sad or afraid during this forced premature separation from their mother, most cultures make them feel ashamed of themselves. This shame haunts many boys for the rest of their lives, eroding their self-confidence and leaving them disconnected emotionally.
Early sexism follows many boys into their adulthood, causing depression and loneliness and turning them to alcohol, drugs and crime. It is also thought to be a major reason why so many men **** and abuse women. Men learn early on to connect with people, especially women, by controlling them, rather than through an emotional bond. This connection is unreal and the more fragile it becomes, the more he must control her. His control often escalates to physical violence, when his wife becomes pregnant and as the juries in the Gillian Hadley and Arlene May inquests have heard, to murder, when she attempts to escape his abuse.
Many would argue we are a much more evolved society today, the gains of feminism making sexism less visible. Parents and teachers are more informed and often give boys the message it is okay to cry and be sensitive. We talk more openly about sexism, racism, homophobia and other discrimination and we celebrate diversity, supposedly. The boy code still reigns supreme though, in many playgrounds, classrooms and living rooms and boys are left feeling confused and isolated.
New research described in Dr. Michael Thompson's [book], Speaking of Boys - Answers to the Most-Asked Questions About Raising Sons (Ballantine Publishing, 2000), is finding boys are doing worse in school than in the past, have remarkably low self-esteem, and the rates of depression and suicide are on the rise. Boys (especially black boys) are more than twice as likely to be labeled as "learning disabled", more often diagnosed with attention deficit disorder and prescribed potentially harmful medications. Under Ontario's tough Safe Schools Act, boys are being disproportionately punished for breaking tight new rules.
Under this Act recently, a Scarborough boy was expelled for bringing a ceremonial native hatchet to school. On the flip-side, Bill 101, another piece of Tory legislation that is supposed to protect students from being sexually exploited, only recommends teachers, accused, or convicted, of sexual abuse, be separated from the students. Something is terribly wrong, as both Acts fail in their goal to promote safety.
In spite of all the anti-violence initiatives and law and order agendas pushed by eager politicians, the victimization of women and children continues at epidemic rates, with 3-6 women being murdered by their partners each month in Ontario alone. The vast majority of violent offenders are men. Clearly the preventative measures we have taken to date have failed to address the root cause of and men's propensity towards violence.
Much work still needs to be done to make life safer for girls. Empowering boys to find their real selves will make boys less likely to feel the rage of internalized shame as they mature. Replacing the boy code will allow boys to express themselves more authentically and less likely to become men who use their positions of power to commit violence, whether towards the women they love, or a country they despise.

ABUSE RECOGNITION AND RESTITUTION, By Anne Marie Aikins.
Julian Falconer, the feisty Toronto lawyer with a reputation for fighting for human rights, is representing two raped women, who are suing the RCMP and Metro police. Their lawsuit, which the RCMP tried to block from being heard in court this past winter, alleges the police failed to act on women's sexual assault complaints. This ultimately allowed, the women claim, Melbourne Lee, a man with a long history of violence, including murder, to be free to commit more violent crimes. If successful, this unique civil case will be one more step to publicly recognizing that woman abuse is a community problem and provide the restitution necessary to rebuild the survivors' sense of order and justice.
For third party lawsuits to be successful the plaintiffs must provide evidence the defendants failed in their duties, due to gender discrimination, callous disregard for the public's safety, or negligence. Though these types of cases are relatively uncommon in Canada, Lee's victims are not the first women, who have survived ****, to seek recognition and restitution within the civil courts.
Last year, the British Columbia department of Corrections Canada settled out of court with a 40-year-old woman who was raped in 1998 by James Armbruster, a career criminal who was a resident of a halfway house. The civil suit was resolved just before a three-week trial was scheduled to begin. The woman received $215,000, most of which she must pay back to Workers Compensation and to her lawyer.
The woman, known only as Beulah, was disappointed the matter would not be fully disclosed in open court, as she claimed her lawsuit was launched to prevent cases like hers from ever happening again. Armbruster had a violent past, including a conviction for raping his own grandmother, and should have been declared a dangerous offender and never released from prison, she said.
In 1988, a young Barrie, Ontario woman was held captive at gunpoint and raped by Jim Jones, a repeat violent offender who had walked away from a halfway house in Toronto. "Mary" sued Corrections Canada and the National Parole Board - the first lawsuit of its kind in Canada and went public with her claims in an attempt to create awareness of the dangers of releasing violent offenders without adequate supervision.
Corrections Canada again settled out of court for an undisclosed amount of money in 1996. Jim Jones was declared a dangerous offender and therefore jailed indefinitely. The parole board is once again considering his release, seemingly undeterred by the lawsuits. "I can't believe they didn't learn their lesson", Mary said.
In 1991, another Ontario woman was raped and nearly murdered by Philippe Clement, a violent offender who walked out of Beaver Creek, a minimum-security prison in Bracebridge. Her lawsuit in 1994 against Corrections Canada was the first to go to trial, resulting in a payout of over $300,000.
"Jane Doe," a Toronto woman, successfully sued the police for failing to notify her of a serial rapist in her neighbourhood, who later brutally attacked her. She was awarded a quarter of a million dollars in 1999 and Toronto City Council acted swiftly, ordering an audit of the Toronto Police and their handling of sexual assault investigations.
Abused women traditionally seek accountability within the criminal courts, but increasingly some are looking beyond this less-than-perfect system. Survivors often speak publicly about their dissatisfaction with insensitive police investigations, long waits for trials, judges' inadequate sentences and the lack of treatment and supervision within correctional facilities. Consequently, many are choosing to hold the systems accountable in addition to, or instead of, reporting to the police.
Though many women have been successful in their lawsuits, this strategy has seemingly failed to encourage the government, or police, to change their discriminatory practices. Violent men, like Melbourne Lee, are still able to prey on innocent women and children, even when their victims have filed police complaints. Some officers are reluctant to arrest abusive husbands and often treat women like manipulative liars. Crown attorneys are not given the resources needed to keep violent offenders behind bars. Judges and correctional officials often fail to adequately deal with the issues of treatment and supervision. And politicians pay mere lip service to the issues. But these lawsuits have given a clear message to police and others: you will be held accountable for your neglectful mistakes.
Government tax cuts have resulted in a steady erosion of social programs and services in this country, including those that prosecute, incarcerate, treat and supervise our ever-increasing prison population. Police budgets continue to receive an escalation in their funding each year, but this has done nothing, it appears, to prevent woman abuse.
Though it may seem futile to encourage abused women to hold systems accountable, it serves to draw much needed attention to the changes required to make women's lives safer. It also helps survivors feel empowered and provides for financial compensation, the recognition and restitution they deserve. "This was the only time I felt in control since the day Jim Jones raped me," Mary commented in a recent interview.
Maybe as the lawsuits from brave survivors pile up and the financial awards escalate, the police, Corrections Canada and our elected officials will pay attention to women.

RECOVERED MEMORY DEBATE - IF ONLY SHE WERE ALIVE, By Anne Marie Aikins.
After spending the past 18 years working as an advocate with sexual assault survivors, my mind is at times overwhelmed by the memories of the courageous people, mostly women, I have worked with. Their faces will creep into my thoughts sometimes unexpectedly, bringing me back to a courtroom, a hospital treatment centre, or a group session, where I witnessed the reliving of their ****, or abuse.
A memory of one particular woman, I will call her "Eve", made me cry recently, after I read in a Canadian newspaper about British scientists whose research validated recovered memories of traumatic events and partially debunked the false memory theory. This theory has been used to promote the view that therapists and counselors are able to implant false memories of abuse in their clients', or patients' minds, making them think they were abused, when in fact they weren't. Articles about the theory have been published in newspapers, magazines and periodicals all over the world and testified about at many sexual assault trials, creating doubt in judges' and juries' minds about the truthfulness of victims' claims.
A group of parents and accused people in the United States created an organization called the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, in response to the influx in the 80's of adults coming forward, claiming abuse as children. Their theory was undocumented and unproven, but it didn't stop them from testifying about false memory "syndrome". It didn't seem to matter that the vast majority of survivors always knew they were abused, like Eve, but only began exploring their secret memories as adults. And it didn't seem to matter that their propaganda was hurting many legitimate victims of violence and discouraging them from seeking help or disclosing.
Eve sought my assistance in 1992 [at] the height of the false memory debate, when she came to the **** crisis centre I founded after I was raped. She had begun to remember how it felt, when her father sexually abused and raped her, when she was a very young child. After attending group and individual counseling, Eve decided she needed to confront her father and stop him from abusing any other children. She reported her abuse to the police and he was subsequently charged.
At the trial, the defence introduced evidence of false memory syndrome and the jury bought the theory, finding him not guilty. Eve's father is not the only accused person to be acquitted of sexual assault charges as a result of this "expert" evidence. Eve, like many other survivors, was devastated by the outcome and immediately began to doubt her memories. Her mother began to pressure her to reunite with her family and pleaded with her to put it all behind her. Believing her memories were "implanted" and there was no abuse was enticing to her and Eve eventually returned home, all forgotten and forgiven once again.
Eve's denial was so strong, she allowed her father to baby-sit her three-year-old daughter, until one day the worst was discovered. Her daughter disclosed to her that her grandfather had been sexually abusing her. I will never forget the desperate phone call from Eve. Her voice sounded like a wounded and powerless child.
Eve collapsed into a black hole, a place she never found her way out of, and she eventually killed herself. Her parents never attended her funeral.
My own grief makes me wonder what kind of difference the British research could have made in Eve's life: could it have prevented her tragic death?
I am convinced these new findings must be comforting and validating to other survivors, who have been diminished by false memory mythology. I am hopeful that it encourages more people to disclose their secrets. And I will be outraged if any other judge allows this type of evidence into sexual assault trials ever again.
I only wish the news made the front page of every newspaper for all the Eves in the world to see.

~~~~

3. EXPERT ABUSE, Anne Marie Aikins et al

PROFESSIONAL ABUSE & PTSD RECOVERY, By Anne Marie Aikins.
The consequences of sexual abuse, including ****, incest and child sexual assault, are devastating, impacting women and children at epidemic levels. To hear about the trauma requires us to face both human vulnerability and our capacity for evil. As bystanders to the pain, it is vital that we share the burden of the pain and take action.
Sexual abuse often results in what physicians and therapists refer to as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which includes three stages. The first is shock and lasts from two to six weeks, making the person feel numb, unable to really comprehend what has happened, and leaving them unable to sleep, eat, think clearly, or perhaps remember in [any] great detail. The second is the feeling stage, where victims are flooded with all the emotions triggered by the crime, such as terror, sadness, grief, anxiety and guilt. It can last indefinitely, depending on a person's background and support system, and causes individuals a variety of debilitating consequences, such as insomnia, phobias, chronic hyper-arousal, appetite disturbances, disconnection, distrust, flashbacks, dissociation, depression and suicidal thoughts. The third stage of PTSD is resolution and sadly does not come for all survivors of sexual abuse, especially if they do not receive appropriate counseling and advocacy, or [if] there was no justice for the atrocities they endured.
The consequences of sexual abuse are exacerbated when the offender is a person the community entrusted with special powers such as physicians, teachers and police officers. The public often provides little support for people who accuse trusted professionals with abuse, as there is widespread denial from governing institutions and the courts. This results in most victims suffering in silence, with a very small percentage ever having the courage to report to the police. Research has shown, the more trusted a position the offender holds, the less likely a victim will report the crime. Victims' reasons for not speaking out include: they won't be believed; they will be blamed; and nothing will be done about it. Sadly, their instincts bare the truth of an ignorant society still in denial.
These entrusted professionals are often given responsibility for the lives of their patients, students, or the public and, when that trust is abused, it results in a more complex PTSD. Survivors' feelings of self-hate may be so intolerable they develop self-harming behaviours to regulate them, such as: eating disorders; substance abuse; or self-mutilation. They often require more specialized and intensive therapy to survive and restore their shattered self-esteem.
Just as PTSD has three stages, so does recovery. If the abuse was prolonged and repeated, which is often the case in professional abuse, the treatment can be more complicated and is often not straightforward. Survivors may vacillate between stages, when symptoms become too overwhelming to bear.
The first stage's main task is to re-establish safety in the victim's life, keeping in mind the person is in shock and often needs to see a medical professional. This may be very difficult in cases of doctor abuse; therefore, it is recommended that a support person attend appointments with the survivor. Abuse survivors' power and control has been taken away so it is important to restore this at the onset of therapy - an overwhelming task when the offender is a professional.
The second stage is often the most prolonged and difficult, given the central goal is remembrance and mourning. It is at times difficult to witness and it is vital that helpers have their own support system in place, to prevent them from defending against the unbelievable by withdrawing or rescuing. Remembrance means telling the story, identifying and naming the problem, and confronting the past. Mourning requires the survivor to attach the feelings to the memories and grieve all they have lost. This is usually the longest and most painful, but restorative, an extraordinary example of the capacity of human survival.
The third and final recovery stage is referred to as reconnection, as the survivor faces the task of creating a new future, often with the assistance of group therapy, or political action. The trauma changes a person forever and, by this stage, survivors have learned that their post-trauma symptoms were normal reactions to an intolerable situation - they responded to the danger and they survived. They understand the effects of their victimization and now are ready to incorporate these lessons into their lives.
This is often when survivors make a conscious choice to report the abuse to the authorities, which is why so many victims wait to call the police, or medical association. Given the confrontive and unsupportive nature of the reporting mechanisms for survivors, this process often triggers all the symptoms of PTSD, as they are forced to relive the trauma and face a judgmental public.
Creating a protected space, where victims can speak out, is vital to the recovery process, especially for individuals harmed by trusted professionals.

SUE THE BASTARDS, By Anne Marie Aikins.
Black community leaders in Toronto have voiced their desperate plea to government officials, to call an inquiry into the recent deaths of young black men to gun violence. Even police acknowledge the "crisis," though they strongly deny the problem, or [that] their inability to solve the murders has anything to do with racism.
Chief Julian Fantino called a news conference to express his concern at the "spade of killings", an unfortunate faux pas, to provide assurances to the community the police are doing everything possible to analyze the "common elements and trends" in the "hot spots". Fantino has a history of being an advocate of collecting race-based crime statistics and continues to blame the black community for the failure of the police to solve the recent murders. He then used the tragedies to make a shameless plug for more funding for his rank and file. Even Mayor Lastman placated the community with his bullshit "I hate guns" rhetoric, which once again focused the blame on everyone else's shoulders.
The community doesn't need yet another expensive inquiry, or government commission, to examine the causes of the violence, which will result in yet another useless report and ignored recommendations. It is understandable that black leaders are struggling to get someone to listen. They must feel like powerless bystanders in a war against their community and they rightfully demand accountability.
Research has long ago proven that economics, which is largely influenced by racism, is directly connected to crime and violence. The have-nots, the disenfranchised will try to take that which is rightfully theirs. And anyone doubtful that black communities are disproportionately affected by poverty need only take a walk around Toronto. Economics is also influenced by other forms of oppression such as sexism, therefore, black women face dual discrimination and are doubly impacted.
The root causes of economic disparity and, therefore, violence lie within government policies and reversing the resulting mayhem will not be achieved by spending money on another toothless inquiry, or hiring more police. Reparation and change will only come when the government is compelled to compensate the black community for the consequences of their failure to recognize and uphold their constitutional right.
Black leaders should immediately file class action law suits against the federal, provincial and municipal governments on behalf of all the families who have lost loved ones, asking for billions of dollars for the loss of affection and economic security, citing the following evidence:
Destruction of employment and pay equity laws, removing access to jobs and lowering wages, while increasing working hours;
Failing to promote affirmative action measures, which would encourage redistribution of the wealth, power and income;
Slashing of welfare rates and toughening qualifying criteria, causing escalating poverty;
Eliminating rent controls and abandoning affordable housing plans, resulting in the homelessness crisis;
Increasing police powers while reducing accountability, making accused persons more vulnerable to abusive officers and of being wrongfully convicted;
Reducing legal aid budgets, minimizing citizens' access to justice;
Pushing racist law and order agendas, which target the poor and black communities;
Creating an education crisis through under-funding, resulting in elimination of programs directly aimed at empowering disenfranchised communities;
Promoting xenophobia through discriminatory immigration policies;
Failing to support child care programs, making it impossible to gain employment for many poor families;
Building more jails, which has criminalized our youth, instead of treating the reasons for criminal behaviours;
Privatizing our health care system, making programs and services less accessible to vulnerable people;
Institutionalizing our social services, such as anti-violence programs, making them less accountable to users and unable to provide meaningful advocacy services;
Closing community centres, libraries, swimming pools and other services directly aimed at supporting young people
These are only some of the reasons the government is culpable for the violence recently affecting the black community. The increase in murders is only a reflection of years of conservative "common sense" policies that are increasing economic disparity and making a mockery of our constitution.
During the civil trial, jury members should be taken on a tour to view the evidence of racism and how it is linked to economics, and therefore government policies. They could visit schools in Rosedale and Regent Park to see the racial distribution of students. They could attend a Raptor game and see the colour divide between the expensive and cheaper seats. They could sit in on a meeting at Queens Park, the Metro Toronto Police Board and City Council to witness the predominately white male faces that hold decision-making powers.
And finally, they could visit the gravesites of all the young black men who have succumbed to the racism. Any responsible and compassionate jury will have no choice but to compensate the grieving families.

PROFESSIONAL ABUSE BY LAWYERS AND EXPERTS [Australia] - See http://www.mensconfraternity.org.au/?page=p6.
The adversarial system in our FAMILY COURT has encouraged "professional abuse" of the process by lawyers, psychologists, psychiatrists, doctors and others. Why is it that so many professionals are drawn into family disputes, which end up in the Family Court?
Many will do so, more often than not, out of empathy, or an eagerness to please. Most do not fully understand the ramifications of their actions, and have little or no understanding of the real issues.
In one notorious case, a female psychologist, a doctor no less, was moved to write a report and make recommendations, based entirely upon the word of a mother, who had visited her place of practice over a short period. This report was given to the mother's lawyer, who subsequently annexed the report to a sworn affidavit on behalf of the mother, and given to the Family Court.
Upon reading the report, the father made a complaint to THE PSYCHOLOGISTS BOARD OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA. In its finding on the complaint, the board found in favour of the complainant {the father} and made the recommendation that the registrar of the board should write to the PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, based in Melbourne, asking that the society devote space in its periodical, "Psychologically Speaking", educating its members of the dangers of such a practise.
In this case, the psychologist not only made a report after hearing only one side of the story, she never witnessed or observed the child and the father together, and evidently, NEVER saw the child either, yet felt so moved to write about the "serious affect upon the child" and described the father as "a stranger to the child". To do this, the psychologist acted unprofessionally. Mention in the report by the psychologist of "concerns for the child's safety" went beyond unprofessional conduct and came into the realm of the criminal.
This is not an isolated case. Psychologists continue to act in this way, and are only brought to heel upon complaint. Who knows what effect these "reports" have upon a presiding judicial officer, judge, or magistrate? Who knows the effect on access, or the child's ability to continue a relationship with their caring and loving father?
Unless this "evidence" can be tested by the writer being present in the court, it should be ruled as being inadmissible by the Family Court.
ABUSE BY LAWYERS. The lawyer concerned in the above case, was the subject of an adverse finding by The Legal Practitioners Complaints Committee, a statutory body set up under legislation by the State Parliament.
DO NOT SUFFER THIS OR SIMILAR ABUSE BY THOSE WHO SHOULD KNOW BETTER. Make your complaint to the relevant body, then bring that finding to the attention of the Attorney General.
It seems that many in the legal profession have not yet got the message. Allegations continue to be made, which are without foundation, without evidence of any kind and are so made to inflame the parties and broaden the issues.
This is an ABUSE of the court process and it MUST stop! In the event of an allegation being made by a lawyer, and after proper investigation by the authorities {the police}, there is found to be no substance to the allegation, the lawyer responsible should be brought before a Committee or Tribunal and made to explain on what basis the allegation or allegations were first made. In the event that the lawyer is unable to make a reasonable case, it should be open to the committee to find against the lawyer and issue a sanction, which would include: A reprimand including a written apology; A suspension and or fine; A disbarring of the lawyer from practise. If the above were to be implemented, unfounded allegations and other abuse by lawyers would be almost unheard of.
The ugly side of humanity is often revealed by its underbelly. Many Family Court lawyers prey on the unsuspecting, deliberately setting the parties against each other, for the benefit of their own pocket, and create issues, which need not otherwise be raised.
Every Family Court lawyer knows that, with a mother, they have a winner and, with every father, they have a looser. The real question is by how much?
End this abuse and demand that lawyers should no longer be a part of family and or relationship breakdown resolution.

~~~~

92
SOURCES + OUTLINE / NCGT 1:1 to 2:4
« Last post by Admin on February 17, 2017, 11:11:40 am »
NCGT Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014. www.ncgt.org 14
ARTICLES
GENERALIZED GEOTECTONIC HYPOTHESIS OF
VLADIMIR V. BELOUSSOV
Lidia IOGANSON
Institute of Physics of the Earth RAS, Russia
ioganson@bk.ru; iogan@ifz.ru

NCGT Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014. www.ncgt.org 20
ON PLATE TECTONICS
Vadim GORDIENKO
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
tectonos@igph.kiev.ua vgord@inbox.ru

CONCLUSIONS
There are more than enough facts (their number can be easily increased) to give a  negative assessment of the hypothesis under question. Nevertheless, PTH has become  extremely popular. In one of his last publications Beloussov offers a clue to  solving this riddle.
“….all obstacles have been removed. All sorts of movement or spin of plates of any  size are possible…. At any place and at any time zones of spreading, subduction, or  obduction can emerge and vanish again… A researcher can determine at will the  convenient size of plates, their shape, direction, and time of their movements or  rotations. At the same time, he or she feels completely liberated from bothering  why and how those plates formed and why they drift.”
“These conditions of total free-for-all… are certainly creating ideal settings for  ‘explaining’ any structural situation. This circumstance is precisely what makes  the plate tectonics hypothesis so attractive. It hypnotizes one and makes one feel  satisfied with the finality of his judgments. From the eternal quest and constant  qualms, scientific creativity transforms into quiet and simplified labeling of  phenomena according to standard requirements. It is certainly hard to deny such  mental comfort to oneself” (Beloussov, 1991, p. 10).
It is also possible to add the power of authority to the above. This author  repeatedly heard that PTH is correct because Khain himself recognizes it. Avsyuk,  who wrote a preface to a book under the title “Controversial Aspects of Plate  Tectonics and Possible Alternatives” is telling a story of how Mercury’s revolution  period was determined. It was established by Schiaparelli in 1889 as equal to 88  days and to the period of orbital movement. Supporters of the famous astronomer  corroborated this result again and again for 75 years with the help of new  observation data obtained with increasingly more sophisticated equipment. After  radio-astronomical methods were applied, the actual revolution period was set at 55  days, and a re-examination of these data adjusted the period to 50-60 days (Avsyuk,  2002). The force of authority is enormous, but it was already clear to Bacon (1214 -1294) that “there are three sources of knowledge: authority, rational thinking,  and experience. Authority, however, is not enough if you do not have a logical  basis without which it leads you to accept things on faith rather than  understanding. …. And rational thinking alone cannot distinguish sophism from real  proof, unless it can justify its conclusions by experience.” (History…, 1981, p.  58-59). Bacon was a Franciscan friar and professor of theology at Oxford  University, and he spent 12 years behind bars for admonition of his colleagues’ ill  behavior, thereby slurring the authority of the Church. Seven hundred years have  passed since then. Our contemporaries, who occasionally admit making up their  results to fit PTH, provide as an excuse, apart from the opinion of
NCGT Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014. www.ncgt.org 46
acknowledged authorities, also fear lest they would not otherwise get grants, would  not be allowed to publish their articles in prestigious journals that might reject  their articles if the notion “geosyncline” was mentioned there. In fact, people  with normal geological education also experience ethical problems. Geologists from  generations that grew up during the period of PTH domination did not get enough  information from their teachers about simplest geological facts and methods of  their analysis. It is only by working independently that they can reach a  professional level (we are not talking about individual problems in resolving many  of which modern geology has been developing rapidly and successfully), but far from  everybody holds such inspiration.
Characteristics of human nature that facilitated the contraction of the plate  tectonics bacilli by the majority of members of the worldwide geological community  are far from ideal. Consequently, recovery will be a long process.

-----

85 NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 4, December 2014. www.ncgt.org
WHY FOUR HIGHEST VOLCANOES OF THE ROCKY PLANETS ADORN THEIR DEEPEST PLANETARY WIDE  DEPRESSIONS:
EARTH, MARS, VESTA AND MOON
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusion
The highest volcanic features of terrestrial planets adorn their largest  hemispheric basaltic depressions of the wave origin, so called fundamental wave1 or  2πR “oceanic” features. The heights and massiveness of these volcanic edifices  increase in the outward from Sun direction and correlate with amplitudes of warping  planetary bodies waves. Thus, there is a causal relation between these waves  stressing in forces and resulting expelled from the underlying mantle silicate  volcanic material.

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56 NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 1,March 2014. www.ncgt.org
ORIGIN OF OCEANS: SPREADING VERSUS
PRIMARY OCEANS MODELS
Alexey V. KHORTOV1, Alexander E. SHLEZINGER2 and Gleb B. UDINTSEV3
1 OJSC “Soyuzmorgeo”. Chief Geologist of OJSC “Soyuzmorgeo” Address: 38  Krasnogvardeyskaya street,
Gelendzhik 353461, Krasnodar Region, Russian Federation. E-mail: akhortov@mail.ru
2 Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. Chief Research Worker of  Geological Institute, Russian
Academy of Sciences. 7 Pyzhevsky per., 119017, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail:  rima@ginras.ru
3 Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academу of  Sciences. Member-
correspondent of RAS, Chief Research Worker of Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry  and Analytical
Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. 19 Kosygina St., 119991, Moscow, Russian  Federation.
E-mail: geokhi.ras@relcom.ru

Abstract: Spreading model of modern ocean origin isn't supported by geological and  seismic data on their structure. In accordance with the existing information on  magnetic anomalies and the deep offshore drilling data, a model of primary oceans  can be proposed. It is based on the assumption of lateral heterogeneities appearing  due to irregular crystallization at the end of pre-geologic stage and resulting in  origination of early pre-oceanic and pre-continental areas. The primary oceans  model provides better conformity with geological and seismic data than the  spreading model of modern oceans origins.

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NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 1,March 2014. www.ncgt.org 97
DISCUSSION
Global Tectonics: Prediction and Confirmation
Peter M. JAMES
P.O. Box 95, Dunalley, Tasmania, 7177. petermjames35@gmail.com

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, v. 1, no. 4, www.ncgt.org 23
ANALOGY BETWEEN LOWLANDS OF EARTH AND MARS, EARTH AND MERCURY, AND A GLANCE AT  TECTONIC GRANULATIONS:
A SEVERE BLOW TO THE PLATE TECTONICS FROM THE COMPARATIVE WAVE PLANETOLOGY
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 35 Staromonetny, 119017 Moscow, Russia
kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusions
Interplanetary comparisons as a useful instrument for making theories of  morphotectonic evolution of planets insist on a doubtful role of “plate tectonics”.  Such large negative terrestrial morphotectonic units as oceanic basins interpreted  by this tectonics as forms created by the plate motions exist also on other  planetary bodies (Mars, Mercury and Moon), where there are no plate tectonics. The  Indian Ocean has its counterpart on the Moon in the South Pole-Aitken basin  (Kochemasov, 2012). The Pacific on Earth and Vastitas Borealis on Mars are  analogous features as well as Arctic basin and mercurian northern plains. The  tectonic granulations on comparable in size metal-stone Mercury and icy Titan  witness a fundamental role of wave structuring caused by elliptical keplerian  orbits.

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46 NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 4, December 2013. www.ncgt.org
DISCUSSION
Response to: Global theories and standards of judgment by
Karsten Storetvedt. NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, p. 56-102.
Irfan TANER
Iskenderun, Turkey. irfantaner@hotmail.com

SURGE TECTONICS
Surge Tectonics is based and formulated on the discovery of low-velocity zones (7.0  - 7.8 km/s P-wave velocity) underneath or within all different geologic features  (mid-ocean ridge, rift, fold belt, fracture zone and many others) (Meyerhoff et al,  1996, p. 69). Most of these low-velocity zones are connected to the asthenosphere  which is itself a low-velocity zone within the upper mantle. Examples of these  zones from many different geological features by different scientists are presented  in Meyerhoff et al., 1996.
The second discovery in Surge Tectonics is the relationship between the magma flow  and faults-fractures-fissures. These structures are developed in response to the  magma flow in the crust. This relationship is described and illustrated in detail  (Meyerhoff et al., 1996, p. 102-115).
D
NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 4, December 2013. www.ncgt.org 47
These two important discoveries together with their associated processes fit nicely  with the statement quoted by Storetvedt (2013) on page 57: "Observing an underlying  pattern nearly always means observing an important aspect of nature - the  information that exists behind a curtain of overprinted secondary processes mixed  up with pre-determined opinions. In this respect, Eric Schumacher (1973, p. 154)  hit the nail on the head when he wrote:
Although we are in possession of all requisite knowledge, it still requires a  systematic, creative effort to bring [it] into active existence and to make it  generally visible and available. It is my experience that it is rather more  difficult to recapture directness and simplicity than to advance in the direction  of ever more sophistication and complexity. Any third-rate engineer or researcher  can increase complexity; but it takes a certain flair of real insight to make  things simple again."

CONCLUDING REMARKS
I was necessarily brief in discussing these vast topics. A more detailed discussion  with supporting data are included in Meyerhoff et al. (1996).

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2 NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013. www.ncgt.org
FROM THE EDITOR
Earthquakes and surge tectonics
As some of you may be aware, in February of this year the International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center (IEVPC) warned of possible strong earthquakes in Yunnan, South China (www.ivepc.org). This was based on various signals we had detected from the region since late last year. In accordance with our prediction, an M6.6 quake occurred on 20 April 2013 in Sichuan near the predicted area. More than 150 people died. Immediately after the quake, Chinese National TV interviewed John Casey, Chairman of the IEVPC, at the head office in Florida, and broadcast it in real time throughout their country. The second quake (M5.8) occurred on 31 August 2013 in northernmost Yunnan. Since then the region’s seismo-electromagnetic activities have been gradually abating.
Our comprehensive geological-seismological analysis conducted for this particular prediction confirmed a very interesting fact: the presence of a live surge channel occupying the Yunnan and Sichuan region (originally described by Meyerhoff et al., 1992 & 1996). Since the 1970s it has hosted a series of strong earthquakes along a major NE-SW tectonic belt that connects to the Tan-lu Fault in North China and, further northwards, a deep tectonic/seismic zone in the Okhotsk Sea. Along the Myanmar-South China segment of this tectonic zone, three major earthquakes have occurred since late last year – an M6.8 quake in central Myanmar in November 2012 (IEVPC colleagues successfully predicted it with pinpoint accuracy), an M6.6 in Sichuan in April 2013, and an M5.8 in northernmost Yunnan in August 2013. Their geological significance in relation to the Yunnan surge channel is discussed on pages 45-55 of this NCGT issue.
The Yunnan surge channel develops on the axis of the northern end of the Borneo-Vanuatu Geanticline, which has been heavily oceanized in the SW Pacific and Southeast Asian region. As stated in my article in this issue (pages 45-55), the Borneo-Vanuatu Geanticline is a trunk surge channel through which the energy derived from the superplume in the SW Pacific migrates northward, and the process occurring in the Yunnan surge channel can be regarded as an incipient stage of oceanization.
The IEVPC’s continuing successful earthquake predictions are the result of combining the right seismo-tectonic model with medium- and short-term signal detection tools. The new earthquake model is based on thermal energy derived from the Earth’s outer core, its transmigration along deep fracture systems and surge channels, trap structures, geological history represented by orogenic events, and local and regional geology. Thermal energy (or perhaps more properly, thermal-electromagnetic energy) transmigration is the heart of the IEVPC’s working model. Hence a good knowledge of local and regional geological structure is essential in predicting in which direction the generated energy will flow, particularly in areas where strong deep earthquakes have occurred. In this context, surge tectonics is instrumental in our prediction approach.
Earthquakes as well as volcanic activities cannot happen without heat input into the upper mantle and the crust. Like hydrocarbons, migrating or flowing thermal energy accumulates in structural highs with effective seals in the upper mantle. We therefore assume that earthquake belts have underlying channels through which thermal energy can flow – they are often developed in ancient or young orogenic/mobile belts that form structural highs in the mantle.
As a practising field geologist, I am convinced that surge tectonics is a comprehensive and workable tectonic concept that can explain most of what we observe at the Earth’s surface and in its interior, although some updates are needed to incorporate new data that have appeared since 1996, when the most recent version of surge tectonics was published. In this issue Karsten Storetvedt presents a critique of surge tectonics and a defence of wrench tectonics (p. 56-102), to which David Pratt (p. 103-117) and Arthur Meyerhoff’s children (p. 117-121) reply. Another response by Taner et al. will be published in the next issue. We welcome this open debate in the pages of the NCGT Journal.
References
Meyerhoff, A.A., Taner, I., Morris, A.E.L., Martin, B.D., Agocs, W.B. and Meyerhoff, H., 1992. Surge tectonics. In:
Chatterjee, S. and Hotton, N. III (eds.), New Concepts in Global Tectonics, Texas Tech Univ. Press, Lubbock. p. 309-409.
Meyerhoff, A.A., Taner, I., Morris, A.E.L., Agocs, W.B., Kamen-kaye, M., Bhat, M.I., Smoot, N.C., Choi, D.R. and
Meyerhoff-Hull, D. (ed.), 1996. Surge tectonics: a new hypothesis of global geodynamics. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 323p.

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NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013. www.ncgt.org
11
ARTICLES
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF SOME ASTROBLEMES INDICATING DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC BODY  TRAJECTORIES
Konstantin K. KHAZANOVITCH-WULFF1, Anna V. MIKHEEVA2 and
Victor F. KUZNETSOV3
1 Independent cycle researcher, Planetology branch of RGS, S.-Petersburg, Russia,  ojb37@mail.ru
2 Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian  Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, anna@omzg.sscc.ru;
3 Independent researcher, Ridder, Kazakhstan, kyz_rid@mail.ru

6. Conclusions and recommendations
1. The distribution of klippen zones around astroblemes is an important indicator  to the direction of a ballistic trajectory of CB (cosmic body) entry, and can be  used to reconstruct this process. It is likely that this is possible only for the  CB, which had a shallow (less than 30o?) path of entry into the Earth's atmosphere  and oblique collision of the surface.
2. The revealed regularities in the distribution of klippen zones are, most likely,  due to the shock wave motion, which is in agreement with the direction of a moving  cosmic body, the place of its fall and explosion.
3. Determining the location of the cosmic body ballistic trajectory is an important  feature to identify diatreme fields of the same age in the zone of energy  (electric) action on the Earth’s surface and Earth’s interior on the side of the  asteroid.
4. The major ultrabasic alkaline pipe formations on the eastern slope of Anabar  anteclise can probably have age of analogs to the Popigai event, which should be  taken into account in the process of geological exploration surveying.
5. The task of geological exploration organizations should consist in identifying  real causes of the existence of the negative gravity anomalies Popigai 3 and 4.

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20
NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013. www.ncgt.org
ATMOSPHERES OF VENUS, EARTH, AND MARS: THEIR MASSES AND GRANULATIONS IN RELATION TO  ORBITS AND ROTATIONS OF THE PLANETS
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 35 Staromonetny, 119017 Moscow, Russia
kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusions
Intensive cosmic investigations of the last 50 years involving Earth and many  others celestial bodies clearly prove that in the Solar system there is a  consequence of bodies with regularly changing tectonic granulations. These  granulations are inversely proportional to orbital frequencies of planets. These  frequencies (oscillations) make solid bodies to outgas and produce gaseous envelops  – atmospheres. Their masses are proportional to the oscillations frequencies. Wave  structuring of atmospheric masses- granulation is a replication of the solid body  tectonics. Bodies with two orbits – satellites in structures of their shells  (including the Titan’s atmosphere) show influence of processes of wave modulations.

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NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013. www.ncgt.org
45
AN ARCHEAN GEANTICLINE STRETCHING FROM
THE SOUTH PACIFIC TO SIBERIA
Dong R. CHOI
International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center
Canberra, Australia
dchoi@ievpc.org

(The Borneo-Vanuatu Geanticline was found to connect to the Siberian Craton via the  East Asia Reflective Axial Belt in China. This super antilinal trend forms one of  the most outstanding Archean structural elements on the Earth’s surface together  with the “North-South American Superantilcine”, an antipodal counterpart in the  western hemisphere)

7. Conclusions
This paper described one of the most outstanding geological structures seen at the  Earth’s surface; a global-scale, deep-rooted geanticlinal structure extending from  the South Pacific to the Siberian Craton. It was formed in the Archean and,  together with the antipodal N-S American Geanticline, undoubtedly affected the  structural and magmatic development of the Earth. Together they place constraints  on global tectonic models.
The Yunnan surge channel sits on the axis of the Geanticline. It is one of the most  active surge channels today, characterized by strong energy discharge (earthquakes)  and active rise in the Cenozoic. These activities can be regarded as the early  stage of the oceanization process.
The existence of such large-scale, deep-rooted, Archean-origin geological  structures on opposite sides of the globe, both without large horizontal  dislocation, means that no large-scale horizontal movement of the crust and mantle  as claimed by plate tectonics has occurred since Proterozoic to Cenozoic time.

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NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013. www.ncgt.org
3
ARTICLES
NEGATIVE GRAVITY ANOMALIES AS THE TAILS OF ASTROBLEMES
Konstantin K. KHAZANOVITCH-WULFF 1 and Anna V. MIKHEEVA2
1 – Planetology Branch of the Russian Geographical Society, ojb37@mail.ru,
2 – Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian  Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, anna@omzg.sscc.ru

Discussion of data
Thus, the gravitational trace behind the Popigai astrobleme is not unique. Similar  formations are also noted for other astroblemes: Janisjärvi Beyenchime-Salaatian,  Kamensk, Karla, Puchezh-Katunki, Kogram, El'gygytgyn, Steinheim, Wanapitei, Kaluga  and Chicxulub. It is possible that the following more careful investigations will  increase this list. By now, it is possible to draw the main preliminary conclusion:
gravitational traces of astroblemes are one of their genetic elements.

However, what is their material expression? It is possible to assume that there is  a rock density decrease as a result of the energy influence of a falling MB onto  the near-surface areas under its trajectory. What is a mechanism of this decrease?  The formation of deconsolidating (low density) rocks, for example, tuffisites, in  the diatremes fields located near Popigai (as the Ortho-Yarginsk field) can be one  of such causes.

However, there are no diatremes on the other sites of the Popigai "tail" of the  lower values of gravity. The influence on the Earth’s surface of the shock waves  (from the explosive phenomena during the body flight through the atmosphere), which  can be considered as a second possible cause, remains hypothetical, as well.
Still there are more questions than answers, but it is obvious that the inquisitive  researcher's thought has to get into this "prohibited zone" and the offer its  explanation. The cosmogenic-gravitational structurization hypothesis according to  Troshichev, undoubtedly, needs special attention from researchers and favorable  conditions for its following development. More simply is to continue pretending  that all geological processes have been already known to us and can be explained  from the stand-points of existing geological views. The questions: “with what  factors the linear strip zones of negative values of gravity are connected and why  were such zones formed as "tails" before certain astroblemes, are waiting for  answering.

However, the data obtained can be an additional basis for definition of the MB  trajectory direction along with other morphological elements of astroblemes, which  have been already considered by the authors in their previous paper (Khazanovitch  et al., 2013).

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40
NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013. www.ncgt.org
CRUSTAL STORMS OF CONTINENTAL/PLANETARY SCALE
Earth's battery and Earth's electrocardiogram, internal state, structure, and time  variation, endogenous energy production and release, the role of solar modulation,  and the "French Revolution" jerk
Giovanni P. GREGORI
IDASC - Istituto di Acustica e Sensoristica O. M. Corbino (CNR),  giovanni.gregori@idac.rm.cnr.it
IEVPC - International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center,  http://ievpc.org/index.html
S.M.E. - Security, Materials, Environment, s.r.l. – Roma, info@sme.ae.it; www.sme- ae.it
ICES - International Centre for Earth's Sciences

11. Planetary seismic paroxysms – Conclusion
The present state of planetary geodynamics can be illustrated as follows. This  model derives from several decades of thought, and its full justification -  according to geodynamic observational evidence - is discussed in great detail  through the whole volume 2 of GPG8, with several cross-references to a wide  fraction of volume 3 of GPG8.
No brief or simple account can be here given. For instance, the way has not been  either simple or straightforward, by which the “chain” of cause-and-effect has been  envisaged, along the connection between the Kerguelen superswell, the Red Sea,  Arabia, Anatolia, Aegean Sea, Caucasus and the Carpathians. Several observational  data contributed to arrive to such a conclusion.
NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013. www.ncgt.org
61
According to common sense, and according to seemingly very reasonable physical  arguments, this appears to be one possible credible explanation. But, nobody is  depositary of “absolute” truth. Science is made of proposals and discussions, and  “all” possible explanations ought to be considered and compared one another.
The model here envisaged appears to be just the simplest possible explanation that  can fit very closely with the several direct and indirect observational evidences  reported in a huge amount of geodynamic and geological literature. The reader may  like to check, in every case history of her/his concern, how this model actually  fits with the observations of her/his concern.
As far as the description is concerned which is here given, I can only humbly  apologize with the reader for being incapable to synthesize in a few pages a very  large amount of literature, topics and discussions.
Africa is the seemingly most strongly anchored continent on the mantle. Indeed, its  (thermal) lithosphere is > 400 km deep, while in other continental platforms it is  in the range 200 - 250 km and in the Easter Island region it is < 30 km.
The strongest loading tide is caused by the Pacific Ocean water. It pushes on  Eurasia, causing its westward drift, relative to Africa. A huge "megashear" is well  known to run from Morocco, slightly south of Gibraltar, through Far East. In  reality, even a mega-alignment of geomagnetic anomalies (not here shown) can be  detected, which is further extended until northern China and Japan.
The Mediterranean is located along this megashear. A very efficient hinge occurs  roughly very close to the very stable Messina Straights, between the African  lithosphere (Sicily) and the Italian peninsula. The resulting conspicuous friction  causes a large amount of friction-heat that is released by a security valve, which  is likely to be identified with Etna (this hypothesis also results consistent with  its isotopic chemism).
The Italian peninsula is rotated counterclockwise, and this is responsible for its  seismicity (a huge amount of the literature is available about the seismicity of  the Italian region, and it is distinct from the literature dealing either with the  Balkanic peninsula or with the Aegean region; no specific list can be here given).
This rotation of Italy is the final stage of a former well known process that  formerly determined the opening of the Gulf of Biscay, then the detachment of the  Balearic Islands, of Sardinia, and finally of Corsica, which happened when the  Italian peninsula hit against the mainland of Europe. This process left in the  trail all submerged volcanoes of the Tyrrhenian Sea, etc.
The westward drift of Eurasia (combined with the northward motion originated by the  Pekeris force; see below) caused, within its trail, the formation of island arcs.  The consequent kinetic effects on the lithosphere originated local friction heat  that is responsible for island arc volcanism. Compared to other kinds of volcanism,  the typical features of this kind of volcanism appear very singular. For sure,  island arc volcanism displays no association with geomagnetic phenomena.
The “Pekeris force” is a concept that derives from consideration of the observed  figure of the Earth, which appears to be excessively flattened. If the Earth is a  fluid, a poleward "Pekeris force" ought to be observed that tends to reshape it,  and it can be shown to have two maxima at 45°N and 45°S latitude, respectively.  Refer to Jeffreys (1976), or, for thermal contraction, to Bott (1971), Collette  (1974), and Turcotte (1974).
The Pekeris force is poleward. Therefore, it is opposite to the better known  Pohluchtkraft. This implies an intrinsic conflict or dichotomy. If the mechanism is  according to a floatation rationale - as it is assumed by plate tectonics and  isostasy – the floating upper layer of the Earth ought to experience the  Pohluchtkraft. Instead, if the rationale is in terms of a solid body that slides on  a solid surface (such as according to WMT), the shallower Earth’s features have to  experience a "Pekeris force". Hence, they ought to move poleward. Observational  evidence in several respects objectively seems to deny the needed support for plate  tectonics.
In addition, the deep Earth interior is much different compared to every more or  less generalized fluid model. That is, space and time-gradients of the endogenous  heat flow appear to justify the great observed complication of geomorphology, to be  associated with the largely inhomogeneous pattern implied by the sea-urchin spike  distribution.
In addition, note that the "Pekeris force" acts along a meridian, while the tidal  pull acts along a parallel. This fact results much helpful. Moreover, the Coriolis  acceleration leads to the formation of the (often controversial) geodynamic spiral  structures that have been (correctly) envisaged by several authors in the  literature.
The Arctic polar cap is presently ongoing a large release of geothermal heat, being  responsible for several very unusual climatic phenomena (not here discussed). This  is certainly to be associated with the ongoing process of uplift of an Arctic  superswell.
Another well-known superswell is roughly identified with the Kerguelen Island. But  it extends through a large fraction of the Indian Ocean, until the Red Sea. This  causes a northward sliding of India, the uplift of the Tibet Plateau, while the  aforementioned westward sliding of Eurasia determines the well-known left-faulting  of this huge area.
The area of the Sunda archipelago, New Guinea, Philippines, Borneo, Moluccas Sea,  Banda Sea, etc. is the result of a very complicate multi-faceted interaction  between island arc formation in western Pacific and in the Indian Ocean, and the  northward sliding on the slope of the Kerguelen superswell.
The Anatolian peninsula rotates counterclockwise. The Aegean Sea and the North  Anatolian Fault are just a consequence in this geodynamic labyrinth. The effect of  this push by the Kerguelen superswell is likely to be even responsible for the  uplift of Caucasus and for the formation of the singular pattern of the  Carpathians.
Compared to the Pacific Ocean's, the loading tide by the Indian Ocean water is less  intense. In addition, Africa is strongly anchored on the mantle. Moreover, the  loading tide by the Pacific Ocean does not affect Africa, due to the breakwater  action by Australia.
The Atlantic superswell (see Figure 4) effectively pushes westward both North and  South America, while the loading tide by the Atlantic Ocean water further favors  the westward push.
As far as the Pacific side of the Americas is concerned, the Hawaii superswell is  far away. Hence, its opposing action is comparably weaker, compared to the strong  action exerted by the Easter Island superswell, which is, maybe, the presently  hotter geothermal region of the world. No details can be here given (reported in  volume 2 of GPG8).
In any case, the seismic activity in the Andes must be expected to be much stronger  compared to the Rocky Mountains.
Note that California is the result of the northward push by the Easter Island  superswells, which is effectively extended until the Galàpagos region and behind  it.
In the southernmost Atlantic region, the Atlantic superswell afforded to uplift the  southern tip of South America that, in addition, experiences the loading tide by  the entire circum Antarctic Ocean. The result has been the formation of the Scotia  island arc.
Consider this very general planetary framework, and specifically consider the  megasyncline running from the Pyrenees through the Sunda archipelago, Borneo, etc.
An increase of the release of endogenous energy has to be expected to be associated  with a comparably more rapid uplift of superswells, hence with an increase of  planetary seismic activity.

This explains the long-distance correlation between earthquakes that occur in  different parts of the world. But, it has also to be mentioned that seismic  teleconnection has to be expected to occur through the serpentinization phenomenon  (Judd and Hovland, 2007). This item, however, cannot be here discussed.
Therefore, it is not surprising that an increase of seismic activity is eventually  observed - by a matter of a limited number of days - within some large area, e.g.  from southern Iran through New Guinea and even eastward of it. This is the result  of the geothermal activation of some huge segment of a large megasyncline that is  suffering by some larger activation along its longer extension.
Whether this interpretation is excessively speculative or not, this is a synthetic,  "simple" and "beautiful" model. It unavoidably relies on some consistent amount of  speculation. But, it is a starting framework for research and discussion. It can be  either confirmed or denied by observations.
Monitoring instant spacetime changes of crustal stress by means of acoustic  emission (AE) appears to be a crucial tool in order to discriminate between  realistic and credible guesses, and physically unreliable inferences.

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NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013. www.ncgt.org
81
A NEW BASIS OF GEOSCIENCE:
WHOLE-EARTH DECOMPRESSION DYNAMICS
J. Marvin HERNDON
Transdyne Corporation
11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131 USA
mherndon@san.rr.com; http://www.NuclearPlanet.com

Abstract: Neither plate tectonics nor Earth expansion theory is sufficient to  provide a basis for understanding geoscience. Each theory is incomplete and  possesses problematic elements, but both have served as stepping stones to a more  fundamental and inclusive geoscience theory that I call Whole-Earth Decompression  Dynamics (WEDD). WEDD begins with and is the consequence of our planet’s early  formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant and permits deduction of: (1) Earth’s  internal composition, structure, and highly-reduced oxidation state; (2) Core  formation without whole-planet melting; (3) Powerful new internal energy sources -  proto-planetary energy of compression and georeactor nuclear fission energy; (4)  Georeactor geomagnetic field generation; (5) Mechanism for heat emplacement at the  base of the crust resulting in the crustal geothermal gradient; (6) Decompression- driven geodynamics that accounts for the myriad of observations attributed to plate  tectonics without requiring physically-impossible mantle convection, and; (7) A  mechanism for fold-mountain formation that does not necessarily require plate  collision. The latter obviates the necessity to assume supercontinent cycles. Here,  I review the principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics and describe a new  underlying basis for geoscience and geology.

4. Conclusions
The present paper is based on just one-month data set, but we can summarize the  following important conclusions.
1) As for an isolated EQ (in the period after March 10), there is a clear  correspondence between the local propagation anomaly (as the shift in terminator  time but not exceeding the 2σ criterion) and an EQ, and the lead time is just a few  days as in the case of the 1995 Kobe EQ (Hayakawa et al., 1996). Even though the EQ  M was smaller than 5.0 (but shallow depths of ~10 km), we could observe a clear  corresponding local precursor.
2) The main aim of this paper is the integrated effect of an EQ swarm (a succession  of EQs) onto the ionosphere, which is found to last for several days and whose  temporal evolution is quite similar to the daily sum of the number of EQs or daily  sum of the total energy release of EQs on one day.
3) The best indicator to characterize the effect of an EQ swarm is considered to be  the daily sum of total energy release of all EQs on each day.
When considering the seismic effect in subionospheric VLF data, we have to pay  attention to the geomagnetic activity which would have a significant influence onto  the ionosphere (e.g., Rozhnoi et al., 2004) during the period of our interest.  During the period of March 2-10 when we observed an anomaly in te, is found to be  geomagnetically very quiet because the daily sum of Kp index (ΣKp) amounted only up  to 19. Furthermore, during the remaining days of March, the maximum ΣKp is only 27  (on March 29), so that this month is considered to be relatively geomagnetically  quiet. This is probably the reason why we had a clear one-to-one correspondence  between the local propagation anomaly and an EQ with smaller M as is summarized as  Point (1) because there are no significant factors such as geomagnetic activity in  the VLF data which might disturb the lower ionosphere. Since the geomagnetic  activity during the EQ swarm is extremely quiet, Points (2) and (3) are considered  to be really the seismogenic effect.
Hayakawa et al. (1996) have first presented the use of shift in terminator time for  the Kobe EQ so as to find seismo-ionospheric perturbations, and then this VLF/LF  analysis method was extensively used as a further statistical study by Molchanov  and Hayakawa (1998). Then, Maekawa and Hayakawa (2006) have found that this  terminator time method is especially useful for the east-west propagation path.  This is the reason why we have used the propagation from the VLF Omega (Tsushima)  to CHF in this paper, and the shift in terminator time provides us with the  information of seismo-ionospheric perturbations.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of a succession of EQs  (so-called EQ swarm) onto the ionosphere. An EQ swarm is characterized by the  occurrence of a few (or several) EQs on one day and its prolonged activity for  several days (or weeks). Even though the maximum M of EQs on one particular day is  not so large (less than 6), we think that a succession of EQs would work additively  and then have some significant effect on the generation of seismo-ionospheric  perturbations. First of all, as is found in this paper, a detailed comparison of  the temporal evolutions of VLF propagation anomaly (shift in terminator time) and  EQ activity during our EQ swarm indicate a surprising similarity. Then, the maximum  shift in terminator time is exceeding the 2σ criterion as found for an isolated  large EQ (with M›6) as in Molchanov and Hayakawa (1998). Once the ionospheric  perturbation is formed by an EQ, it is expected to last ,at least, one day or so,  so that it seems that the occurrence of successive EQs works additively in the  sustaining and enhancement of seismo-ionospheric perturbations. These results might  suggest clearly the integrated effect of an EQ swarm on the generation of seimo- ionospheric perturbations.
As is already known, there have been proposed a few possible hypotheses for the  generation of seismo-ionospheric perturbations; (1) chemical channel (radon  emanation, electric field generation or positive-holes) and (2)  atmosphericoscillation channel. Some more details of each hypothesis are given in  several papers in the books by Hayakawa (2009 and 2012). The integrated effect in  subionospheric VLF perturbation as found in this paper would be of some use in  discussing which mechanism is more plausible

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108 NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013. www.ncgt.org
Continental rocks discovered from Rio Grade Ridge, South Atlantic
News articles appeared on the discovery of continental rocks in various media in  early May 2013. Some excerpts are as follows:
large mass of granite has been found on the seabed off the coast of Rio de Janeiro,  suggesting a continent may have existed in the Atlantic Ocean, the Japan Agency for  Marine-Earth Science and Technology and the Brazilian government announced.
A Brazilian official said the discovery of the granite — which normally forms only  on dry land — is strong evidence that a continent used to exist in the area where  the legendary island of Atlantis, mentioned in antiquity by Plato in his  philosophical dialogues, was supposedly located. According to legend, the island,  host to a highly developed civilization, sunk into the sea around 12,000 years ago.  No trace of it has ever been found.
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NCGT Journal, V. 3, No. 1, March 2015. www.ncgt.org 71
ESSAYS
MASSIVE CHANGES IN CLIMATE & SEA LEVEL
(Excerpt #1, abridged from an unpublished monograph,
EXTINCTIONS: the Pattern of Global Cataclysms)
Peter M. JAMES
Dunalley, Tasmania 7177, Australia
petermjames35@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Examples of climate change over Recent and Pleistocene times are  demonstrated to occur at rates far in excess of those available under the mobile  plate tectonics model. Polar wander, probably accompanied by recognizable  precessional variations, is proposed as a genesis. Both phenomena generate  immediate responses from the earth's water veneer and are demonstrated to cause  massive changes in sea level. Evidence of very low sea levels is available from  DSDP results and the ubiquitous submarine valleys. Elevated sea levels are  indicated from wave cut platforms and events like the Missoula "floods", the  existence of tablazos, the Lake Titicaca enigmas. In the subsequent essay, these  factors will all be demonstrated to provide a nexus with extinction events  throughout pre-history and back over geological time.
Keywords: rates of climate change, polar wander, precessional wobble, massive sea  level changes, extinctions
1 Introduction
here is no question that there have been dramatic changes in climate over  geological time. Sequences such as polar ice caps covering what are now tropical  latitudes and glacial sediments, interbedded with coal seams/coral reef deposits,  have been recorded in all parts of the globe. The extreme climate changes involved  have obviously occurred at rates far in excess of the rates at which continents are  alleged to drift. A couple of examples should suffice.
Antarctica is normally taken to have been under its polar ice cap for most of the  past 15 million years. Not so long ago, however, fossilised wood was found in the  Trans Antarctic Mountains, at 1,800 m elevation, in sediments only 2 or 3 million  years old, New Scientist, 2/6/89. Trees growing in the mountains of Antarctica  would indicate it was then much warmer, with a latitude something like 40º less  than it now occupies. A forty degree change in latitude over a period of 2 to 3  million years would indicate a rate of change of well over a thousand kilometres  per million years: about fifty times faster than continents are alleged to "drift".  But if this is taken in conjunction with other contemporary evidence of climates in  the northern Hemisphere, another possibility enters the equation. When the  aforementioned trees were growing in the Antarctic mountains, cold water  foraminifera were being deposited off the coast of Oregon, (Borehole DSDP 35, among  others). That is, the north west Pacific was quite a bit colder than today.
The pattern of a warmer Antarctic and a colder Oregon would fit a mechanism of a  polar shift quite happily: a North Pole migrating forty degrees from its present  position towards the northwest Pacific and a South Pole migrating a similar  distance up into the Indian Ocean.
Nearer our own time, the late Pleistocene Ice Age is taken to extend from c 20,000  to 12,000 years ago in the North America, with a slightly later onset in northwest  Europe and an extension of a couple of thousand years more. This Ice Age is  normally spoken of as a global phenomenon, in which case it would have a global  genesis, such as an earthly encounter with the shadow of a meteor swarm, or a  simple variation in the sun's radiation. These possibilities lie somewhat outside  the scope of the author's cognizance but the following comments are offered. If a  meteor swarm lay inside the Earth's path around the sun, then one would expect this  sort of astronomical cooling to be a frequent and regularly spaced event. On the  other hand, if variations in the sun's radiation was the cause, this would imply,  first, a decrease in radiation extending over a couple of thousand years to kick  off the ice age; second, only a few thousand years later, a turn around to an  increase in radiation to melt the expanded ice sheets; thirdly, a cessation in this  radiation cycle when the ice sheets resumed their former size. In such a scenario,  it might be questioned – even if the waxing and waning of the ice sheets had been a  straightforward process - whether a body as large as our permanent star could  produce a reversible change in radiation with such rapidity. When considered in  light of the fact that the Ice Age was not just a simple waxing and waning of the  ice sheets but one of numerous fluctuations, Dawes and Kerr (1982), Frenzel (1973), the solar variation postulate becomes even less attractive.
So let us take a different view of the possible cause. During at least one part of  the Ice Age, evidence for a centre of ice indicates a North Pole located at Baffin  Island. And for some of the same Ice Age period Siberia was warmer than today. If  the two events were quasi-simultaneous, they could both be explained by a simple  shift in the Pole, not by any change in the areal extent of the ice cap, Figure 1.
Figure 1 The centre of ice with the North Pole at Baffin Island, c 15,000 BP,  compared with today's ice cap.
When conditions only a few thousands of years ago present conundrums of this type,  how much more difficult, then, to determine the simultaneous climatic conditions in  different parts of the globe, tens of millions of years ago? In view of these  potential Gordian Knots, let us begin a synopsis of past climatic changes during  the period we know most about, the last millennium, in an attempt to determine  whether we might find some clues to support the above suggestions that changes in  the mode of spin of the Earth are a prime cause of climate changes - at least in  the absence of any modern day anthropogenic input.
2 The Most Recent Two Millennia
During the most recent period of Earth history there have been modest but  recognisable climate changes recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. Initially, around  the time of William the Conqueror, England was warm enough to allow the conquering  Normans to plant grape vines: a horticultural practice that was not again possible  in England until the later decades of the 20th Century. The same warm period was  also well enough established to give the Scandinavians confidence to cross the seas  and colonise Iceland, Greenland, and even the north eastern corner of North  America. In Greenland, communities with dairy farming and other agricultural  ventures were established.
However, the balmy days were not to last. Prolonged cold weather is taken to have  commenced in England by the 16th Century. In 1536, Henry VIII travelled down an ice  covered Thames on a horse-drawn sleigh, from Hampton Court to Greenwich. Twenty  eight years later, Queen Elizabeth was able to walk out onto the thick ice of the  Thames, at London. The cold spells continued on through the 17th C and 18th C and  sometimes into the early part of the 19th C, gaining for the period the name of  Little Ice Age, LIA.
During the LIA, the North Sea was sometimes available for passage by foot on the  ice. The LIA was also famous in England for "Frost Fairs" that were held when the  frozen surface of the Thames was considered thick enough for crowds to venture  safely out upon it. The first recorded Frost Fair was in 1607-08 and ice was again  thick enough for similar events in 1684, 1739-40, 1788 and, for the last time, in  1813-14.1 In other words, although the winters may have been exceptionally severe,  the thick ice production on the Thames
1 Apparently, the Frost Fairs came to an end one year when the ice cover broke up  prematurely and large fragments floated out to sea with people still upon them.
NCGT Journal, V. 3, No. 1, March 2015. www.ncgt.org 73
does not appear to have been constant. Indeed, even before the LIA, the Thames had  frozen over on a couple of other, possibly exceptional, occasions: an early event  in 250 AD has been recorded and another in 923 AD, the latter one when England  should have been preparing for warmer times. In the once warm Greenland, the LIA  was infamous for its freezing over of the Scandinavian settlements that had been  developed there four or five centuries earlier.
Despite the variations, one could nonetheless conclude that northwest Europe was  generally colder in 16th to 19th Centuries, colder than in William the Conqueror's  time and colder that today. The historical records at Rye, once a small port on the  English Channel, reveal an affinity between the above climate changes and sea level  changes which, at first glance, could be interpreted as the result of waxing and  waning of Arctic ice.
The history of Rye, located on Figure 2, goes something like this:- In the 11th  Century, during the warming of northwest Europe, when the Scandinavians were  settling in Greenland and William the Conqueror's heirs were planting vines, the  town of Winchelsea had been located to the south of Rye, on a shingle barrier. This  barrier was eroded in a storm surge of 1250 AD, and Winchelsea was eventually  submerged in 1280. About this time, sea water had risen up to cover the land as far  inland as Appeldore, some 15 km to the north of Rye, and a sea crossing was  necessary between Rye and Lydd, where an airport is now in use. The river on which  Rye was originally situated had its mouth at New Romney, some 17 km to the east,  but this was changed to its present position in 1290 and, a century later, much of  the Brede valley, behind the relocated Winchelsea, was under water
Figure 2 Present location of Rye, southern England, almost on the English Channel
Thus, high sea levels were associated with the medieval warming period. But things  were about to change. In the 1440s viniculture was abandoned because of the cooler  weather. By 1596, nearing the height of the Little Ice Age, the channel of the  Rother River, through Rye, had silted up and was too shallow for ships. The harbour  was abandoned at the end of the 17th Century and, by 1730, the channel was all but  gone. In 1635, some 20,000 acres in the district were reclaimed from the sea and  more land was reclaimed sixty years later. These episodes of sea level retreat thus  correspond with the cooler period which could be said to be explained by waxing of  the Arctic ice sheet. One might even contend that this periodic freezing recorded  in north west Europe and Greenland was of wider proportions. Work on the Great  Barrier Reef, off the north east coastline of Australia, by E. Henty of the  Australian Institute of Marine Science, discovered evidence of colder weather in  the antipodean coral reef growths at the same period as the Frost Fairs. Thus, the  first impression is of a global cooling event.2
Or it would be, if not for a single instance recorded from outside the northwest  Europe region and its antipodes. By luck, ship’s logs from four Spain-to-Chile  voyages in the late 16th and early 17th Centuries, were recently located in Seville  by Maria de Rosario Prieta (1993). Between 1578 and 1599, only a few decades after  Queen Elizabeth walked out onto the frozen Thames and only a decade before the  first Frost Fair, the weather in the Straits of Magellan was recorded as being warm  and balmy. Winds were from the
2 In 1931, however, the pendulum was found to be swinging back again. The sea level  in the English Channel was rising again and, in the 1960s, the rate of rise was  measured as 2mm per year. This again corresponds with evidence of warming but  predates any serious global warming set off by human efforts.

north east, instead of the normal freezing winds from the west, and glaciers in  Patagonia were calving to produce ice bergs in the Straits, seen as another, unusually warm, phenomenon.  Thus, the contemporary weather in Patagonia was the complete opposite of the well  documented LIA changes in northwest Europe. Introducing the idea of polar wander  again provides a helpful explanation for this contradiction. If one were to suggest  that the Little Ice Age was associated with some migration of the North Pole down  towards the North Atlantic, then the South Pole would have migrated up into  antipodean regions, like Australia. In this manner, colder conditions would have  affected both regions. In South America, however, this same hypothetical polar  shift would have distanced the South Pole away from Patagonia, thus making it  warmer. On this basis, one could conclude that the unusual climate changes recorded  over the last thousand years do not point to any solar phenomena, but rather to some change in the mode of spin of the Earth. And, if so, there is more to it. On a majority of occasions during the LIA, the Thames had not  frozen. This point needs to be cleared up as the variations between the frozen and  the unfrozen Thames appear to have taken place too frequently to be accounted for  by polar wander, alone. One possible solution for rapid climatic variations might  be sought in the introduction of another change in the Earth's mode of spin:  changes in magnitude of precession. This proposal is treated in some detail below, based on early  astronomical research at Alexandria. But the point for the moment is that  precession could take place more quickly than polar migration and such wobbles  would impose their own fluctuations on the general global weather patterns. It is  unfortunate that most of the LIA period came before the Observatory was set up at  Greenwich, otherwise we would have direct confirmation, or not, of the above sorts  of change. Prior to moving onto further astronomical topics, a brief outline of  some of the meteorological changes in the first millennium AD is set out below to  fill in the gaps in time. During the first four and a half centuries of the first  millennium AD, Britain was occupied by the Romans but little history comes down to  us as a result of their stay. Unfortunately, the natural history following Roman  times is largely restricted to dramatic meteorological aspects, such as storms,  floods, hurricanes and rain like blood. These were tabulated up to 1000 AD and  assembled by C.E. Britton (1937) in Geophysical Memoirs,
Volume 8, No1, and include the following:- · In c 50 AD (Caligula's reign?), there  was a frost so hard that all the rivers and lakes were passable from November to  the beginning of April. · In 68 AD, the Isle of Wight was allegedly separated from  Hampshire by inundations. (This sounds as
though some change in sea level was involved.) · In 134 and 153 AD, the Thames  froze over for two and three months, respectively, while in the middle of this, in  139, the river was recorded as having dried up for two days. · In c 250 AD, the  Thames froze over for nine weeks and, in 291, most of the rivers in Britain were  frozen for six weeks. This occurred again in 329 and again (for six weeks) in 525.  · A drought with scorching heat was mentioned in 605 AD while, in 684, a great  frost descended so
that lakes and rivers in Ireland were frozen as also the sea between Ireland and  Scotland, allowing "journeys to be made to and fro on the ice". · In 695 AD, the  Thames was frozen for six weeks allowing booths to be built upon it. The first  Frost Fair, no doubt.
The next three centuries register more of the unusual climatic events, from severe  winters to hot summers, but no more references to the freezing of the rivers in  England, until the one mentioned earlier, in 923, just prior to the warming of  England in preparation for the arrival of William the Conqueror. What the above  listings suggest, however, is a less than stable climate for Britain in the first  millennium AD and, hence, that changeable weather might be a fairly normal and  natural situation. Whether this has been due to any form of polar wander or changes  in the rate or magnitude of precession cannot be determined at this stage.  Fortunately, we have more data from observations made at Alexandria during the  preceding millennium. 3 The First Millennium BC
Eclipse Observations
The birth of natural philosophy in the first millennium BC is traditionally taken  to have been launched when
Thales predicted a total eclipse of the sun in Greece in 585 BC. Thales had spent  time in Egypt and had been exposed to Chaldean (Babylonian) astronomy, so he obviously had information on  eclipse seasons, etc., sufficient to make his prediction. However, while this  eclipse did occur as predicted, modern day back calculations show that it should  not have been visible in Greece. In this, it was one of the early maverick eclipses  recorded in that millennium, occurring on the right day but (according to back  calculations of modern astronomers) in the wrong location.
Another example of this right day/wrong place comes from Thucydides who recorded a  total solar eclipse at Athens on August 5, 431 BC, during the Peloponnesian War.  Back calculations agree that there was an eclipse on that day, but no calculations  can make the path of totality pass anywhere near Athens. One celebrated British  astronomer, J.K. Fotheringham in 1921, came up with the suggestion that maybe  Thucydides was drunk on that day and did not known where he was. Other maverick  observations include the one mentioned above, which was later reported by  Herodotus; one on March 20, 71 AD, reported by Plutarch at Chaeronea; and another  on November 11, 129 BC, recorded as total in the Hellespont and 80% at Alexandria,.  This last event was at a time when the celebrated Hipparchus was still carrying out  his research at Alexandria, but even this record has been discounted – again by  Fotheringham - on the basis that his own back calculations showed that no eclipse  should have been visible at Alexandria since one of August 15, 310 BC. Fotheringham  went on to suggest, in this case, that confusion over dates was the most likely  explanation. How two such distant events could have been confused at a place like  Alexandria, at that time, is another matter.
As an aside, maverick recordings are not restricted to the Mediterranean. Similar  observations come from the Far East. In China, official records do not begin until  the end of the Chou Dynasty (c 950 BC, to use the Western calendar), but China did  have a well established code of legends from much earlier. The dates of two solar  eclipses reported from that early period, in 2155 and 2128 BC, are found to be  confirmed by back calculations. However, once again, the calculations reveal that  the second one should not have been seen in China.
The last known recording of a maverick total solar eclipse in Europe, this one with  stars visible, was observed in Germany on May 8, 810 AD. The date of this eclipse  is again confirmed by back calculations but no set of calculations can make the sun  disappear on that day in Germany. So it must have left Fotheringham with a puzzle.  But the alternative, that of a possible change in Earth behavior, does not appear  to have been considered. Yet it is not a great step to accept that eclipses,  observed first hand by people who were as reliable as any present-day academic with  his computer, do represent actual events at specified locations.
In fairness, there is one excuse, maybe a rather lame one, for modern scientific  skepticism about right dates, wrong places. Not all of the ancient eclipse  recordings are maverick. An eclipse of 763 BC, at Ashur, behaves as it should.  Likewise one in 240 BC and one again in 190 BC, at Rome. More than thirty  recordings of solar eclipses given in the Annals of Lu are found to fit with  calculations and locations, the more recent discrepancies being one on June 19, 518  AD, another in 600 AD and a third in 718 AD, which event is not so much earlier  than the last recorded maverick in Germany. Since then, things appear to have  settled down from whatever caused the maverick eclipses in the first place.
Which brings us to an event observed at Babylon on April 15, 136 BC, and event that  comes down to us with impeccable credentials. Back calculations by modern  astronomers again confirm that there was a total solar eclipse on that day, but the  same set of calculations show that the path of totality of this eclipse should not  have passed anywhere near Babylon, but at some point 4000 km to the west, Figure 3.

Figure 3. Total solar eclipse of April 15, 136 BC, observed at Babylon when the  path of totality should have been some 4000 km to the west.
Attempts were made by Sir Harold Jeffreys at Cambridge - among others - to explain  this discrepancy as being related to a slowing down in the rotation of the Earth.  This approach again leads to problems. Firstly, if all the maverick eclipses of  ancient times were the result of a slowing down in the Earth’s rate of rotation,  there should have been a pattern apparent in the anomalies. But there is not; both  maverick eclipses and well behaved ones are interspersed over the centuries of  ancient times. Secondly, deceleration in the Earth’s rate of spin is far too slow  to explain the Babylon discrepancy. Modern measurements of the rate of slowing down  of the rotating Earth are of the order of 2 milli-seconds per century. On this  basis, there would be no discrepancy worth worrying about in the path of totality  of the "Babylon" eclipse.
The rate of slowing down over geological time, determined from the growth rings of  fossil corals, is somewhat higher. In the Devonian Period, 400 million years ago,  fossilised growth rings indicate something like a year of 390 - 400 days. A hundred  million years later, in the Carboniferous, the number of days had reduced to 385.  This represents a slowing down to today’s rate of approximately 4 milliseconds, or  one tenth of a second of arc, per year. But even applying this rate to the Babylon  eclipse provides for a shift in the path of totality of little more than 5 km, not  the 3000 - 4000 km recorded.
Thus, we are surely dealing with something outside both the long term and the  present day “normal” behaviour of the Earth. Within the spectrum of possible  causes, the concept of major wobble is very attractive. If there were transient  increases in wobble spanning the time of the above eclipses, there would also be,  according to the conservation of angular momentum, transient slowing down in the  rate of spin of the Earth.3 Such a slowing down would obviously displace the path  of the eclipse totality by some unknown, but potentially large, amount. When the  wobble reduced once more to normal, the rate of spin would speed up, to compensate,  so that the maverick eclipses above were generally able to occur on the right days,  or near enough.
Latitude Fixes
The Alexandria astronomer, Hipparchus, was an inveterate latitude fixer and what he  discovered, not long before 128 BC, was that his observations of star positions  differed from those made just over a century earlier by Eratosthenes. Under normal  precession conditions, the geographical shift in the star positions, over that  interval, would have been 1 - 2º. Not great, but probably measurable. As a result  of these findings Hipparchus is credited with identification of Precession of the  Equinoxes, although precession was probably

3 The analogy of a spinning top is useful although not fully accurate since a top  is subject to friction at the “south pole”. Nonetheless, most of us would have  witnessed how the rate of spin of the top slows when the top is precessing and then  speeds up again when the top assumes steady state spin.

the last thing on his mind. (Allegedly, the discrepancies between his observations  and those of Eratosthenes annoyed him more than anything else.) The other thing  that probably annoyed him was that the latitudes he obtained from solar  observations – which are unaffected by precession - also differed from those made  by Eratosthenes. They also differ from the established latitudes of today; some are  lower, some are higher. (One wonders whether he would have been annoyed had he  known that would happen.)
One example of the discrepancies:- Born in Marseille, Hipparchus placed its  latitude on the same latitude as Byzantium (Istanbul, today). A parallel of  latitude through both locations is shown in Figure 4. The one by Hipparchus  deviates from today’s parallel of latitude by an angle of about 4º and it would put  the North Pole near the northern tip of Russia (Bol’shevik Is), outside the limits  of the modern permanent pack ice and some 1000-1500 km from its present location.
If Hipparchus was correct in his interpretation, one could suggest several  explanations for the discrepancy. Let’s get the first possibility out of the way:  that associated with any form of continental drift. The rate of movement implied by  a shift of the Hipparchus' North Pole to the North Pole of today is about ten  thousand times faster than any motion proposed for mobile plates. A second  explanation – and one favoured by many modern astronomers – is that the maverick  latitudes recorded by Hipparchus and Eratosthenes are the result of faulty  observations.
Figure 4 The Mediterranean showing today's parallels of Latitude (35º and 40º N)  compared to that of Hipparchus, the top line of Latitude, running from Marseille to  Byzantium (Istanbul)
This claim of faulty observations is sometimes made despite the fact that  Hipparchus was probably the most celebrated observational astronomer in  Alexandria's history and most of his other observations have been taken as  satisfactory. A third explanation is that the mode of spin of the Earth was subject  to some form of change during the period - whether an increased but transient form  of precessional wobble or whether some other form of polar wander is an open  question.4 Here, fortunately, we are able to call on the findings of Copernicus,  just over a millennium and a half after the Alexandrian data.
Copernicus, a monk in Poland in the 16th C, was a former professor of maths in  Rome, where the astronomical data from Alexandria and also that from many centuries  of observations made at Babylon were kept. Copernicus was given possession of the  data, to find out what it all revealed. There was, allegedly, growing gossip from  the Middle East on the topic of heliocentricity and it obviously would have been in  the church's interests to muzzle such gossip. So one might now wonder whether it  had been Rome's intention for Copernicus to come up with the firm conclusion that  Aristotle and Ptolemy were correct: the Earth did really

4 The sorts of change in the Earth's mode of spin, interpreted by the author though  analysis of the sun-worship alignments of megalithic monuments in N.W. Europe,  James (1993), suggests that significant changes in precession were probably  involved. Incidentally, a similar conclusion was reached in a study of megalithic  monuments in Siberia, Gregoriev (2011).

stand at the centre of the universe. But, if that was the intention, it all came  unstuck. Copernicus turned out to be as honest as he was conscientious and he found  that what had been preached for a millennium and a half was incorrect; the centre  of our part of the universe was the sun, not the Earth. That finding was, indeed, a  burn-at-the-stake number at the time but Copernicus avoided punishment, firstly by  dedicating his book to the Pope and, secondly, by not allowing its publication  until after his death.
Copernicus, in his research, identified that the phenomenon Hipparchus had noted  was indeed Precession of the Equinoxes and a century later Newton was able to  explain it as being caused by the differential pull of the sun and the moon on the  Earth’s equatorial bulge. Precession of the Equinoxes has since been accepted as  immutable, but it seems to be less known – or less mentioned - that Copernicus also  identified changes in this rate of precession. From the time of Eratosthenes (3rd C  BC) to Ptolemy (2nd C AD), the rate of Precession of the Equinoxes was more than  30% slower than from the time of Ptolemy until late in the 1st Millennium AD.  Indeed, this fits the proposal given above on the role played by the conservation  of angular momentum: the slower precessional period would have occurring during the  same period as the maverick eclipses and maverick latitude fixes were recorded at  Alexandria. Moreover, the post-Ptolemy rate up until about the time of the last  maverick eclipse in Germany was marginally higher than today’s.
Further discussion on the topic of precessional wobbles during the second and third  millennia BC is available in a study made of the megalithic alignments of north  west Europe by the writer, James (ibid).
4 Distribution of the Earth's Water Veneer
The point of the above astronomical peregrination has been to lead into the role  that changes in the Earth's mode of spin might play in the distribution of the  Earth's water veneer.
Every point on the earth’s surface is subject to centripetal accelerations, by dint  of the Earth’s rotation. Points along the equator experience the maximum and  magnitude decreases with the effective radius of rotation (latitude) to become  virtually zero at the poles. The centrifugal forces are, of course, relatively  minor in relation to gravity since we do not notice any significant changes when  crossing the latitudes. However, the same need not be entirely true for the oceans.  If the Earth were a smooth spherical body, but otherwise identical to its present  shape, mass, and rate of rotation, the forces of rotation would cause the water  veneer to amass at the equator and drain away from the poles. To a first  approximation, this effect can be quantified by equating the kinetic and potential  energy involved, neglecting secondary effects such as minor changes in gravity with  latitude, tidal and frictional effects. The height to which a column of water would  rise at any latitude would thus be given by
Potential energy, m.g.h = Kinetic energy, ½ m.v2
Or h = v2 / 2g
Where h = height of water column
g = gravitational constant
v = angular velocity, ω . r
The term ω equals 2 π r per 24 hours where r is the effective radius of spin: zero  at the poles and a maxim at the equator. If one inserts end values into the above  equation, the results are:
Height of a column of water at the pole: 0 km
Height of a column of water at the equator: 11.9 km
This variation in depth sounds large, but if the Earth were the size of a 30 cm  diameter desk globe, the difference would amount to little more than the thickness  of good quality notepaper. Such a distribution of water on a spherical Earth does,  however, assume that there is adequate water to cover the full surface area and, if  so, the distribution would look something like Curve A on Figure 5. The actual  distribution of the oceans is, of course, quite different and more orthogonal in  shape, line B.
It might be noted by inspection that the actual ocean volume under line B is  considerably less than under the hypothetical Curve A. This means that, if the  Earth were spherical, the present ocean volumes would be insufficient to cover the  whole surface and the higher latitudes would probably be dry. Curve Ci might then  give a better illustration of this hypothetical distribution of the water veneer on  a spherical Earth. In practice, of course, the Earth body itself should adjust to  these same rotational forces producing the equatorial bulge and polar flattening and this would obviously play a large part in producing the regular oceanic distribution indicated by Line B.
Figure 5. Relationship between theoretical distribution of water on a spherical  Earth. Curve A, with the actual distribution something like Line B, indicating a  much smaller volume. The volume equivalent to Line B on the hypothetical spherical  Earth is shown as Curve Ci, and the effect of a hypothetical shift of 20 º in the  poles on the distribution of the oceans is shown as Curve Cii.
The “deficient” oceanic volume is important for the polar wander model. For, if  some form of polar wander were to take place, changing the pattern of centripetal  forces, there would be an immediate response from the seas. Water would attempt to  amass at the new equatorial location(s) although nodal positions are unlikely to be  affected to any great extent. Water would also tend to drain away from the new  polar areas, so that the old polar areas would suffer inundation. The effect can be  roughly predicted for a sphere, Curve Cii, but the Earth's major geoidal features  such as the equatorial bulge and the zones of polar flattening, with the further  complication of continental bulwarks, makes the picture more complicated.
Nonetheless, even with the present shape of the Earth, the two C-Curves suggest  there would be an immediate – and significant - response from the water veneer  associated with any form of polar wander. Possibly, in time, the major geoidal  features of the Earth body itself would adjust to the changes. It would no doubt  take longer for a new equatorial bulge and new polar flattening zones to develop  but, when this happened, one could expect that ocean levels should more or less  return to their previous datum. How long this adjustment would take is a matter for  further consideration.
This explanation for massive sea level changes now needs some observational back- up. Large scale lowering of sea levels in the geological past is now likely to be  covered by deep oceans, so the most obvious place to begin a search for clues on  sea level lowering would be in the deep ocean environment where two promising areas  of investigation are available: the findings from deep sea drilling program and the  ubiquitous presence of submarine valleys and abyssal sediment fans. Evidence of  past sea levels elevations could easily be removed by ongoing erosion processes,  but there are still clues available as set out below. Firstly, let us deal with the  case of massive sea level lowering.
5 Deep Sea Drilling Results
Much of the DSDP program has been aimed at supporting plate tectonics predictions  so that information relevant to sea level change is largely fortuitous.  Nonetheless, boreholes drilled in the deep ocean, hundreds of kilometres from land,  have recovered evapourites, coarse sediments, terriginous materials, wood and even  leaves. To date, all these items – except for the evaporites - have typically been  labelled the result of turbidity current activity, despite the fact that this has  typically meant stretching the known principles of hydraulics past breaking point.  Selected boreholes are quoted below.

Borehole 156 (Galapagos area). Basalt met at a depth of 2.5 km below the surface of  the ocean was found to be oxidized, indicating exposure to air, either by sea level  change or massive subsidence of the land in this locality. Or perhaps some new way  of producing oxidation of rock under deep water? Incidentally, the exploration  program associated with this borehole revealed that the sea floor in this  equatorial region is deeply dissected and eroded in an east-west direction.
Borehole 240, recovered land detritus and reef material within sand deposits in the  upper stratigraphic units. This was drilled in the Indian Ocean, some 500 km from  the equatorial African coast, in water of some 5 km depth.
Borehole 518 recorded an erosional unconformity at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary,  revealing that the region was then either dry or at least a shallow water domain.  It is now at some 4 km depth and the unconformity is overlain by deep water  sediments.
Borehole 217, drilled in deep water on the 90º E Ridge, recovered Cretaceous Age  sediments containing dried out mud cracks.
Borehole 661, drilled in the Atlantic off Africa’s north west coastline,  encountered a deposit of Cretaceous anhydrite. Evaporites are indicative of a  shallow, enclosed, tropical basin and such deposits also occur in the Mediterranean  which is known to have been dry on a couple of occasions. Such deposits have also  been recorded the Red Sea. Now, they have been found in the ocean depths.
6 Submarine Valleys
Underwater canyons and valleys are present in all the world’s seas and oceans and  almost ninety percent of them can be traced back to existing drainage systems on  land, although sometimes the linkage is disturbed or lost where the former drainage  system crosses the continental shelf. Normally, however, it can be picked up once  more on the continental slope, from where a majority of submarine valleys continue  on down to the abyssal plains. Here, in water depths that can range up to four  kilometres or more, large alluvial-type fans have been deposited.
In their systems, submarine valleys exhibit most of the major characteristics of  terrestrial drainage systems: gorges cut in the hard rock of the continental  slopes; tributaries; distinct bedding; incised drainage patterns in the surfaces of  the alluvial fans. All these features would normally be seen as the result of  gravitational forces and hydraulic gradients that are in operation only above sea  level. Indeed, according to Shepard and Dill in their classic tome on Submarine  Valleys and Other Sea Valleys (1966), the most logical explanation to fit all the  submarine valley features would be a drowned river origin: that is to say, valleys  formed in the manner of normal terrestrial rivers and then subsequently submerged.  However, they jibbed at the idea of such massive drops in sea level.
Many oceanographers also jib at the idea of massive sea level changes and look for  alternative explanations such as turbidity currents, despite the fact that no one  has ever successfully demonstrated how an intermittent and superficial turbidity  current, acting under water without the power of hydraulic gradients, is able to  erode a massive canyon in hard rock. There is another problem with the turbidity  current premise. Turbidity currents are currents supercharged with sediments, which  sediments they tend to drop on the run, as it were, as their velocity reduces after  leaving the continental slope. This process produces graded deposits: initially  gravels or gravelly sands, grading out into sands and then into silts as one  progresses out from the base of a continental slope. However, sediments deposited  in the abyssal fans typically exhibit defined bedding planes, as found in  terrestrial streams.
Examples of submarine valleys are given below to illustrate the above arguments,  starting with the submarine valleys of the Mediterranean Sea, which is known to  have been dry on a couple of occasions, the last time being dated at around five  million years ago.5 The Mediterranean therefore provides no problem with regard to  a drowned river origin. Canyons in the Mediterranean are also quite frequent, with  some significant ones being extensions of the Rhone. Another occurs beneath the  mouth of the Nile, running from

5 Although Greek mythology does speak of a more recent occasion when Hyperion, the  sun god, was persuaded to let his incompetent nephew drive the sun chariot across  the sky. The unruly steeds became uncontrollable and the chariot crashed to earth,  causing the Mediterranean to boil dry and the Ethiopians to turn black.

the ground surface near Memphis and deepening down to the base of the Mediterranean  at some distance out to sea. This canyon is now infilled to form the Nile Delta.
Precipitous canyons are present around the island of Corsica, beginning not far  above present sea level as little more than notches in the present-day rocky  coastline. That is, there is no potential here for any turbidity current activity.  Below sea level, however, the notches develop rapidly into canyons in the hard rock  and, in this form, continue down to the base of the sea at several kilometres  depth. The sediment loads of shallow water materials, such as sea grass, have been  spilt out onto the sea floor as a small fan deposits.
The morphology of the drowned Mediterranean canyons can now be compared with other  submarine canyons present in the major oceans, where the removal of the much larger  bodies of water is less easy to explain.
The east coast of Sri Lanka has several canyons, the largest being the Trincomalee  Canyon extending off the country’s largest river, the Mahaweli. This canyon runs a  twisting, precipitous course in a V-shaped valley that has cut its way down through  hard pre-Cambrian granites and quartzites to a final oceanic depth of around 4-5  km, some 60 km out from the land. Now, the Mahaweli ("Big Sand") River has the  potential to carry a reasonable sediment load and hence an origin related to  turbidity currents has sometimes been proffered to explain its impressive gorge in  hard rock. But the Trincomalee Canyon is not alone on the east coast of Sri Lanka.  There are several more canyons to the south, each of similar magnitude and each  eroded into hard rock. But, in these instances, there is no major river at the head  of the canyons and no potential for any large sediment load to call on, if one were  considering a turbidity current origin. The logical solution is to accept that, at  some stage in the geological history of the region, the sea level in this part of  the Indian Ocean was four kilometres lower than it is today. This is not as absurd  as it first sounds.
Travelling east into the Bay of Bengal, supporting evidence for the above  interpretation is to be found in the Bengal submarine system. This voluminous  system extends out from the mouth of the Ganges River, firstly as discrete canyons  in the rock of the continental slope, then as a meandering and braided network of  valleys incised in a huge sediment fan, which stretches south for a distance of  2,500 km from the Ganges mouth, Figure 6.
Figure 6. The submarine valley system of the Bay of Bengal. Elongate shaded areas  represent incised channels in the sediment fan.
The presence of coarse layers within the predominant silts of the fan indicates  that there have been four major pulses of sedimentation, ranging in age from the  Cretaceous, though the Miocene and Pliocene, to the Quaternary. The youngest  deposit, of Pleistocene Age, is overlain by deep sea ooze. This, in itself, is a  prime example of changes in the relative elevations of land and sea.

The present-day ocean depths over the length of the fan increase from about 3 km in  the north to almost 5 km in the south. This represents a sea bed gradient of less  than 1 : 1000. Attempting to explain the origin of this extensive and almost flat  sediment fan by turbidity current activity is beyond any known principles of  hydraulics: particularly when one is asking the turbidity currents to deposit their  extensive sediments in horizontally bedded sequences. The turbidity current origin  becomes even less attractive when one is asking deep ocean currents to erode major  channels in the surface of the fan, under water, at gradients of 1 : 1000, or less.  If the above objections to are not enough to reject the idea of a turbidity current  origin, the proposal can be seen as even more fatuous when DSDP Borehole 217,  located on the 90 º Ridge, recovered Cretaceous muds with drying cracks.
Examples of abyssal fans in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans further confirm the  drowned river origin.
The Congo submarine valley, at 6º S, begins some 20 km up from the mouth and can be  traced some 400 km out to sea. Features of this system include major underwater  tributaries and a sediment fan at depth containing, as in the case of the Bengal  fan, incised channels, with the added feature of levees and sand grains with  hematite coatings. Admittedly, the hematite coatings could have been formed before  the sands were transported out into the ocean. However, twigs have also been  recovered from these same deep sea sediments, which does suggest that the upper  levels of the sediment fan are quite recent as well as being terrestrial in origin.  The base of the Congo abyssal fan is Cretaceous in age, as is the Bengal fan, and  rests on evaporite deposits, which presents another indicator of shallow water that  was itself drying out.
The submarine valley systems off either coastline of North America are also  instructive with regard to origin. Starting with the west coast, submarine valleys  occur from Canada to the Mexican border: the Quinault, Grays, Willapa, Colombia,  Astoria, Delgada et al. All are unequivocally sited off the mouths of terrestrial  streams, except possibly the Delgada, which is located just south of Cape Mendocino  where a branch of the San Andreas Fault is tangential to the coast. The Deep Sea  Drilling Program nonetheless found fresh water diatoms and wood of Pleistocene age  in 4.5 km depth of water on the distal parts of this Delagda fan. Again, the  structure of all these canyons appears to be independent of the size of the  counterpart terrestrial stream, on land. Sharp contacts between beds of mud and  sand are again typical, a situation that once more rules out a turbidity current  origin.
The Eel Canyon, of northern California, has poignant example of terrestrial  behaviour: a detour around a sea floor high, as a normal terrestrial stream might  do, Figure 7.
Figure 7. The Eel submarine valley detours around a topographical high.
The largest canyon on the west coast, one which rivals the Grand Canyon in relief,  begins in Monterey Bay, Figure 8. It is joined on its descent to the abyssal plain  by two large tributary canyons related to The Carmel and the Santa Cruz Rivers.  These tributary canyons form hanging valleys at the junctions, a probable  indication vertical movements associated with the San Andreas Fault, Martin (1992).  The Monterey Canyon also crosses a major feature sympathetic to the main alignment  of the San Andreas Fault, as shown on the figure. At this point the canyon contains  Pliocene age sediments. One would think that, if the San Andreas Fault has been  moving as a transform fault since the Pliocene – at the ongoing rates imputed to it  by plate tectonics dogma - there should now be a large kink in this canyon’s trace,  with a displacement of a couple of hundred kilometres. There is no obvious  indication of any such lateral movement.

Figure 8. Monterey Canyon. Both the Soquel and Carmel junctions occur as hanging  valleys and weathered granite occurs near the Carmel junction, at 2km depth. Large  gravels are present in the distal fan.
At almost 2 km depth, weathered granites are exposed in the main canyon wall,  Martin (64). At 3 km depth, near the far end of the canyon’s sediment fan, gravels  up to 7 cm in diameter have been deposited. Again, one could not realistically  expect these to have been moved by deep sea currents which seldom attain velocities  in excess of one knot. Nor, indeed, is such a deposit concordant with the activity  of turbidity currents from the distant continental slope.
*
On the opposite coast of North America, there is a similar sequence of submarine  canyons in the Atlantic Ocean although those of the Atlantic are typically longer  than those of the Pacific. For instance, the Amazon Canyon continues up almost as  far as Puerto Rico while one of the world's largest examples is to be found in the  Bahamas: a length of some 200 km with side walls several kilometres in height at  the surprisingly steep inclinations of 9 - 12º. Its valley floor, at depths of 4 –  5 km, is flat and not composed of deep sea oozes as might be expected, but of  cobbles and boulder deposits interbedded with sands. The sands sometimes exhibit  current bedding, typical of shallow water deposition.
The Hudson Canyon contains sedimentary sequences ranging down though the Recent and  Pleistocene to the Pliocene/Miocene transition. Cobbles, gravels and shallow water  shells have been found along the channel floor, now at 3.5 km depth. The longest of  the North Atlantic features is the Mid-Ocean Submarine Valley, which starts off  between Canada and Greenland and continues down the abyssal plain. Shallow water  Tertiary deposits are present along its length, overlying Cretaceous sediments that  appear to have been deposited in sequences. DSDP Borehole 185 encountered Pliocene  beds resting unconformably on older sediments along this feature.
A final example comes from Hawaii. Here, submarine canyons are to be found off the  precipitous and rocky coastline, as in Corsica. And, as in Corsica, there is no  obvious source of sediment to produce turbidity currents. The canyons are typically  located below erosion notches in the steep basalt terrains and they continue at  relatively constant gradients of 100 metres per kilometre to depths of almost 2 km.  Sequences of discrete clay beds, overlain by gravels and subsequently by coarse  sands, have been recovered from depths of 1 km, together with shallow water shells.  Pleistocene reefs have also been found at depths of 2 km on the Hawaiian slopes.  Elsewhere, it has been argued by the author that subsidence of a sea mount is not a  factor to be considered in explaining occurrences of this nature.
*
Further evidence for large sea level changes comes from Barbados, where a Tertiary  coal deposit is overlain by globigerina ooze. That is, in order to produce  conditions for the deposition of the proto-coal formation, a once shallow and  subtropical freshwater environment existed during the Tertiary. This zone then  found itself in a deep ocean environment for a period long enough to allow the  deposition of ooze. After its spell at the bottom of the ocean, the area was then "uplifted" above sea level once more. All  this happened in the last 10 – 12 Ma. Barbados lies close to the Caribbean Plate  boundary and this is sometimes used as a self-sufficient explanation for the  massive environmental changes. But, if land subsidence/uplift is proposed, it would  mean complete reversibility in the crust, at an on-going rate of at least 1 mm per  year, the sort of rate measured for local uplifts in active volcanic regions. There  is really no evidence for preferring oscillation of the land over the simpler  oscillation in sea level - except a long standing prejudice against the latter. A  similar geological situation has been recorded in Indonesia, where deep sea  radiolarian ooze again occurs above sea level, sandwiched between shallow water  Tertiary sediments. Thus, the Barbados case is not unique.
7 Elevated Sea Levels
On a model of sea level change related to the mode of spin of the Earth, one should  expect that if there were low sea levels in one part of the globe there should be  compensatory high sea levels in another part. Evidence of high sea levels is,  unfortunately, less likely to be preserved owing to the normal erosion processes on  land. Often, it is the case that many ambiguous inferences of high sea levels tend  to be dismissed. For instance, on the Malayan Peninsula, erosion platforms at  elevations of 200m or more in post-Tertiary granites have been reported by the  geological survey, but this is seldom quoted and, as often, is dismissed. Elevated  beach strands and gravel beds occur at numerous locations around the world but tend  to be explained by isostatic uplifts - or, more often these days, tend to get  tainted by the claim of "tsunami" if the site is in view of a body of water. This  has been the fate of elevated wave cut platforms on the east coast of Australia and  also in the north west of the country.
A similar wave cut feature at 300m elevation in Hawaii has also been claimed as the  product of a tsunami, which is stretching the bounds of credulity. For, a start, it  would be the experience of most people who have visited the sites of tsunami  events, that these leave little or no geological trace of their passing, at least  not in the form of semi-permanent features such as wave cut platforms in rock.  Additionally, the highest tsunami waves recorded during events like Krakatau are  around 30 m and this in shallow waters. Out in the open ocean, nothing more than  around 10% of this height has ever been recorded.
On the Canadian prairie, there is a different situation. The Saskatchewan Gravels  are difficult to explain by any other mechanism than a high sea level stand. The  age of the gravel deposition has been suggested as tertiary, Hunt (1990), but is  not known with any certainty. The gravels have been deposited up to a kilometre and  a half above the present day sea level and occur with the configuration of a very  long beach strand that extends from just below the Canada-USA border (to the south  east off Medicine Hat, at Lat 48º, Long 109º) and stretches north to cross the  Alberta-Saskatchewan border at Lloydminster (east of Edmonton). From there, the  strand bends slightly northwest, passing through Fort Vermilian and it continues  for another couple of hundred kilometres to the Arctic Circle. The "gravels" are  immediately recognisable, comprising a predominance of spherical pre-Cambrian  quartzite cobbles, like startlingly white cannon balls.
The total length of the broadcast exceeds a thousand kilometres and there is a  gradual drop in elevation (approximately 1 : 1000) to the north, that is, towards  the Pole.6
The broadcast has been explained by one authority, Hunt (ibid), as the result of  massive a tsunami following a major meteorite impact. However, as already  mentioned, the geomorphology better fits an origin of continued wave action at a  high sea level, forming a long beach strand. Incidentally, the same white cannon  balls are also to be found on the western side of the Rocky Mountain Cordillera, in  Canada, notably near Revelstoke where a huge accumulation of white cannon balls has  been heaped up beside a river bend. So perhaps there are other factors involved.  The author has also found scattered evidence of the same white cannon balls in road  cuttings south from Revelstoke, as far down as the USA border, at approximately  Long. 119.5º.
Perhaps the best examples of high wave-cut platforms are to be found along the  Pacific coastline of South America. Termed tablazos, these monolithic-type  structures stand as isolated coastal plateaux extending from Peru to Tierra del  Fuego. The features were first recorded in scientific literature by Charles Darwin  and have been subsequently discussed by Sheppard (1927) and others. Horizontal  marine sediments cap most tablazos

6 Interestingly, the strand line of what was once presumably a horizontal lake  surface of Lake Titicaca, now exhibits a gradual drop in elevation (approx. 1 :  2500) towards the Pole - according to today's geodetic standards.

and these have been variably dated from Pliocene to Recent, De Vries (1988),  Cantalamessa and Di Celma (2004). Tablazo elevations in excess of 300 m occur in  the north but the elevations gradually decrease in height to the south. This  inclination has been attributed to uneven uplift of South America. But, the view of  isostatic readjustment has been refuted quantitatively by the writer, James (2007),  and in South America it also lacks any convincing evidence in the profiles of the  rivers on either the east or west coastlines.
Charles Darwin, when in Patagonia on the Atlantic side of South America, was  interested in the wide, almost horizontal, pampas plains that would be periodically  truncated on their eastern side by steep cliff faces sometimes approaching a  hundred metres in height. He surveyed one alignment and estimated an overall  elevation drop, from the foothills of the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean, of less than  two hundred metres: an average slope of the order of 1:5000 to 1:2500. Shells of  Recent appearance were common on the flat pampas surfaces and Darwin presumed that  the "steps" (or relic sea cliffs) had been formed as a result of uplift of the  land. The assumed uplift would make it slightly less than the elevation of the  Tablazos on the other side of the Andes, but there is no reason to assume that this  is the result of land uplift any more than it is to assume the topography was  formed by a slowly subsiding sea level, after a period of sea level elevation. The  latter explanation is again suggested to be more fitting when it comes to very much  larger changes in the land/sea relationships, posed by Lake Titicaca and the  associated Altiplano, and also by the Great Missoula Floods. These two enigmatic  phenomena have been treated in detail by the author elsewhere, James (2011) and  (2008) respectively, and are not pursued herein.
AUTHOR'S NOTE. The above essay is intended to pave the way for a following  submission on what might be labelled "global cataclysms": a prime mechanism of  extinction events.
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204 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 2, June 2016. www.ncgt.org
Critical analysis of the plate tectonics model and causes of horizontal tectonic  movements
Arkady Pilchin
Universal Geosciences & Environmental Consulting Company
205 Hilda Ave., #1402
Toronto, Ontario, M2M 4B1, Canada.
arkadypilchin@yahoo.ca 

Concluding remarks
All of the above leads to the following conclusions:
The main problem with the plate tectonics model is underdevelopment of its every  part, from the model’s inception until the present day.
The outright dismissal of the geosynclinal model and all other fixist models is not  justified and was a mistake.
Convection throughout the entire mantle or in any mantle layer of any significant  thickness is highly unlikely, because it violates physical laws.
The main forces postulated for plate tectonics are too weak for any significant  tectonic activity, and cannot be involved in such tectonic processes as obduction,  orogenesis, lithosphere uplift, or even subduction. In general, their application  violates physical laws by ignoring the effect of friction and strength limits.
Plate tectonic forces are incapable of generating any significant force in a  horizontal or upward direction.

The plate tectonics model of the formation of new lithosphere in spreading centers  violates a number of physical laws; it is unclear how it would be possible, with a  buildup of only about 1 cm long, ~50 km deep and thousands of kilometers wide  increments of new lithosphere per year, for it to independently separate into the  main oceanic layers (including the peridotite layer) in underwater conditions, and  over millions of years form solid oceanic plates thousands of kilometers long.
One of the main problems with sea floor spreading is the inconsistency between the  total lengths of mid-ocean ridges (the total length of the mid-ocean ridge system  is ~80,000 km and the continuous mountain range is 65,000 km) and the total length  of trenches (30,000-40,000 km). Whereas, according to the plate tectonics model,  the total length of trenches should be twice as long (~130,000-160,000 km) as that  of mid-ocean ridges.

Any oceanic lithosphere plate (slab) with a thickness of ~50 km is composed of  three main layers: brittle upper layer with temperatures of less than ~573 K;  elastic middle layer with temperatures within the range of ~573-873 K; and plastic  lower layer with temperatures of >~873 K, and it cannot be considered rigid.
It is clearly shown in the paper that under no circumstances would the average  density of an oceanic lithosphere plate be denser than rocks of the upper mantle,  and the formation of negative buoyancy is not possible.

The formation of eclogite requires rocks of the upper continental crust to be  delivered to depths of about 64 km or more, but even if the entire crust of any  region were completely transformed to eclogite, it would still not be enough to  form negative buoyancy by even 0.01 g/cm3.

An oceanic plate has an average geothermal gradient of ~50-86 K/km, and a  temperature of about 1573 K (or 1603 K) at the point of contact between the  lithosphere and asthenosphere, so technically it cannot be considered cold.
Numerous problems of the plate tectonics model are mentioned in the paper with  corresponding references.

The formation of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks cannot be accomplished under  lithostatic pressures alone, and requires the involvement of gigantic (mostly  horizontal) forces. This cannot take place within a subduction zone.
Analysis of the causes of formation of significant overpressure shows that only the  decomposition of rocks (primarily serpentinization of the peridotite layer) can  generate gigantic forces capable of horizontally moving oceanic plates; causing  obductions, subductions, orogenies, or uplift of lithospheric blocks; forming  serpentinite and ophiolite thrusts; and more.

Analysis of the focus depths of earthquakes on continents clearly shows that the  absolute majority of them take place at shallow and very shallow depths, and almost  all of them within the temperature range of the serpentinization process (~473-773  K). This also shows that continental subduction is not possible.

It is shown that serpentinization of the oceanic peridotite layer may cause  formation of either obduction or forced subduction of an oceanic plate near the  continental margin (see Fig. 1), or away from the continental margin (see Fig. 2).
From all of the above, it is clear that plate tectonics is an inconsistent model  violating numerous physical laws, and is based on a large number of incorrect  postulates and assumptions. Given all this evidence, the plate tectonics model is  shown to be a dead end in geology that has unfortunately run its course for too  long.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 4, December 2016. www.ncgt.org  615

Late Permian coal formation under Boreal conditions along the shores of the  Mongol-Transbaikalian seaway
Per Michaelsen
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development,
Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
per.michaelsen@tdt.edu.vn

Discussion and conclusions
Epicontinental seaways have played an important role in terms of providing  accommodation space and the depositional conditions for accumulation of significant  economical deposits of coal and hydrocarbons. Although these seaways are virtually  absent from Earth today, they are the dominant source of much of our information  about marine biodiversity of the past (Harries, 2009).

It is highlighted here that the pan global Permian coal measures are unique in the  evolution of the Earth, not matched in any period before or since (Carey, 2000).  Substantial global extensional tectonic events during the Permian created the  necessary accommodation space for significant peat accumulations, and subsequent  burial and preservation. In Mongolia, the Permian system is widely distributed, not  least in the South Gobi Basin, where very significant coal resources have been  preserved. Extensive field work in the South Gobi Basin since 2005 indicates that  coal deposition and preservation were controlled by an interaction of orbital  climatic forcing of the depositional processes, and somewhat complex syn-tectonic  faulting. Faulting resulted in the development of relatively deep, fault bounded  sub-basins that were the locus for substantial tracts of peat accumulation (e.g.  Tavan Tolgoi coal field with potential 10Bt of coal).

The Permian system is an important part of Mongolia’s geological evolution with the  two marine basins (i.e. SMB and PMTB) and the controversial collision between the  North China block and Mongolia. According to recent work by Eizenhöfer et al.  (2014), from the Late Permian to Early Triassic double-sided subduction led to the  closure of the so-called Paleo-Asian Ocean, resulting in collision and forming the  controversial Solonker Suture Zone. Intriguingly, the up to 1,000m thick Late  Permian coal measures in the South Gobi Basin does not contain tuffs, Late Permian  coals are developed proximal (c. 25-30km) north of the postulated suture zone, and  the Early-Middle Triassic deposits within the South Gobi Basin are characterized by  very limited structural deformation. It is also noted that the coal-bearing strata  within the study area does not contain any tuffs. Detailed studies of the Late  Permian Platypus Tuff Bed in the Bowen Basin by Michaelsen et al. (2001) showed  that the tuff is well preserved over 100’s of kilometers of strike length.  Unfortunately, such tuff marker beds are absent in the Late Permian deposits in  Mongolia.

Evidence of sea-level rise and fall is well displayed in Permian strata on a global  scale (e.g. Ross and Ross, Hansen et al., 2000 and Michaelsen and Henderson, 2000a;  Rampino et al., 2000, Isbell et al., 2003, Shao et al., 2007 and Li et al., 2016).  Interestingly, Haq et al. (1987) identified a total of 119 Early Triassic to  Quaternary sea-level cycles, however of these only 19 (15.9%) began with major  sequence boundaries. In this context the base of the Late Permian coal measures in  the study area (i.e. implied by the FA6 shellbed), might well represent a major  regional extensive sequence boundary.

The sedimentary record documented in this study strongly indicates that the Late  Permian coal measures developed along the shores of a boreal seaway during frequent  sea-level changes. These sea-level changes are also evident by the lithologs from  three logged sections of the boreal seaway by Manankov (2004) and Manankov et al.  (2006) (Figure 1). The Adatzag section (shown by the number 1 north of Mandalgobi  on Figure 1) appears to contain a total of eight cyclothems with an average  thickness of c. 100m, and spans over c. 7My from the Sakmarian to Artinskian. Each  cyclothem thus represent a time span of c. 1My and as such might represent tectonic  pulses.

Observing that every seaway is unique, the general architecture of the PMTB is  considered here to be somewhat comparable to the relatively narrow seaway developed  along the western Norwegian seaboard during Early-Middle Jurassic times (cf.  Martinus et al., 2014). However, these Jurassic seaways were interconnected and  developed in a greenhouse world with elevated temperatures. In contrast, water  circulation within the narrow and relatively shallow PMTB might have resulted in  low oxygen levels in some parts, hence the relatively rare macrofossils observed  within the study area. Alternatively, the high sedimentation rates might have  prevented the Permian fauna to colonize the area.

The two underlying stratigraphic units (P2 cn1 and P2 cn2) are characterized by a  high sandstone/mudstone ratio, dominated by marine sandstone. However, the  drillhole record (DH2 and DH28) shows several horizons with common organic debris.  This suggests that the peat-forming plants were around and colonized the area but  did not have sufficient time to accumulate significant thickness.

Marine macro fossils are rare in the sedimentary record, with only one horizon at  the base of the coal-bearing unit. However, bioturbation is very common in the Late  Permian stratigraphic units both below and above the coal measures.

The coal deposits within the study area are considered here to be time equivalent  to the coal-bearing part of the Late Permian Tavan Tolgoi Group in the South Gobi  Basin, and as such representing a peat mire ecosystem developed close to the  Permo-Triassic boundary. Significantly, the vast majority (c. 95%) of peat-forming  plants became extinct at this boundary (c.f. Michaelsen, 2002). Work is currently  in progress to firmly document and establish the location of the Permo-Triassic  boundary in the study area.

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6 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 1, March 2016. www.ncgt.org
ARTICLES
Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of geosynclines
Vadim Gordienko
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
tectonos@igph.kiev.ua

CONCLUSIONS
The task we set for ourselves in this study has been accomplished. We managed to  explain on a quantitative level (within the limits of real errors) the geological  phenomena and physical fields for two Alpine geosynclines (as well as for many  others -- see INTRODUCTION). It is essential to point out that correlation between  observed and estimated phenomena and fields has been performed without resorting to  adjustment of the simulation parameters. This is precisely the way the author  explains the following:
1. Geothermometry data in crust and upper mantle.
2. Variation of thickness and folded structure of sedimentary layer.
3. Age and contents of igneous rocks.
4. Distribution of heat flow data.
5. Seismic wave velocities in crust and upper mantle.
6. Gravitational effects of density anomalies in upper mantle.
7. Anomalies of electrical conductivity in crust and upper mantle.
We have thereby shown that our hypothesis on deep-seated processes can be applied  to the most intricate -- geosynclinal -- type of endogenous conditions.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 3, September 2016. www.ncgt.org  361
ARTICLES
Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of continental rifts
Vadim Gordienko
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
tectonos@igph.kiev.ua

CONCLUSIONS
The purpose of the paper was to test the feasibility of applying concepts of the  advection-polymorphism hypothesis (APH) to constructing models of deep-seated  processes in the tectonospheres of rifts and single-episode activation zones on  continents. Studies of the Hercynian rift (in the Dnieper-Donets Depression) and of  the Alpine rift (the Massif Central in France), enabled us to explain, at a  quantitative level, geological phenomena and physical fields (within limits of  permissible errors). It is important to point out that agreement between  experimental and estimated data was achieved without the need to adjust parameters  of the models. Thus, we were able to provide explanation for the following:
1. The data of geothermometry for the crust and upper mantle;
2. Evolution of the sedimentary layer thickness and crustal thickness (the latter –  at a qualitative level);
3. The age and composition of igneous rocks, the depths of magma chambers and  temperatures in them;
4. The observed distribution of the heat flow;
5. Seismic wave velocities in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle;
6. Gravitational effects of density anomalies in upper mantle rocks;
7. Electrical conductivity anomalies in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle.

Procedures for the investigation of zones of single-episode activations, which are  currently in progress and which occurred in geological past, have not yet been  worked out in sufficient detail, and it cannot be ruled out that the deep-seated  processes in question differ significantly and, in that case, we will need to  analyze more than one type of endogenous conditions. Still, we did manage to  identify, on the territory of Ukraine, single-episode activation zones and to show  that associated with them are seismicity, anomalous helium isotopy in subsurface  waters, oil and gas presence, heat-flow anomalies, seismic wave velocities in the  subcrustal portion of the upper mantle, electrical conductivity anomalies, negative  gravity anomalies in the mantle, and possibly, also reduction in the Earth’s crust  thickness.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 2, June 2016. www.ncgt.org 159
ARTICLES
Neotectonics of the Gulf Coast and active rifting and wrenching of the United  States: A tale of broken plate tectonics?
Ghulam Sarwar
Independent Consultant, Houston, Texas, USA
gsarwar45@gmail.com

Conclusions
It is clear that the landmasses of USA and that Mexico are active and the basement  underlying the mobile sedimentary cover of the northern Gulf is also mobile, with  the various transfer faults accommodating differential movements among large  crustal blocks (Figs. 8 and 9). The Gulf Coast seems to be a “not so passive  margin” at present, and has been so for a long time. Rifting and wrenching has  already progressed to volcanic activity in Neogene to Recent times in northern  Mexico, Texas, New Mexico (Fig. 8) and as far north as the American northwest.

The transfer faults of the Gulf Coast, Mexico and GOM seem to be active and  probably have been episodically active since the Mesozoic rifting. If so, we need  to change the plate tectonic paradigm that fails to adequately explain the current  seismicity and active tectonics of the North American interior, Mexico and the GOM  (Figs. 8, 9 and 10; Hand, 2015). How can intra-plate and continent-wide deformation  result from abstractions such as “low angle subduction, ridge push, slab pull,  mantle convection, or deep seated candle like plumes?”

Fig. 10. New seismic hazard map, released by the USGS on April 23, 2015, highlights  earthquake risk zones (red to brown with highest risk) that indicates areas with  induced or human-caused quakes (blue boxes on map; Hand, 2015). In north Texas and  adjacent Oklahoma, much of the recent and ongoing seismicity has been linked to the  tight shale production boom, involving multiple “fracking” and reinjection of  produced water under pressure. Manmade seismicity, therefore, is only a relatively  modern phenomenon. Note smaller hot spots along the east coast as well.

Remember, the so-called “intra-plate” movements are not just confined to North  America, but are also common in South America, Africa, Asia, and Europe and even  within the great oceanic regimes. The conventional plate tectonic theory seems to  be at a loss to explain a lot of active deformation around the planet and simply  relies on model-driven thinking devoid of convincing factual data.

The GOM forms an active tectonic link between the Caribbean to the SSE and Mexico  and western North America to the WNW. Basement involved wrenching of the Gulf Coast  is real and constitutes a hither to ignored factor contributing to coastal  subsidence and land loss along the Gulf Coast (Sarwar and Bohlinger, 2005; Dokka,  2006; Gagliano, 2008; Stephens, 2010).

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 1, March 2016. www.ncgt.org 37
Is paleomagnetic data reliable?:
A critical analysis of paleomagnetism
Arkady Pilchin
Universal Geosciences & Environmental Consulting Company
205 Hilda Ave., #1402,
Toronto, Ontario, M2M 4B1, Canada.
arkadypilchin@yahoo.ca
Telephone: +1 416 221-0059

Concluding Remarks
The above analysis of paleomagnetic postulates and assumptions and paleomagnetic  sample selection allows to conclude the following: the main postulates applied in  paleomagnetism must be revised, the main assumptions used in paleomagnetism must be  reconsidered, and the criteria and practices of sample selection in paleomagnetism  allowing collection of samples up to low greenschist metamorphic facies (up to 573 -673 K) render those samples unreliable, because of the transformation of ferrous  to ferric iron (TFFI).

The above analysis also allows to conclude that: paleomagnetism completely ignores  the role of stability of iron oxides in the formation and preservation of magnetic  properties of rocks and minerals; TFFI is not taken into consideration with respect  to the change and preservation of the magnetic fraction of rock samples; practices  of thermal demagnetization (“cleaning”) trigger TFFI each time the temperature is  raised above ~473 K, producing a self-inflicted change of magnetic fraction of  samples; blocking temperatures cannot prevent samples from undergoing TFFI at  temperatures within the range of TFFI; and that in many cases use of samples not  satisfying criteria of sample selection is allowed in paleomagnetism. Lastly, Van  der Voo (1990) dismissed all paleomagnetic data of the 1950s-1960s as unreliable,  which should put to question all conclusions made based on that data, including  continental drift and polar wandering.

The final conclusion of this paper is that paleomagnetism is based on numerous  false postulates and assumptions, and unreliable sample selection that make its  data and results of its interpretation unreliable, as well as most if not all  conclusions made based on this data or its interpretation.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 4, December 2015. www.ncgt.org  489
DEGASSING AND EXPANDING EARTH: NEW MODEL OF
GLOBAL TECTONICS
Nina I. PAVLENKOVA
Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS
ninapav@mail.ru

Conclusions. The degassing and expanding Earth's model of the global tectonics.
The described geological and geophysical data give enable us to suggest the  degassing and expanding model of the tectonosphere formation. The model yields the  solutions to the following key problems of global tectonics:
(1) How were the different crustal types (continental, oceanic, and intermediate)  created?
(2) How were the continents and oceans formed?
(3) What is the origin of the specific structure of the Pacific Ocean with the  tectonically active continental margin?
(4) What is the origin of the regular system of the mid-oceanic ridges?

In this model, the Earth degassing is the main energy source. The spatially  irregular degassing results in the formation of the different types of the  lithosphere. The geochemical studies show that the continental crust was formed  from the mantle material with the high fluid content (Lutz, 1980 and 1999). This  means that the thick continental crust was created in the regions of the higher  deep fluid flows; however, in the areas of the weaker flows (Pacific area), the  primary oceanic crust was preserved, and only some separate spots of the transition  crust appeared.

The deep fluids are also vitally important for the depletion of the continental  upper mantle (Letnikov, 1999, 2000 and 2006) and, as a result, to the decrease in  its density (Kuskov at al., 2014; Pavlenkova and Pavlenkova, 2014; Yegorova and  Pavlenkova, 2014). The latter yields the solution of the main global tectonic  problem, namely, how the continents and oceans were formed? The increase in the  thickness of the lower-density lithosphere led to its uplifting with respect to the  oceanic lithosphere.

The clearly pronounced regularities observed in the structure of the tectonosphere  (regular round shape of the Pacific active margins and the symmetry of the mid- oceanic ridge system relative to the South Pole) are explained by the Earth’s  expansion. This ordering can be formed at two main stages. Primarily, the Pacific  active ring was formed; then, the mid-oceanic ridges were developed as a result of  the more intense extension of the lithosphere in the southern hemisphere.

The suggested global tectonic model is consistent with some processes described by  the other geodynamic concepts: the longtime connection of the deep mantle processes  with tectonics (endogenous regimes), the folding at the lithosphere plate  boundaries (plate tectonics), the intense magmatism (plume tectonics), the rotation  of some lithosphere blocks (wrench tectonics), the mantle material flows along the  weak zones (surge tectonics), etc. However, all these motions are limited in the  scale and intensity: they should not destroy the described regularities in the  tectonosphere structure. The Earth's degassing is a common energy source for all  these and many other processes (convection in the mantle, magnetic pole mobility,  etc.).

The degassing and expanding Earth's model is based on the large factual data on the  continental and oceanic lithosphere structure and on the revealed global  regularities in their structure. The most important points of the suggested model  are (1) the primary origin of the old oceanic, continental and transition crustal  types due to the spatially irregular deep fluid advection, (2) the formation of the  tectonically active Pacific ring and the mid-oceanic fracture zones as a result of  the Earth's expansion, (3) the formation of the continents and oceans after the  uplifting of the less dense depleted continental lithosphere, and (4) the main  energy source of the tectogenesis is the Earth's degassing.

P.S. The main ideas of the suggested model (the Earth's degassing and expansion)  were previously described in the fluid-rotation concept of global tectonics  (Pavlenkova, 2005; 2012a & c). However, for explaining the paleomagnetic data, the  cited concept assumed the rotation of the mantle around the core instead of the  unrealistic large polar wander proposed by Storetvedt (1997 and 2003). After  Pratt’s articles (2013) and the analysis of the extensive additional data  (including the last NCGT publications), it has become clear that the mantle  rotation contradicts the regularities of the main structural elements of the Earth,  especially the asymmetry of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctica; hence, the mantle  rotation was excluded from the new model presented above. The explanation of the  paleomagnetic data can be found not in the motion of the lithospheric plates, or  the entire mantle, or in the polar wander, but in changes of the direction and  intensity of the deep fluid flows in the rotating Earth.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015. www.ncgt.org  263
ARTICLES
ENERGY BALANCE IN THE TECTONOSPHERE
Vadim GORDIENKO
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
tectonos@igph.kiev.ua; vgord@inbox.ru

CONCLUSIONS
The generalization of the data on radiogenic heat generation in upper mantle rocks  within the frameworks of the APH has made it possible:
1. To identify three levels of the HG value (there may also be intermediate levels)  confined to continental Precambrian platforms, geosynclinals belts, and oceans:  0.04; 0.06; and 0.08 μW/m3, respectively.
2. To reveal agreement between the total contemporary heat generation in the crust  and upper mantle for three types of regions despite considerable differences in the  distribution of heat sources versus depth.
3. To show that for all platform regions (and possibly also for Phanerozoic  geosynclinal belts) radiogenic heat generation may be used to quantitatively  account for the heat flow, all deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere over the  known history of the Earth, and the distribution of contemporary and maximum  temperatures in the crust and upper mantle.
4. To map out such parity for a period of geological history of oceans where more  comprehensive studies are hampered by lack of information.

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334 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015.  www.ncgt.org
MOUNTAIN RANGES – A NEWCOMER IN EARTH HISTORY
Karsten M. STORETVEDT
Institute of Geophysics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Karsten.Storetvedt@uib.no

Concluding perspective
In this paper I have argued that broader regions of epeirogenic uplift, with  associated formation of mountain ranges through surface erosion, are a recent  phenomenon in Earth history. Long-term accumulation of hydrous fluids at levels of  the topmost mantle – being in their strongly buoyant and reactive supercritical  state, is thought to be the principal driver of the current tectono-topographic  processes commencing some 5 m.y. ago. It is inferred that continental mountain  ranges are basically linked to the presence of prominent lithospheric fault zones  (formed at various stages of Earth history) along which water-accelerated  eclogitization processes would proceed relatively fast; and because eclogite  transformation implies a reduction of rock volume by some 10-15 % (Austrheim et  al., 1996), the resulting fracture spacing will enable strongly buoyant  supercritical fluids to infiltrate higher levels of the crust.

Prior to say the Middle Mesozoic the surface of the Earth was apparently relatively  featureless and the present continental regions were dominated by shallow seas. By  now the slow internal degassing – presumably having been in a progressive phase  since early Precambrian time, was beginning to build up a strongly gas/fluid  infiltrated carapace (asthenosphere) with a pressure that was sufficiently high to  initiate reconstitution of Earth’s outer brittle shell. In this process, the Moho  interface and a highly irregular lithosphere – including the thinly crusted deep  oceanic basins, finally came into existence (Storetvedt 2003 and 2011). Consistent  with the idea of a slow degassing history and associated physico-chemical internal  disequilibrium, decades of seismic tomography has disclosed that both core and  mantle is characterized by anisotropy and heterogeneity at various scales. Hence,  progressive degassing has led to gradual build-up of fluids and gasses in the outer  regions of the developing mantle.

The inferred degassing-associated reorganization of internal mass is bound to have  altered Earth’s moments of inertia periodically which in turn would have given rise  to changes of planetary spin rate and intermittent events of polar wander. These  dynamical changes can be seen as the trigger of Earth’s jerky tectonic history –  explaining the presence of geological time boundaries, with their geological,  palaeoclimatic and biological upheavals, the transgression-regression cyclicity,  etc. Inferentially, after each dynamo-tectonic pulse the crustal fracture system  had become progressively extended, intensified and reactivated. Hence, the build-up  of hydrostatic pressure increase of the uppermost mantle would be bound to  accelerate transformation of Earth’s early incrustation. Thus, the global tectonic  upheaval during the Upper Mesozoic and Lower Tertiary led to significant fluids- enforced changes of crustal structure and global topography; hence, by the Lower  Tertiary, the deep sea depressions and the present dry land surface was largely ‘in  place’, but continental mountains were still tens of million years away  (Storetvedt, 2003 and 2011).

By the time of the Pliocene, beginning 5 m.y. ago, the long-term evolution of the  Earth’s crust/lithosphere had paved the way for significant fault-controlled  continental epeirogeny with subsequent development of modern mountain topography  often associated with adjacent basin formation; this linkage is thought to be  connected with differentials in the tectonic break-up system of the crust. For  example, the Alpine range is surrounded by the western Mediterranean deep sea  basins, the continental Po plain and the Molasse depocentres. In the case of  crust-cutting thrust/fault zones in continental fold belts, buoyant uplift powered  by super-critical hydrous fluids has apparently been the dominant factor, while  basin formation has been prevalent where the lower crust has been more evenly  fractured enabling effective sub-crustal eclogitization and subsequent delamination  – leading to variable degrees of isostatic subsidence. Furthermore, basin  development inevitably increased the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding  uppermost mantle and thereby giving an extra impetus to pressurized volatiles  beneath adjacent rising continental regions.

In their study of global synchronism in Pacific arc volcanism, Cambray and Cadet  (1994) found that major pulses of volcanic activity took place in the Middle  Miocene as well as during Pliocene-Quaternary times. These findings agree with the  evolutionary pattern discussed above. The dynamo-tectonic pulsation that powered  rising mantle fluids would naturally be in phase with the eustatic sea-level  changes as well as being responsible for time-equivalent volcanism along deep  seated fault zones such as the Benioff zones circumscribing the Pacific.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015. www.ncgt.org  357
ON DISCOVERY OF A NEW PLANETOLOGICAL PHENOMENON: TECTONIC COUPLING OF PLANETS AND  THEIR SATELLITES
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusion
The observation of impressive parallels of important tectonic and morphological  features on surfaces of solid and gaseous planets and their satellites (Earth -  Moon, Mars - Phobos, Pluto – Charon, Saturn – icy satellites) proves that external  structuring forces are responsible for these phenomena. They are recognized as  orbital forces due to celestial body movement in keplerian orbits. The observations  make dubious some planetologic and geologic tectonic hypothesis such as plate  tectonics and importance of the earlier giant impacts.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 2, June 2015. www.ncgt.org 155
CELESTIAL BODIES: RELATION BETWEEN UBIQUITOUS TECTONIC DICHOTOMY AND UNIVERSAL  ROTATION
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
Kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusion
The key question of planetology (in a wider aspect, astronomy) – rotations of  celestial bodies is resolved in connection to this property with their ubiquitous  characteristics - tectonic dichotomy. Tectonic dichotomy (first theorem of the wave  planetology) is a consequence of distorting bodies. Keplerian ellipticity of orbits  requires, according to the Le Chatelier principle, its opposing neutralizing  action. Thus, mass redistribution and rotation are called to create and level  angular momenta of distorted hemispheric segments.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 2, June 2015. www.ncgt.org 187
EVOLUTION OF THE TECTONO-MAGMATIC PULSATIONS IN THE EARTH’S HISTORY
Valery ERMAKOV
Institute of the Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow, Russia
ermak@ifz.ru, ermakov.v@gmail.com

Conclusions
1. The Darwin Rise has no unified tectonic basis and morphological features,  therefore it does not exist in nature, but exists only in literature.
2. MCT with various sizes are typical and important elements of morphostructural  fabric of the Pacific Ocean floor.
3. The long lasting deep focal systems have developed in pulsating and inherited  regime during Late Mesozoic- Early Cenozoic. They form the tectonic basis of large  rises of the Pacific Ocean bottom. Each plume arch-block rises consists in  hierarchical groups of multitude of volcanoes.
4. The focal and fault systems are connected with deep and crustal energy centers  and channels ensuring a delivery of magma, gases, fluids and hydrothermal  migration. Therefore they represent the most adequate tectonic basis for  mineralogenic forecast and division of ore districts of oceanic bottom

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NCGT Journal, V. 3, No. 1, March 2015. www.ncgt.org 29
A LUNAR “MOULD” OF THE EARTH’S TECTONICS: FOUR TERRESTRIAL OCEANS AND FOUR LUNAR  BASINS ARE DERIVATIVE OF ONE WAVE TECTONIC PROCESS
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
Kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusion
The traced correlation between fundamental tectonic features on Earth and Moon –  their Oceans and Basins concerns not only their relative sizes but also a regular  mutual disposition of very different cosmic bodies. What is common between these  bodies; they share the same circumsolar orbit. Axes of rotation – present and past  – show decisive role in layouts of fundamental wave-born tectonic features. Taking  these observations into account, one conclusion may be drawn: It is time to  thoroughly revise existing geological and planetological tectonic concepts.
95
Mike Messages / Re: MF 2/16
« Last post by Admin on February 16, 2017, 01:25:39 pm »
Hi Mike. Do you have calculations of how much bouyancy a 2 or 3 bar atmosphere would give to megafauna? I did a calculation some months ago that seemed to show that at least 100 bars would be needed to provide significant buoyancy, but I don't know if I did it correctly. Also, do you have more details about how much CO2 would degas from the oceans if the atmosphere lost half or two-thirds of its mass, and how much cement would be produced from the CO2 for limestone and sandstone?

I'll respond to your last email later. First I'll send you parts of a recent exchange with Gordon on the Thunderbolts forum. He's a high school science teacher and an amateur geologist in Washington.

On Fri Feb 03, 2017 9:50 pm he had said to me:
"You're on the right track. Those are certainly good categories of data.
Tsunamis deposit laminated beds like other alluvial processes. The question would be, could mega tsunamis operating as a primary (not just occasional) mechanism produce stratigraphic sequences like we see represented by the geologic column?"

On Sat Feb 11, 2017 11:45 am I told Gordon that you said: ""a meteorite swarm, associated with the first bombardment population of Moon craters, collapsed Earth's thick vapor canopy ... the sole source of water for the Great Flood. Members of the meteorite swarm falling into the ocean led observers on land to mistakenly call the resulting water jets "fountains of the great deep". Note that these started and ended at the same time as the rain deluge....""
I commented: I'm not sure what he meant by the canopy as sole source of Flood water, but he seems to have made a very similar conclusion as you about the fountains. He seems to add that the meteors caused the heavy rain. But I thought the meteors continued to fall for 5 months altogether. What do you think?

On Mon Feb 13, 2017 4:46 pm Gordon replied as follows.
_I agree with the phrase "meteor swarm" here as it seems to imply something more ominous than say a meteor shower.
_The "matar" [meteors - LK] were said to fall for a period of about 5 months.
_I'm favorable to associating the matar with moon bombardment.
_I disagree with the hypothesis of the canopy, which is unsupported by any physical principle you may wish to apply to it.
_I do believe that a "layer" of moisture in the vicinity of the tropopause/lower stratosphere did surround the earth, that it was disrupted by the introduction of condensation nuclei originating from large scale volcanic upheaval at the beginning of the deluge period.
_It was generally the source of the several weeks of unprecedented steady downpour, followed by a few months of ongoing (but more intermittent) rainfall, followed by the full emplacement of the current water cycle to this day; but this amount of rain, while an initial signal of the unfolding cataclysm was not the primary cause of the deluge.
_Splashing of the meteor swarm into the ocean was definitely not the "fountains of the deep" as I understand them.
_The fountains of the deep I associate with the mid-ocean rift zones as we find them today.
_It is important to remember that at the beginning of the deluge, these rifts were in or on the continental landmass, which through the period of spreading became the basins of the Atlantic and parts of the Indian and (lesser parts of the) Pacific oceans.
_What began as fountains from the "deep" earth, are still fountains from the "deep" earth, coinciding now with the mid-ridges of the "deep" ocean.
_Let's not be too quick to geographically delimit "deep"... it is an apt descriptive word applying to a variety of situations, but all conforming to a single concept: material erupting out of the earth's crust, whether on land or at sea.
_In my scenario, the sources of the major portion of the deluge water were:
1. the extant ocean waters of the time, powered by massive seismic/volcanic upheaval of the spreading ocean basins; these forces at probably a much smaller scale are observable in the catastrophic action of tsunamis today;
2. major tidal action of a large (passing) planetoid that was responsible also for the bombardment of the matar; it was likely temporarily caught in a co-orbital dance with the earth for the early part of the deluge period; this bombardment is evidenced by astroblemes found throughout the geologic record from PreCambrian through Cenozoic, and evidenced on the surface today;
3. subterranean water sources that were/are part and parcel of the pressures powering igneous processes in the deep crust or upper mantle; huge volumes of water are seen to surface during volcanic eruptions.
_An important part of my scenario is that its mechanisms are associated with presently observable/researchable evidence.

On Mon Feb 13, 2017 5:15 pm Grey Cloud asked Gordon:
"Quick question so quick answer is fine. Why do you think the water(s) came from the mid-ocean rift zones? My (limited) understanding is that quakes can cause water to issue from the ground."

On Mon Feb 13, 2017 5:45 pm Gordon answered Grey Cloud as follows.
_I think that a good fraction of the deluge water had a subterranean origin.
_As we see today in steamy volcanic eruptions both on land and at sea, a lot of this deep origin water enters into the water cycle via billowing into the atmosphere and eventually precipitates back to the ground and eventually into the oceans.
_But also in the rift zones are found the famous "black smokers" discovered by R. Ballard (of Titanic fame) and others, which are billowing out sulfurous concentrations of very hot water from deep below the crust.
_As to water surfacing during "normal" quakes, and/or near active faults, further detail is needed to know whether this is from ground water or has a deeper origin.
_Modern research is showing the creation of subterranean water from the mixture of silicates and hydrogen originating deep below the surface.
_Is this the origin of the original seas on the earth? Perhaps.
_Standard geology has an oft quoted adage: If ... all of the known volcanoes, both inactive and active, produced the amount of water seen in volcanic eruptions, it would be enough to account for all of the world's oceans.
_There is no reason why this concept cannot apply also (and even more aptly) to catastrophic geology.
96
Mike Messages / Re: MF 2/15
« Last post by Admin on February 16, 2017, 01:22:51 pm »
[For reply: The Torah Retold http://qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=5675 ]

RE: Megatsunamis
Wednesday, February 15, 2017 8:03 PM
Lloyd, my responses are "M2" below. - Mike

    _M: Megatsunamis would require a much larger body [than the Moon], and an erratic orbit to induce flow in orthogonal directions.
    =L: What info do you have on the direction of flow of waters that deposited megasequences? All I've read from Baumgardner or another creationist is that the floods swept from the NE to the SW. A catastrophist, Cardona, has said that the flood came from the north. I think he was quoting early Native American sources. The Saturn Theory, based on ancient myths etc, is similar to Velikovsky's theory and provides several planets, especially Venus and Mars, as possible causes of tsunamis, so there could have been planets temporarily orbiting Earth on different orbital planes (See more at the end).

    M2: Flow over North America appears to have been to the SW.  Other parts of the world were different.  This ICR article cites a report of flow to the NE in Siberia -  http://www.icr.org/article/4208/  I don't recall Noah seeing Venus and Mars fighting in the sky or passing so close to the Earth as to rival the Moon in the sky in order to influence tides.  Note that the description in Genesis is that the waters rose and the waters fell.  The Ark was not swept all over the world by high-energy currents; it landed near where it launched in Mesopotamia.

    _M: The Moon would have to be much closer (but beyond the Roche limit) and would only cause water flow along its orbital path.
    =L: Since moons exist within Roche limits and since Mathis reasoned that Roche limits don't exist, do you think he is likely right?

    M2: The Roche limit is basic gravitational astrophysics, simply identifying the point at which the force of tides overcomes the force holding the object together.  Gravity, composition, and volume are all factors.  Seems fairly obvious.

    _M: Paleontologists can distinguish freshwater and saltwater denizens, which still exist today.
    =L: Aren't the dinosaurs considered to be freshwater animals? And yet they appear to have drowned in saltwater. Have they not?

    M2: In the Hell Creek Formation Triceratops, who ate vegetation, are buried with saltwater seashells.  All variety of mixing is evident in the fossil record around the world.

    _M: Clearly the most sweeping megatsunamis would have come from the rising ocean waters as the rain fell since they covered 60% or more of Earth's surface.
    _On the other hand, water rising on the protocontinent would have flowed outward.
    =L: How would rain cause tsunamis? Baumgardner calculated that the sedimentary strata, which average 1.8 km thick, would have needed tsunamis 2.5 km high to transport all the sand and mud etc onto the supercontinent. Why would that not be correct?

    M2: The Moon still caused global tides during the Great Flood.  If you double the amount of water on the Earth over 40 days, the tidal waves become tsunamis.

    _M: The sediment layer on the seafloor averages only .5 km thick.
    =L: Do you have figures on how much of that is solid rock? And do you know which megasequence/s the rock belongs to? The Atlantic shouldn't have any flood-formed strata, should it?

    M2: Seafloor sediment is different than continental sedimentary rock.  It is composed of organics, clay, and minerals that settle to the bottom.  In places, especially near continents, there are the remains of avalanches (turbidites), but there is nothing like the megasequences found on land.

    _M: There are lots of examples of spreading and stretching of continental crust involved in separation, which is another reason that brittle Plate Tectonics is faulty.
    =L: Do you mean the supercontinent was not hardened granite and hardened sedimentary rock when it broke up?

    M2: As with any material, the dominant forces that hold continental crust together change with scale.  While granite and sedimentary rock are brittle on a small scale, at continental scale they are thixotropic.  When agitated with sufficient force, the crust acts as a Bingham Fluid, returning to a coherent solid when the agitating force subsides below the threshold level.

    _M: I think the K-Pg iridium layer and probably the glass spherules are associated with Chicxulub.
    ... It was laid down long before the SD event, which I think produced the Australasian tektite strewnfield.
    =L: Do you have detailed info on that? Isn't the iridium in a layer of clay? And isn't there also charcoal as from a conflagration? And isn't the iridium/clay layer above the layer of spherules? Can you explain that in detail?

    M2: Following the Great Flood the highest surface sedimentary stratum was Cretaceous.  The Chicxulub impact occurred on top of that, depositing iridium, glass spherules, and flame products.  However, researcher Gerta Keller has made a case for the iridium layer and reworked micro-tektites associated with the K-Pg boundary falling 300,000 years (uniformitarian), i.e. 50 cm, after the Chicxulub impact.  That would mean the SD impact produced them instead, and the Chicxulub impact struck at the end of the Great Flood.  The attached chart if from one of her papers.

    _M: What evidence is there that the Moon ever split [to form the supercontinent]?
    =L: All I know is that the Moon is said to have similar composition to Earth's continents, I think, although the mares are said to be basalt. I have a few references on that. What I read today about the Roche limit makes me more confident that close passes of planets, moons, or asteroids would be possible.
    _Mathis says all matter gives off photons that have mass, so when bodies are close enough together they cause tides. He says the force is like pressing down on a beachball in a bathtub. It makes the surrounding waters rise. As the body moves overhead it's photon force is like a beachball moving on the ocean, causing tidal waves around it. So a large enough beachball would make tidal waves large enough to roll over a low-level supercontinent, carrying along sediments. What do you think of that?

    M2: Similar composition of the Moon and Earth relate to the origin of the Moon as a product of a collision with Earth by something else earlier.  There is no reason to think a chunk of Moon later broke off and fell onto Earth to cause the Great Flood.  Celestial bodies have intrinsic mass; photons are not involved.  Gravitational attraction between two of them causes tides, not photonic pressure.

    _M: I haven't heard about fields of mass-containing photons before; aren't photons usually considered to be massless? Where can I find the myths involving Jupiter, Saturn, and the rocky planets interacting before the Great Flood?
    =L: Although conventional science considers photons massless and dimensionless, it makes no sense. The photon would be like a ghost. How could such a thing have any effect on matter?
    _Regarding Saturn Theory myths, one source is http://www.catastrophism.com/intro/search.cgi?zoom_query=
    which does searches of numerous sources, but only like ten lines at a time. Others are http://maverickscience.com and http://saturniancosmology.org/files/thoth
    _The evidence from myths etc suggests that Venus, Mars and Earth were previously satellites of Saturn, moving in single file behind Saturn from distant parts of the solar system to the present orbits. In Kronos magazine in the 1980s probably, Cardona speculated that Jupiter was once close to Earth and its moon Io was the source of the fire and brimstone that fell on Sodom and Gemorrah. He may have abandoned that theory later, but I'm not sure. Anyway, the most ancient myths called Saturn the Sun. Later the name was transferred to the present Sun. This video discusses the theory well: youtube.com/watch?v=t7EAlTcZFwY

    M2: Modern sub-atomic physics is obsessed with particles, which I think is a mistake.  In my and other renegades' opinions, light is only a wave which propagates in space through a medium called "ether".  The wave transfers energy only (which can affect mass), so light is massless.  Modern physics designates light as particles called photons, to which they assign no mass; same result/different paradigm.  Regarding the shuffling around of planetary orbits in the solar system, it would be wise to try to find out if it is physically possible before taking interpretations of myths at face value.  Even if an orbital mechanics scenario could be devised, I doubt it could be resolved over the relatively short time covering human history.
97
Mike Messages / Megatsunamis
« Last post by Admin on February 14, 2017, 08:29:40 pm »
Okay, Mike, I have some more questions now. Oops. I got your next email, so I'll add discussion of that at the end of this.

_M: Megatsunamis would require a much larger body [than the Moon], and an erratic orbit to induce flow in orthogonal directions.
=L: What info do you have on the direction of flow of waters that deposited megasequences? All I've read from Baumgardner or another creationist is that the floods swept from the NE to the SW. A catastrophist, Cardona, has said that the flood came from the north. I think he was quoting early Native American sources. The Saturn Theory, based on ancient myths etc, is similar to Velikovsky's theory and provides several planets, especially Venus and Mars, as possible causes of tsunamis, so there could have been planets temporarily orbiting Earth on different orbital planes (See more at the end).

_M: The Moon would have to be much closer (but beyond the Roche limit) and would only cause water flow along its orbital path.
=L: Since moons exist within Roche limits and since Mathis reasoned that Roche limits don't exist, do you think he is likely right?

_M: Paleontologists can distinguish freshwater and saltwater denizens, which still exist today.
=L: Aren't the dinosaurs considered to be freshwater animals? And yet they appear to have drowned in saltwater. Have they not?

_M: Clearly the most sweeping megatsunamis would have come from the rising ocean waters as the rain fell since they covered 60% or more of Earth's surface.
_On the other hand, water rising on the protocontinent would have flowed outward.
=L: How would rain cause tsunamis? Baumgardner calculated that the sedimentary strata, which average 1.8 km thick, would have needed tsunamis 2.5 km high to transport all the sand and mud etc onto the supercontinent. Why would that not be correct?

_M: The sediment layer on the seafloor averages only .5 km thick.
=L: Do you have figures on how much of that is solid rock? And do you know which megasequence/s the rock belongs to? The Atlantic shouldn't have any flood-formed strata, should it?

_M: There are lots of examples of spreading and stretching of continental crust involved in separation, which is another reason that brittle Plate Tectonics is faulty.
=L: Do you mean the supercontinent was not hardened granite and hardened sedimentary rock when it broke up?

_M: I think the K-Pg iridium layer and probably the glass spherules are associated with Chicxulub.
... It was laid down long before the SD event, which I think produced the Australasian tektite strewnfield.
=L: Do you have detailed info on that? Isn't the iridium in a layer of clay? And isn't there also charcoal as from a conflagration? And isn't the iridium/clay layer above the layer of spherules? Can you explain that in detail?

_M: What evidence is there that the Moon ever split [to form the supercontinent]?
=L: All I know is that the Moon is said to have similar composition to Earth's continents, I think, although the mares are said to be basalt. I have a few references on that. What I read today about the Roche limit makes me more confident that close passes of planets, moons, or asteroids would be possible.
_Mathis says all matter gives off photons that have mass, so when bodies are close enough together they cause tides. He says the force is like pressing down on a beachball in a bathtub. It makes the surrounding waters rise. As the body moves overhead it's photon force is like a beachball moving on the ocean, causing tidal waves around it. So a large enough beachball would make tidal waves large enough to roll over a low-level supercontinent, carrying along sediments. What do you think of that?

_M: I haven't heard about fields of mass-containing photons before; aren't photons usually considered to be massless? Where can I find the myths involving Jupiter, Saturn, and the rocky planets interacting before the Great Flood?
=L: Although conventional science considers photons massless and dimensionless, it makes no sense. The photon would be like a ghost. How could such a thing have any effect on matter?
_Regarding Saturn Theory myths, one source is http://www.catastrophism.com/intro/search.cgi?zoom_query=
which does searches of numerous sources, but only like ten lines at a time. Others are http://maverickscience.com and http://saturniancosmology.org/files/thoth
_The evidence from myths etc suggests that Venus, Mars and Earth were previously satellites of Saturn, moving in single file behind Saturn from distant parts of the solar system to the present orbits. In Kronos magazine in the 1980s probably, Cardona speculated that Jupiter was once close to Earth and its moon Io was the source of the fire and brimstone that fell on Sodom and Gemorrah. He may have abandoned that theory later, but I'm not sure. Anyway, the most ancient myths called Saturn the Sun. Later the name was transferred to the present Sun. This video discusses the theory well: youtube.com/watch?v=t7EAlTcZFwY
98
Mike Messages / Moho, Roche Limit, Tides, Myths
« Last post by Admin on February 14, 2017, 10:56:51 am »
Moho, Roche Limit, Tides, Myths
Hi Mike.
I have a lot of reading to do to reply to your last email. I'll ask later what you know about strata deposition directions etc, but for now I'll just reply regarding the Moho, the Roche limit and a little about tides. Charles thinks tides are electrostatic. So does Miles Mathis in a sense. Mathis says the Roche limit is a myth, quoting below. Maybe that means an asteroid could make a relatively soft landing on Earth to form the supercontinent. Several moons are known to be within the supposed Roche limit.

You said: "Why would the Moho be plasma?" Because the Moho is at the depth below which electron degeneracy pressure squeezes the electrons out of atoms, so the electrons are pushed up above the bottom of the Moho. And the crustal tides cause the crust to move up and down 1 meter each day, so the Moho is 1 meter thick at high tide and close to zero at low tide. So the Moho is continuously getting ohmic heating. See for details Charles' paper at http://qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=9925

Charles said privately yesterday: "The formula for calculating tidal forces was heuristically deriven, since Newtonian mechanics doesn't predict tides as strong as they actually are. And heuristic formulas don't scale well — there's no guarantee that the results will be correct. If I'm right, that tides are electrostatic, the existing heuristic formula for tides won't predict the forces at different distances at all."

=====
My main interest here is trying to determine if an asteroid or planet temporarily orbiting Earth elliptically would produce tsunamis at perigee over one or two kilometers high and, if so, how close and large the object would need to be.

Below are a bunch of excerpts from Mathis on Tides and the Roche Limit. Can anyone help me find a way to calculate from this the perigee and size of an object to raise such tides?

OCEAN TIDES
http://milesmathis.com/tide2.html
E/M FIELD
The most astonishing thing I have discovered in my Unified Field is that small objects have stronger E/M fields than larger ones. Given two spherical objects of equal density and make-up, the smaller of the two will have a stronger E/M field, not just relatively, but absolutely. The Moon has a field that is 110 times stronger than the Earth's field. ... This is due to the ratio of the surface area to the volume, of course. A smaller sphere will have the same ratio of mass to volume as a larger sphere, by the definition of density. But it will have a larger ratio of density to surface area, which proves my point.
[But doesn't the Sun have a much stronger E/M field than any planet?]

TIDAL E/M PUSH
... The gravitational force pulls us down, as an effect, and the E/M field pushes us up, as an effect, so the result is mostly down, to the tune of 9.8. But now I am saying that instead of subtracting, we add. The Moon causes the vector situation to switch. So now, directly under the Moon, we have about 9.82 m/s2 as our resultant acceleration. And this makes the tidal acceleration
.009545 x 2 = .0191 m/s2
And that is 572 times the maximum tidal force from gravity. So, yes, you would weigh about .2% more directly under the Moon.

ORBITAL DISTANCE
... the orbital distance of the Moon is not a coincidence. ... the orbital distance, which we are calling R here, is a direct outcome of the two fields, E/M and acceleration (gravity). These two fields cause the orbital distance. The acceleration creates an apparent attraction, and the E/M field keeps the Moon from being caught. The Moon's "innate" velocity is also involved, of course, but the two fields determine this as well, after any amount of time.3 So R is completely determined by the size of the bodies and their densities. The Moon must orbit at (or near) that radius where its field intercepts 1/3 of the Earth's sphere. ... In the center of the circle the force is radial. In other words, it comes straight down upon the ocean. ... You can see that the initial force will change from radial to tangential as we go out from the center of our circle.

OCEAN WATER PILE
... Now, if we look just beyond the tangent — which is to say just beyond our circle of initial influence — we find water that has not been touched by any force at all. It is completely unaccelerated. As our accelerated water meets this unaccelerated water, it will pile up behind it, causing a swell. This is one of our high tides. In the initial stages of our analysis, it must be a complete circle of high tides, with a diameter on the curved surface of the Earth equal to 1/3 the circumference of the Earth. It will travel at some velocity around to the far side of the Earth, until blocked by a land mass or resisted by a reverse tide.

RADIAL FORCE
But let us return to our central force. ... It hits the Earth like a radial meteor, except that this meteor has a radius of 378,000km. It is like a meteor with a very low density. The main difference between our force from the Moon and a real meteor is that our force keeps arriving continuously. ... although the force is radial, the motion created is tangential. The water does not want to move down, and at greater depths it does not want to move sideways, either. So the result is motion sideways nearer the surface. Another circular wave is created, traveling out from the center. Initially this central wave is 60o behind the outer wave, and unless we show that it is moving faster than the outer wave, it will stay 60o behind it.

MAGNETIC FORCE
... By the right hand rule, if the electrical force is radial down, then the magnetic force will be clockwise, looking down on the ocean. Toward the center of our circle, this should have a magnifying effect on the electrical force, giving it the effect of a screw instead of a nail. ... The screws therefore cause a spreading, which magnifies the lateral forces already in play with the electrical field. The magnetic field and the electrical field work in tandem to produce the central wave.

SOLAR WIND EFFECTS
http://milesmathis.com/tide3.html
... What really causes the spring and neap tide variation is the Solar Wind.

ARCHIMEDES EFFECT
http://milesmathis.com/tide5.html
... If the Moon is directly above you, you are at the center of the depression. You are lower than the mean sea level (sea levels without a Moon), but the rest of the world is at high tide (or would be, minus time lags). This is because the mechanism of tide creation is relatively simple: when the Moon is over water, it creates a lower sea below it, and this forces all the other water higher. Just take a beach ball into the bathtub, press it down ... The tangential velocity of the Moon is already said to balance the gravitational forces between the two bodies, so there is no leftover force to create tides. ...  Not only is the Moon not oblate to any degree, with apsides pointing anywhere, if anything the Moon shows a negative tidal bulge on the front.

... the force arriving from the Moon is neither negative nor positive. It is photonic, not ionic, in the first instance. However, once it arrives, it must act by driving free ions. That is how the charge field becomes active in the E/M field. The photons drive ions.

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
http://milesmathis.com/tide4.html
... What we now call the gravitational field is actually a differential field made up of both the gravitational pseudo field and the E/M field. All fluctuations belong to the E/M component; none to the gravitational component. This makes it so much easier to explain the menstrual cycle, as well as to test the theory. We already know that the brain and nervous system work in large part on electrical impulses. The body, like the oceans, is mostly saltwater: therefore it is a lovely conductor. These and many other facts, too obvious to dwell on, lead directly to confirmation of my theory. We also know that manmade electrical fields can upset animal and plant cycles, including the human menstrual cycle.

---

ELECTROSTATIC TIDES
Charles Chandler thinks tides are electrostatic (See http://qdl.scs-inc.us/?top=9925 regarding crustal tides). So does Miles Mathis in a sense. Charles said privately yesterday: "The formula for calculating tidal forces was heuristically deriven, since Newtonian mechanics doesn't predict tides as strong as they actually are. And heuristic formulas don't scale well — there's no guarantee that the results will be correct. If I'm right, that tides are electrostatic, the existing heuristic formula for tides won't predict the forces at different distances at all."

=====

See also: http://milesmathis.com/tide4.html

A RECALCULATION OF THE ROCHE LIMIT
http://milesmathis.com/roche.html
["E/M field" means the field of mass-containing photons received and emitted by all matter.]
Now let us calculate the first new Roche limit, where the E/M field balances the gravity field. Using the equations from my UFT paper, we just set the two fields to equal one another:

m(A + a) = [GMm/R2 ] – [m(A + a)]
2(A + a) = GM/R2
R = √{GM/[2A + 2a]}

For the Earth and Moon, that distance would be about 4,006 km. To find that number, I used my new accelerations for Earth and Moon. In those equations, the accelerations are for the solo gravity field, not the unified field, so standard-model numbers are not what we want. Current numbers are calculated from Newton's unified field equation, and are field differentials. In other words, I used the number 2.67 for the Moon, not 1.62.

What I just found is a Roche limit assuming the Moon has no tangential velocity.

...
So let us calculate a new Roche limit assuming the Moon keeps its current orbital velocity. We will assume, like Newton, that the Moon has an “innate” tangential velocity, uncaused by the field itself. I have shown that this is not the case, but we can choose any velocity we like to develop an equation, and the current one is as good as any.

[m(A + a)] – mv2 /2R = [GMm/R2 ] – [m(A + a)]
4R2 (A + a) – v2R – 2GM = 0
R = v2 + √[v4 + 32GM(A + a)]
               8(A + a)
For the Moon, that would be
R = 4,023km

... But let us move on to look at the second sort of Roche limit, the one that mirrors more closely the current one. We want to find a distance at which the E/M field would break up an orbiter. As should already be clear from our analysis of Pan above, this limit is a phantom. If Pan is still experiencing accretion when it is so near the surface of a huge planet, then we may assume that the tidal Roche limit is a complete myth. The E/M Roche limit would also be a myth, in that case, because we can see from Pan that neither field is strong enough to disintegrate a moonlet, even when it is low density and hammered by collisions.

The E/M field would tend to bounce a large body out of a low orbit, because a level of balance would be impossible to find in a natural way. Large bodies simply don't settle into low orbits with little or no impact trajectory. If they have high incoming velocities, the primary bounces them away with a quick increase in the E/M field. If they have low velocities, the E/M field keeps them at a greater orbital distance.

This is why only very small bodies are found in low orbits. They encounter a small section of the charge field [E/M field], feel a much smaller repulsion, and settle into orbit much more slowly. This is also why they can exist in these low orbits: using their own charge fields, they funnel the primary's charge field around them, encountering a smaller effect. Larger bodies can't do this nearly as efficiently.

... Now let us look at a near approach of Jupiter and Saturn, using these new equations. How close did the two great planets come millions of years ago, in order to create a resonance? We can now find out.

To use my new equation, we have to first calculate new accelerations for Jupiter and Saturn, based only on their radii. We do that with a proportionality with the Earth.

9.81/RE = x/RJ = y/RS
x = 110.7
y = 92.7

R = √{GM/[2A + 2a]}
R = 18,110 km

Saturn may have come that close to Jupiter, in being bounced away by the combined E/M fields (supposing the planets had no tangential velocities relative to one another). That was a very close call, and a much closer pass or a hit might have upset or destroyed the entire Solar System. Our entire history may have depended on that near pass. And in millions of years, when the resonant cycle returns to that near pass, the Solar System will once again hang on the outcome.

This means that the rings and satellite systems of Jupiter and Saturn must have re-formed since that close pass.

[Ancient myths suggest that the two gas giants and the inner rocky planets were all involved in close encounters about the time before the Great Flood.]
99
LK1 Sedimentation / MEGASEQUENCES
« Last post by Admin on February 12, 2017, 08:37:47 pm »
The meaning of the Great Unconformity and Sauk Megasequence

by Michael J. Oard
Grand-Canyon

Figure 1. The Great Unconformity of the Grand Canyon (upper arrow) above another nearly-flat unconformity between Precambrian sedimentary rocks, dipping downward toward the right, and the igneous and metamorphic rocks below (lower arrow).

The Great Unconformity, first defined in the Grand Canyon in 1869, separates the Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone from the underlying Precambrian rocks (the geological column and timescale are used for discussion purposes only). There is some confusion in the Grand Canyon in that there is a second major unconformity between the Precambrian sedimentary rocks and the igneous and metamorphic rocks (figure 1). The uniformitarian origin of the Great Unconformity is supposed to be slow denudation over about a billion years that resulted in a nearly flat planation surface. Then after this denudation, a shallow marine transgression deposited the Tapeats Sandstone, Bright Angel Shale, and Muav Limestone in a fining upward sequence called the Tonto Group.

It is now known that the Great Unconformity has a wide extent over North America, as seen on top of the upper crust. The Great Unconformity is a distinctive physical boundary between mostly igneous rocks of the upper crust and a layer of sandstone. It apparently also occurs on other continents:
There has been confusion on the timing of the formation of the mountaintop planation surfaces.

    “The Great Unconformity is well exposed in the Grand Canyon, but this geomorphic surface, which records the erosion and weathering of continental crust followed by sediment accumulation, can be traced across Laurentia and globally, including Gondwana, Baltica, Avalonia and Siberia, making it the most widely recognized and distinctive stratigraphic surface in the rock record.”1

The Great Unconformity is also considered a unique feature within the last 900 Ma of uniformitarian time.2 The Tonto Group in the Grand Canyon is also recognized as covering about half of North America and is called the Sauk Megasequence,1 the bottom of six megasequences that supposedly account for sedimentation over North America. The Sauk sequence is well defined lithologically on top of the upper crust and locally on Precambrian sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. However, the other five sequences are based on many assumptions, such as fossil dating and not lithology, and are commonly missing large sections in North America (see below).
The Great Unconformity in Montana and Wyoming

I have observed the Great Unconformity at several locations in Wyoming and Montana. Whereas the Great Unconformity is near the bottom of 1,200 m of flat strata in the Grand Canyon, it occurs at the tops of some mountain ranges in Wyoming and Montana. For instance, there are planation surfaces on the granite and gneiss of the Beartooth Mountains, Wind River Mountains, Bighorn Mountains, and locally in the northern Teton Mountains (figure 2).
Mount-Moran

Figure 2. The top of Mount Moran, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, US, showing the Great Unconformity with a 15 m erosional remnant of Flathead Sandstone (arrow).4 The vertical black rock is a dike of diabase, a basalt-like rock.

However, there has been confusion on the timing of the formation of the mountaintop planation surfaces, i.e. whether these planation surfaces represent the Great Unconformity. This is because there are planation surfaces that formed in the area after the time of the Great Unconformity. For instance, a planation surface exists on the westward-dipping sedimentary rocks on the west side of the Wind River Mountains (figure 3) at about the same elevation as those on the granite and gneiss. A planation surface also exists on the top of the southern Absaroka Mountains. These planing events are much later in ‘geological time’ and so have caused some geologists to believe that the planing event also included the flat-topped granite and gneiss mountains of the upper continental crust: “The age and origin of the high-level erosion surface [in the Wind River Mountains], the Rocky Mountains and others have been the subject of much debate.”3

The Absaroka Mountains represent volcanic breccia flows, called the Absaroka Volcanics, that have piled up about 1,800 m deep over an area of 23,000 km2 and contain multiple levels of vertical petrified trees at numerous locations.4 They are dated Eocene, which is early Cenozoic, within the uniformitarian geological column.

The flows occurred after the Heart Mountain and South Fork detachments and filled in the depression left after the gravity slides.5 After deposition and planing of the Absaroka Mountains, extensive erosion set in to erase the planation surface in the northern portion and produce canyons up to about 1,200 m deep.
Problems with the uniformitarian explanation

The uniformitarian scientists claim that the Great Unconformity represents a long period of continental denudation, well over a billion years at many locations. This is in the context of attempting to explain the evolution of biomineralization by means of the geochemical effects of prolonged continental weathering and denudation.6 However, erosion does not form planation surfaces today, except locally when a river floods and erodes its banks.7 Planation surfaces are being destroyed by present-day erosion, especially by running water that forms channels and valleys. Geomorphologist C.H. Crickmay states:

    “There is no reason to suppose that any kind of wasting ever planes an area to flatness: decrepitation always roughens; rain-wash, even on ground already flat and smooth, tends to furrow it.”8

After the supposed long formation of the Great Unconformity, the Sauk Megasequence then was spread over much of North America. It is believed to represent a continental transgression of the sea but seems contradictory in that the fining upward sequence is so widespread over large areas. A rising sea level in such a transgression would be expected to produce a more chaotic distribution of sediments with much conglomerate over short lateral and vertical spatial scales—unlike the Sauk Megasequence.
A possible diluvial explanation of the Great Unconformity and Sauk Megasequence?
Gypsum-mountain

Figure 3. Planation surface on Gypsum Mountain, northwest Wind River Mountains of westcentral Wyoming. The mountain is composed of carbonate rocks with beds dipping west about 40° to the right.

I have come to the conclusion that the mountaintop planation surfaces on the granite and gneiss of some Wyoming and Montana mountains is really the Great Unconformity that has been exhumed from under thick sedimentary rocks. The evidence for this is that thick sedimentary rocks still cover many mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains, such as the Owl Creek Range that makes up the southern boundary of the Bighorn basin. The mountains apparently did not uplift enough for all the sedimentary rocks to be eroded off. Moreover, Paleozoic erosional remnants have been left on top of the planation surfaces, such as Beartooth Butte on top of the Beartooth Mountains and a 15-m thick remnant of Flathead Sandstone, equivalent to the Tapeats Sandstone in Grand Canyon, on top of Mount Moran (arrow in figure 2). The other mountaintop planation surfaces on the west side of the Wind River Mountains and the Absaroka Mountains would then represent planation during Flood runoff.

The Great Unconformity and Sauk Megasequence, plus the later planation surfaces, can be explained by Flood catastrophic processes. A possible model for the formation of these features follows. The early Flood unleashed the mechanism of the Flood, which I think was caused by impacts.9 The very early Flood should be the most catastrophic part of the Flood, and with multiple impacts very strong currents and turbulence would occur. Such a mechanism would scour the continents down to a planation surface, even causing the second major unconformity below Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the Grand Canyon. It would also greatly erode the surface and pulverize the sediments into fine particles. Little deposition would occur at this point, except in protected deep basins that are likely impact basins.10

With the waning of the early Flood mechanism, currents and turbulence would decrease and the ‘Great Deposition’ would occur. This deposition resulted in the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments that we observe over much of the continents today. These sedimentary rocks are little deformed, widespread, fine-grained, and show little, if any, erosion within and between the layers, as if all these widespread sediment layers were deposited in one single uninterrupted sequence. In fact, such deposition was admitted by three geologists for the early to middle Paleozoic sedimentary rocks uplifted in the Teton Mountains of northwest Wyoming:

    “The regularity and parallelism of the layers in well-exposed sections suggest that all these rocks were deposited in a single uninterrupted sequence.”11

However, the geologists do not believe their eyes and stretch the deposition of this 600-m thick sequence into 200 Ma because of their stretched-out timescale. Such great time injected between the layers makes no sense based on present day erosional patterns that can erode all the continents to sea level in a few tens of millions of years. Based on erosion today, which is an application of the uniformitarian principle, the data do not support such long time periods subjectively interjected within the sedimentary rocks.
The Great Unconformity is low down in the Grand Canyon but located at the tops of mountains in Wyoming and Montana.

Such widespread deposition of many layers, one on top of the other, with little or no erosion is what we would expect during the early Flood.12 The first megasequence, the Sauk, is well defined as it covers about half of North America, but it looks like the other five megasequences are sketchy with missing megasequences over large areas of North America.

For instance, the next to the oldest megasequence, the Tippecanoe (dated as Ordovician and Silurian), is almost entirely missing from the Grand Canyon area and in Montana and Wyoming. Moreover, the second-youngest megasequence, the Zuni, is missing over most of central and eastern North America. Maybe this was because of erosion. Regardless, further research is required to understand whether such megasequences are real or not and what they may mean.
The warping of the Great Unconformity

Once the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were deposited in the Rocky Mountains region, great differential uplift (Psalm 104:8) occurred in the Cenozoic to form the current high mountains and deep basins filled with thick sedimentary rocks.13 For instance, the Uinta Mountains of northeast Utah rose up 12 km relative to the adjacent basins during the Cenozoic.14 That is why the Great Unconformity is low down in the Grand Canyon but located at the tops of mountains in Wyoming and Montana. The thick sedimentary rocks were greatly eroded from off many of the ranges in the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Plateau with some of the eroded debris continuing to fill up the valleys and basins of the Rocky Mountains and being transported off the continent to form the continental shelves.15,16 This is the time when the continents were greatly eroded, forming planation surfaces with tall erosional remnants during sheet flow erosion, and pediments, water and wind gaps, deep canyons, and valleys during channelized erosion.13,17

During the channelized erosion, the top several hundred to possibly 1,000 m of sediments and sedimentary rocks eroded from the Rocky Mountain basins and valleys and High Plains of the western United States.

The Flood can indeed explain the big picture geology of the continents, including the Great Unconformity, the Great Deposition starting with the Sauk Megasequence over half of North America, differential vertical tectonics, and the huge erosion of the continents that resulted in all the unique geomorphological features.
Related Articles

    It’s plain to see
    Defining the Flood/post-Flood boundary in sedimentary rocks
    The remarkable African Planation Surface
    Can the relative timing of radioisotope dates be applied to biblical geology?

Further Reading

    Noah’s long-distance travelers
    Large cratonic basins likely of impact origin

References and notes

    Peters, S.E. and Gaines, R.R., Formation of the ‘Great Unconformity’ as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion, Nature 484:363, 2012. Return to text.
    Peters and Gaines, ref. 1, p. 366. Return to text.
    Steidtmann, J.R., Middleton, L.T. and Shuster, M.W., Post-Laramide (Oligocene) uplift in the Wind River Range, Wyoming, Geology 17:38, 1989. Return to text.
    Hergenrather, J., Vail, T., Oard, M. and Bokovoy, D., Your Guide to Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks: A different Perspective, Master Books, Green Forest, AR, 2013. Return to text.
    Clarey, T.L., South Fork and Heart Mountain faults: examples of catastrophic, gravity-driven ‘overthrusts’, northwest Wyoming, USA; in: Horstemeyer, M. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism, Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013. Return to text.
    Peters and Gains, ref. 1, pp. 363–366. Return to text.
    Crickmay, C.H., The Work of the River: A Critical Study of the Central Aspects of Geomorphogeny, American Elsevier, New York, p. 214, 1974. Return to text.
    Crickmay, ref. 7, p. 127. Return to text.
    Oard, M.J., How many impact craters should there be on the earth?, J. Creation 23(3):61–69, 2009. Return to text.
    Oard, M.J., Large cratonic basins likely of impact origin, J. Creation 27(3):118–127, 2013; creation.com/large-cratonic-basins. Return to text.
    Love, J.D., Reed, Jr., J.C. and Pierce, K.L., Creation of the Teton Landscape: A Geological Chronicle of Jackson Hole & and the Teton Range, Grand Teton Association, Moose, WY, p. 42, 2007. Return to text.
    Walker, T., A biblical geological model; in: Walsh, R.E. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism, technical symposium sessions, Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 581–592, 1994. Return to text.
    Oard, M.J., Flood by Design: Receding Water Shapes the Earth’s Surface, Master Books, Green Forest, AR, 2008. Return to text.
    Oard, M.J., The Uinta Mountains and the Flood Part I. Geology, Creation Research Society Quarterly 49(2):109–121, 2012. Return to text.
    Oard, M.J., Surficial continental erosion places the Flood/post-Flood boundary in the late Cenozoic, J. Creation 27(2):62–70, 2013; creation.com/flood-boundary-erosion. Return to text.
    Oard, M.J., Massive erosion of continents demonstrates Flood runoff, Creation 35(3):44–47, 2013; creation.com/flood-runoff. Return to text.
    Oard, M.J., Earth’s surface shaped by Genesis Flood runoff, michael.oards.net. Return to text.
100
Mike Messages / Re: MF 2/10-2/11
« Last post by Admin on February 11, 2017, 10:22:16 am »
Re DRAFT Part 1
2/11) AM

Sunday, February 12, 2017 11:26 PM
    My responses in "M2" below. - Cheers, Mike.

    Date: Sat, February 11, 2017 9:53 pm
    I thought I sent this yersterday or this morning, but it looks like it went to me. So this might be a repeat for you.

    Mike, you're showing me that I have a few more avenues to explore for Part 1.

    _M: Numbers 6 and 7 pose the question: what initiated the Great Flood? I see John Baumgardner proposed in 2007 that rotational tumbling of the earth induced by catastrophic plate tectonics caused megatsunamis. That is quite a leap.

    _L: In 2013 he seemed to propose that an asteroid orbited the Earth elliptically, causing monthly tidal pulls & megatsunamis.

    M2: Earth's angular momentum is a staggering 7.07 x 10 to the 33rd kilograms x meters squared/sec.  Tumbling is out of the question.  The Moon causes monthly tides.  Megatsunamis would require a much larger body, and an erratic orbit to induce flow in orthogonal directions.

    _M: Similarly, getting an asteroid or planetesimal to pass near Earth a number of times, but not hit it, and then leave, as the cause of megatsunamis requires some difficult and precise celestial mechanics, so it seems unlikely.

    _L: What if the planetoid were the Moon? I have a reference paper that shows calculations for circularization of elliptical orbits by dust or gases in space within decades to centuries.

    M2: The Moon would have to be much closer (but beyond the Roche limit) and would only cause water flow along its orbital path.

    _M: a meteorite swarm, associated with the first bombardment population of Moon craters, collapsed Earth's thick vapor canopy ... the sole source of water for the Great Flood.

    _L: Don't you think the oceans existed before the flood? Why do you think ICR's claim against a vapor canopy was wrong? I think the atmosphere was one or two bars thicker than now, like you said onsite, but I'm flexible on what was in the air that was lost, whether more water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, or CO2. I didn't think precipitation could raise sea level much. How deep flooding do you figure?

    M2: I think a low ocean existed before the Flood.  Vardiman's main objection to a vapor canopy is his estimated temperature at Earth's surface.  I find the vapor canopy to be a reasonable source for a one-time global flood, to provide high atmospheric pressure that could favor gigantism in dinosaurs, and as a reason why rainbows could appear only after the flood.  Without today's mountain ranges (built 300 years post-Flood by SD), Flood waters would only have to rise 1000 feet or less to cover the land.

    _M: Members of the meteorite swarm falling into the ocean led observers on land to mistakenly call the resulting water jets "fountains of the great deep". Note that these started and ended at the same time as the rain deluge.

    _L: That's what Gordon says too. But he thinks precipitation didn't add significantly to the Flood. He says the Hebrew word, "matar", in the Bible meant meteors, and "geshen" meant gushing. I'll try to ask Gordon what he thinks of your statement.

    _M: A persistent question for Flood geology has been why the sediments of the geologic column did not end up on the Pacific Ocean floor. Apparently megatsunamis flowed from the outer oceans onto the protocontinent, scouring and depositing sediment and quadrillions of fossils of sea creatures. It is reasonable to think that each megatsunami grew as the water level rose, reaching farther inland with each wave. Precipitated vapor canopy water falling on land would leave freshwater remains, whereas waves moving in from the coast would leave saltwater remains. Each megatsunami would deposit its own stratigraphic sequence.

    _L: How are you saying that the water canopy was the sole source of the Flood, but that megatsunamis were involved too? I came across a website a couple days ago that said salts were deposited with the dinosaurs out West. How would you determine if Flood deposits involved fresh or salt water? Some NCGT articles claim that the ocean floors do have sedimentary rock. I think the seafloor drilling project found some sedimentary rock above the basalt. Did it not? I found one creationist article that said, I think, that some strata formed across North America and across north Africa before continental drift, but some higher strata also spilled out onto the Atlantic seafloor near Africa, apparently after continental drift had started. That's one reason I think SD may have occurred toward the end of the Flood. Do you think the KT iridium layer came from the SD impact? I thought maybe the Chixilub and others deposited the glass spherules etc below the iridium layer, and the SD impact produced the iridium.

    M2: Paleontologists can distinguish freshwater and saltwater denizens, which still exist today.  Clearly the most sweeping megatsunamis would have come from the rising ocean waters as the rain fell since they covered 60% or more of Earth's surface.  On the other hand, water rising on the protocontinent would have flowed outward.  The sediment layer on the seafloor averages only .5 km thick.  There are lots of examples of spreading and stretching of continental crust involved in separation, which is another reason that brittle Plate Tectonics is faulty.  I think the K-Pg iridium layer and probably the glass spherules are associated with Chicxulub.  Conventional geologists require much time between deposition layers, whereas creationists expect simultaneous multiple deposition.  It was laid down long before the SD event, which I think produced the Australasian tektite strewnfield.

    _M: Regarding an Earth-killer impact, I think it is safe to say that the Moon falling into the Earth would do the trick.

    _L: Sounds like humor there. A friend, Charles, thinks a part of the Moon split off from the Moon and made a fairly soft landing, forming the supercontinent after the Earth had solidified. He reasoned that, otherwise, if it had occurred before Earth solidified, the granite would have melted and made a thin layer all over the Earth. Charles found that stars and planets likely form by electrical forces that cause galactic filaments to implode into plasma double layers. The interior should be solid because of having no degrees of freedom (and absolute zero temperature) where electrons get squeezed out into an upper layer. And a star can have about 5 double layers. Any spherical body in space about 200 miles or more in diameter would have double layers. The inner layers should be liquid. So the aesthenosphere should be liquid. Even 12.8 km deep in the Kola borehole the rock is too plastic to drill any deeper, so he says that's due to lack of sufficient electrons. He thinks the Moho is plasma. By the way, I read lately that the Kola borehole encountered a lot of saltwater most or all of the way down.

    M2: What evidence is there that the Moon ever split?  I think the conventional idea that the Moon formed following a planetesimal impact on Earth is right.  However, I agree that it happened much later than conventionally believed, so that a uniform basalt crustal layer encompassed the Earth at the time of the collision.  The subsequent mixing would have refined the molten basalt and upper mantle to allow differentiation of continental crust.  Seismic tomography indicates that the asthenosphere is solid rock at high temperature, allowing ductile flow.  Drilling 13 km into inland continental crust is less than halfway through.  The rock is probably gabbro under high pressure with enough plasticity to collapse a borehole.  Why would the Moho be plasma?
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