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The Mammoths' Demise - a correct solution requires more facts [Journals] [SIS Review]
_From: SIS Chronology & Catastrophism Review 1999:1 (Jul 1999) mby Gordon P. Williams
_The disappearance of the mammoths from the tundra of Northern Russia and Siberia has produced many explanations from professionals and amateurs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce new facts into the debate. The most convincing argument against Lyell's uniformitarianism, which has had a controlling influence on nearly all geological explanations, comes not from his contemporaries but from the works of the Greek Philosophers and Roman poets. This evidence was cited by Thomas Burnet in his argument in support of the Mosaic chronology [1]. They say, The Poles of the World did once change their situation, and were at first in another posture from what they are now, till that inclination happen'd; This the Ancient Philosophers often made mention of, as Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Diogenes, Leucippus, Democritus [2]; as may be seen in Laertius, and in Plutarch; and the Stars, they say, at first were carried about the Earth in a more uniform manner. This is no more than we have observ'd and told you in other words, namely that the Earth chang'd its posture at the Deluge, and thereby made these seeming changes in the Heavens; its Poles before pointed to the Ecliptik, which now point to the Poles of the Æquator, and its Axis is become parallel with that Axis; and this is the mystery and interpretation of what they say in other terms; this makes the different aspect of the Heavens, and of its Poles. And I am apt to think, that those changes in the course of the Stars, which the Ancients sometimes speak of, and especially the Ægyptains, if they do not proceed from defects in their Calender, had no other physical account than this. When the Primæval Earth was made out of Chaos, its form and posture was such as, of course, brought on all those Scenes which Antiquity hath kept the remembrance of though now in another state of Nature they seem very strange; especially being disguis'd, as some of them are, by their odd manner of representing them. That the Poles of the World stood once in another posture; That the year had no diversity of Seasons; That the Torrid Zone was uninhabitable; That the two Hemispheres had no possibility of intercourse, and such like: These all hang on the same string; or lean one upon the other as Stones in the same Building; whereof we have, by this Theory, laid the very foundation bare, that you may see what they all stand upon, and in what order'. [3] Burnet realised that the shift of the poles would have made possible those climatic changes noted by the Ancient Poets, a change from a perpetual spring to a year of four seasons. Virgil wrote [4] Non alios primâ crecentus origine mundi lluxisse dies, aliumve habuisse tenorum, Credidderim Verillud erat, Ver magnus agebat Orbis, & hybernus flatibus Euri. Such days the new-born Earth enjoy'd of old, And the calm Heavens in this same tenour rowl'd All the great World had then one constant Spring, No cold East-winds, such as our Winters bring' On the expiry of the Golden Age, Ovid says [5], Jupiter antiqui contraxit tempora Veris, &c . When Jove began to reign he changed the Year, And for one Spring four Seasons made appear. ' Velikovsky also referred to the quarters of the World being displaced and changes in the times and seasons [6]. In Earth in Upheaval [7] he expanded upon this subject and included sliding continents', changing orbit' and rotating crust'. None of these early authors was aware that the shift of the poles was the second and lesser of two catastrophic episodes. The geologists' insistence on the stability of the Earth has also influenced astronomers who maintain that there has been no radical deviation in the behaviour of the planets of the solar system. As the poets informed us, it was the action of Jupiter that ushered in the change of seasons. In the full analysis it is expected that a change of 90 deg. in the Earth's axis occurred with a shift of the poles from an equatorial position to near their present position. It would have been during this time that the Sun moved on the plane of the Ecliptick' [8]. It was Venus that succeeded Jupiter as the brightest planet at the time of the tilting of the Earth about 3,500 years later. As to Venus, tis a remarkable passage that St. Austin hath preserv'd out of Varro, he saith, That about the same time of the great Deluge there was a wonderful alteration or Catastrophe happen'd to the planet Venus, and that she change'd her colour, form, figure, and magnitude' [9]. To the modern geologist any suggestion that the Earth could have changed its attitude has been, and still unacceptable. Yet, at some time in the historical past people saw and recorded a dramatic change in the Earth's attitude to the heavens which, many years after the event, was recorded by the ancient writers. Without the knowledge of the Earth's surface that is available today they would not have had the means to recognise the signs of Earth having tilted.
__Our Tilted Earth
_The hypothesis is the Earth did undergo a change of axis within historical time. In accepting that a tilt occurred, evidence of stress on the Earth's crust should be evident. Stress and compression formations indicative of a change of Earth's axis should be visible where changes in velocity have caused stress within the Earth's crust [10, 11, 12].
__The Demise of the Dinosaurs
_This movement of the continental crust in response to the stresses about the North Pole may have been the cause of the extinction of the mammoths. In Siberia there would have been an over-run of the continental crust as friction reduced the crust's velocity at the position of the new North Pole. In northern North America, friction of the oceanic sea-bed moving beneath the American north-west coast accelerated the continental crust. These changes could not be achieved without considerable seismic activity. The area about the new North Pole had been lowered by the earlier catastrophe, which had left its mark on the morphology of the area. The depression, which had been rapidly infilled with sediment, has since been raised by isostatic uplift. This uplift has continued since this time about the northern Atlantic in N. E. Canada about Hudson Bay, Greenland, Scotland, Scandinavia and the Barents Sea as is shown by the strand lines, so that land levels are higher now than at the time of the seismic activity 3,500 years ago. The sedimentary plains about the Arctic Ocean were also further from the old site of the Pole and people lived within the present Arctic Circle in a settlement on the Kolyna River [13], as predicted by Velikovsky in Worlds in Collision. This now provides the two important and previously unknown factors affecting the demise of the mammoths - seismic activity and sudden cooling. The prolonged seismic activity associated with the inertial displacement occurring within the area would have reduced the sedimentary plains through a process of liquefaction to a vast area of quicksand'. As the liquefaction increased, the mammoths would have become further embedded in the water-weakened mass as they struggled to escape. The rapid freezing came with the shift of the North Pole more than 20-deg closer to their territory. The sketch of the Berezovka mammoth in Cardona's Kronos article [14] appears to be a posture typical of a large mammal struggling to avoid being trapped in quicksand'. The action of the earthquake would have ^ so sudden that the last mouthful of grass was still in its mouth. Numerous other mammals may be awaiting discovery as meandering streams expose an ever-increasing area. A continuation of this theme would involve a study of the oceanic surges that followed the continental displacement. These would have reached far inland over low lying lands and contributed to the quantity of ivory deposited on the Arctic islands. Waves would have caused more erosion in shallow valleys and more devastation to coastal and riverside dwellers in a brief period of encroachment and retreat than geologists would expect in a thousand or more years.
1. Burnet, Bishop T, The Sacred Theory of the Earth, (Sec. Ed.), Printed by R Norton for Walter Ketilby, at Bishops-Head in S. Paul's Churchyard, 1691. Reprinted 1965. 2. Ibid, Lat Treat. lib. 2. C. 10. (Burnet's reference), Burnett, Book 2, P. 192.
3. Ibid, Book 2, P. 192-3.
4. Ibid, p. 135.
5. Ibid, p. 136.
6. Velikovsky, I, Worlds in Collision, Gollancz, 1950, Pt. 1. Ch. V.
7. Velikovsky, I, Earth in Upheaval, Gollancz, 1955.
8. Burnet, op. cit.
9. Ibid, Bk.1 , Ch.VII, p. 128.
10. Williams, GP, Our Tilted Earth, 1993 (Available from the author at 11 Camellia Court, 280 Grey Street, Palmerston North, New Zealand.)
11. Williams, GP, Our Tilted Earth', C&CW 1994:1 , pp. 9-15.
12. Williams, GP, Macrogeomorphology its contribution to analysing the shaping of South-east Asia, Australasia and the South-west Pacific Ocean, 1997, unpublished, available from the author.
13. Ferté, 1972, Pensée, Vol. 2, No. 2.
14. Cardona, D, The Problem of the Frozen Mammoths', Kronos, Vol. 1, No. 4


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