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Volume 4, Number 3, September 2016. ISSN 2202-0039. Editor: Dong R. CHOI (

Palaeomagnetism and ingrained misconceptions, Karsten Storetvedt.....355

Oil-bearing dolomitized Devonian reefs aligned on Rimbey-Meadowbrook trend and injectite, Charles Warren Hunt.....360

Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of continental rifts, Vadim Gordienko.....361

This idea doesn’t fit with plate tectonics either, Jeffrey Wolynski.....527


Volume 4, Number 2, June 2016. ISSN 2202-0039. Editor: Dong R. CHOI
Dinosaurs flood out of Europe in Cretaceous Period, Oscar Javier Arévado.....149

Major revisions to geological understanding of the Earth are due, Charles Warren Hunt.....149

Neotectonics of the Gulf Coast and active rifting and wrenching of the United States: A tale of broken plate
tectonics? Ghulam Sarwar.....159

Origin of the Central Honshu Arc and the Izu Ridge, Japan, Fumio Tsunoda.....174

Critical analysis of the plate tectonics model and causes of horizontal tectonic movements, Arkady Pilchin....204

Darwin mangroves are not battling a sea level rise of +8.3 mm/year but increasing population and development,
Albert Parker.....296

A personal history of the remagnetization debate: accounting for a mobilistic Earth, Karsten M. Storetvedt....322


Volume 4, Number 1, March 2016. ISSN 2202-0039. Editor: Dong R. CHOI (

Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of geosynclines, Vadim Gordienko.....6

Possible explanation for formation of adjacent depressions of island arcs based on concept of thermal mantle plumes, Alexandre B. Medvedev.....81

Near simultaneous multi-planet volcanisms on geological timescales as evidence for a cosmic drive of planetary geophysical activity? Benjamin Deniston.....114


Volume 3, Number 4, December 2015. ISSN 2202-0039. Editor: Dong R. CHOI (

Orientation of ancient cultic objects and polar drift, Stanislav A. GRIGORIEV.....416

Platforms: Thermal and geological history, Vadim GORDIENKO.....432

Degassing and expanding Earth model of global tectonics, Nina I. PAVLENKOVA.....489

Ocean floor fabric assists in tectonic interpretations, N. Christian SMOOT.....537


Volume 3, Number 3, September 2015. ISSN 2202-0039. Editor: Dong R. CHOI (

Energy balance in the tectonosphere. Vadim GORDIENKO .....263

Advective heat and mass transfer in the Earth’s tectonosphere. Vadim GORDIENKO.....282

Mountain ranges – A new comer in Earth history. Karsten M. STORETVEDT.....334

On discovery of a new planetological phenomenon: tectonic coupling of planets and their satellites.
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV.....357

North-South American Super Anticline. Dong R. CHOI and Yoshihiro KUBOTA.....367


Volume 3, Number 2, June 2015. ISSN 2202-0039. Editor: Dong R. CHOI (

The oceanization debate revisited, Karsten M. STORETVEDT.....105

The glacial isostatic rebound theory questioned, Richard GUY.....108

Celestial bodies: relation between ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy and universal rotation,
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV.....155

Polygonal crater formation by electrical discharges, Wayne BURN.....169

The Darwin Rise and geomorphological-geological indications of focal systems on the Pacific Ocean floor,
Alexandr A. GAVRILOV.....196

Robert J. Tuttle: Earth expansion and thick air for ancient birds, James MAXLOW.....209


Volume 3, Number 1, March 2015. ISSN 2202-0039. Editor: Dong R. CHOI (

From the Editor Earth’s geodynamics interacting with solar system and planetary forces.... .....2

Crustal oceanization in historical perspective. Karsten M. STORETVEDT.....3

Ceres’ two-faced nature: expressive success of the wave planetology. Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV.....63

Earth expansion and thick air for ancient birds. Robert J. TUTTLE.....65

Comment on Stephen Hurrell paper: paleogravity and fossil feathers. Giovanni P. GREGORI.....68

The pattern of global cataclysms. Peter M. JAMES.....87


New Concepts in Global Tectonics
 --- Vol. 4, no. 4 (Dec 2016)
535 --- The Earth as I found it, Part 3
537 --- Mobile plate tectonics: a confrontation
540 --- AAPG Explorer November 2016 issue and plate tectonics history
540 --- Counterclockwise rotation of Australia revisited
543 --- VLF electromagnetic signals unrelated to the Central Italy earthquake occurred between 26 and 30 October 2016
553 --- Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of oceans
582 --- Great deep earthquakes and solar cycles
596 --- The September-October 2016 Korea and Southwest Japan earthquakes viewed from the Blot’s thermal energy transmigration concept
601 --- High-frequency electromagnetic emission in the earthquake epicentral areas detected by the remote sensing frequency-resonance - data processing
615 --- Late Permian coal formation under Boreal conditions along the shores of the Mongol-Tranbaikalian seaway
637 --- The seismic sequence in Central Italy (August-November 2016). Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring and analysis
664 --- A history of the earth’s seawater: transgressions and regressions
688 --- The claim of a high rate of sea-level rise for Diego Garcia is based on non-exiting data
693 --- Australian temperature measurements disprove engineered products
699 --- Modeling statistics and kinetics of the natural aggregation structures and processes with the solution of generalized logistic equation,
699 --- Multiparameter monitoring of short-term earthquake precursors and its physical basis. Implementation on the Kamchatka - region
700 --- Analysing the spatio-temporal link between earthquake occurrences and orbital perturbations induced by planetary configuration
701 --- Peter M. James book, “Deformation of the Earth’s Crust”
702 --- Upheaval! Whey catastrophic earthquakes will soon strike the United States

 --- Vol.4, No. 3 (Sep 2016)
352 --- Central Italy earthquake in August 2016 and its precursors
353 --- Inertia-triggered global tectonic stresses and polar wander
354 --- Reply to Prof. Storetvedt’s letter: Inertial triggered global tectonic & polar wander
355 --- Palaeomagnetism and ingrained misconceptions
359 --- Reply to Prof. Storetvedt letter to Arkady Pilchin
360 --- Oli-bearing dolomitized Devonian reefs aligned on Rimbey-Meadowbrook trend and injectite
361 --- Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of continental rifts
389 --- P-wave velocities in the upper mantle beneath oceans
406 --- The endogenous energy and the magnetic field of planetary objects
432 --- Ball lightning, oil fields and earthquakes
453 --- Experimental verification of seismo-electromagnetic effect as reliable seismic precursors
456 --- Some reflections on science and on the management of environmental catastrophe
473 --- SELF and VLF electromagnetic signal variations that preceded the Central Italy earthquake on August 24, 2016
478 --- Jetstream anomalies appeared prior to the M6.2 Italy earthquake on 24 August 2016
 --- Latent heat anomalies prior to the Amatrice, Italy M6.2 Italy earthquake
 --- Relative humidity and OLR as pre-earthquake signals – A study of Central Italy earthquake (August 2016)
487 --- Time-dependent neo-deterministic seismic hazard scenarios: Preliminary report on the M6.2 Central Italy earthquake
494 --- The latest TMAC report overrated coastal hazards
 --- Is there any proof extreme evets and armed-conflict risks are exacerbated by anthropogenic global warming?
518 --- Middle America: Intra-continental extension along ancient structures
522 --- Caveats on tomographic image
523 --- Lessons from the South Australian Coast by Bourman et al.
526 --- Earthquake vapor model & precise prediction
527 --- Climate science is NOT settled: Clexit Coalition
527 --- This idea doesn’t fit with plate tectonics either
528 --- In memoriam of Dr. Arkady Pilchin (Dec. 2 – Aug. 5, 2016)
531 --- Deformation of the Earth’s crust – cause and effect

 --- Vol.4, No. 2 (Jun 2016)
149 --- Dinosaurs flood out of Europe in Cretaceous Period
149 --- Major revisions to geological understanding
150 --- A shot off target
153 --- Reply to the letter “A shot off target” by K.M. Storetvedt
159 --- Neotectonics of the Gulf Coast and active rifting and wrenching of the United States: a tale of broken plate tectonics?
174 --- Origin of the Central Honshu Arc and the Izu Ridge
194 --- The Quaternary gold potential sites and their volcano-tectonic setting in the Japanese Islands
204 --- Critical analysis of the plate tectonics model and causes of horizontal tectonic movement
273 --- Subionospheric VLF propagation anomaly prior to the Kumamoto Earthquake in April, 2016
276 --- Anomalies in jet-streams prior to the M6.6 Taiwan Earthquake on 5 February 2016 and the M7.0 Kumamoto Earthquake on 15 April 2016
279 --- Solar activity correlated to the M7.0 Japan earthquake occurred on April 15, 2016
286 --- The April 2016 m7.0 Kumamoto Earthquake swarm: Geology, thermal energy transmigration, and precursors
296 --- Darwin mangroves are not battling a sea level rise of +8.3 mm/year but increasing population and development
303 --- The warming and expanding oceans: observations and models
314 --- There is no present sea level acceleration in UK and the western European coasts
322 --- A personal history of the remagnetization debate: accounting for a mobilistic Earth
345 --- Earth/Sun magnetic hoops & idealized joule antennae
346 --- Increased volcanic and earthquake activities throughout the globe
346 --- Sunspots vanishing, again
347 --- Federal and State leaders warned
348 --- Boris Ivanovich Vasiliev

 --- Vol.4, No. 1 (Mar 2016)
2 --- Accept Nothing on Authority
6 --- Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of geosynclines
32 --- 9/56 year cycle: lunar north node – apogee angle
37 --- Is paleomagnetic data reliable?: A critical analysis of paleomagnetism
81 --- Possible explanation for formation of adjacent depressions of island arcs based on concept of thermal mantle plumes
105 --- Earthquakes unrelated to natural geomagnetic activity: a North Korean case
114 --- Near simultaneous multi-planet volcanisms on geological timescales as evidence for a cosmic drive of planetary geophysical activity?
116 --- Near simultaneous multi-planet volcanisms on geological timescales as evidence for a cosmic drive of planetary geophysical activity?
120 --- Analysis of sea level in Karachi, Pakistan
124 --- The Australian saltwater crocodile is not at risk of extinction because of global warming
132 --- H.T. Brady,Mirrors and mazes: a guide through the climate debate
137 --- Habitual thinking, scholarly freedom and liberal education
145 --- Water in the history of the Earth
145 --- Is science really evidence-based?

 --- Vol.3, No. 4 (Dec 2015)
414 --- Earthquake code ****: Catastrophic earthquakes are predictable
416 --- Orientation of ancient cultic objects and polar drift
432 --- Platforms: thermal and geological history
459 --- “Ice”(Pluto) and “flame” (Sun): tectonic similarities of drastically different cosmic globes
467 --- North Tuscany (Italy): A potential relationship between seismic swarms and violent rainstorms?
476 --- Seismogeodynamics of the Hazara-Kashmir Transverse Trough, Pakistan
489 --- Degassing and expanding Earth: New model of global tectonics
516 --- Geoscience urban legends
529 --- Science
537 --- Ocean floor fabric assists in tectonic interpretations
544 --- Anthropic global warming
561 --- The approaching new grand solar minimum and little ice age climate conditions
563 --- Earth as a stellar transformer – Climate change revealed
565 --- Multi-parametric analysis of earthquake precursors
565 --- The synergy of earthquake precursors

 --- Vol.3, No. 3 (Sep 2015)
256 --- Howard DeKalb and the double matrix fracture pattern
257 --- More on the dinosaurs
258 --- Simplification of earthquake predictions and other quantitative matters. Reply to Peter James’ comment
259 --- Inertial forces on the lithosphere
263 --- Energy balance in the tectonosphere
282 --- Advective heat and mass transfer in the Earth’s tectonosphere
310 --- Relationship between M8+ earthquake occurrences and the solar polar magnetic fields
323 --- Dow Jones Industrial Average peaks, seasonality and lunar phase
334 --- Mountain ranges – a newcomer in Earth history
357 --- On discovery of a new planetological phenomenon: tectonic coupling of planets and their satellites
367 --- North-South American Super Anticline
378 --- Protecting stilt buildings from damage due to Rayleigh waves during large magnitude earthquakes located at distance from epicentre – case from India
383 --- Analysis of psychrometric parameters associated with seismic precursors in central Chile: a new earthquake or the great 2010 Maule M8.8 aftershock?
387 --- Blot’s energy transmigration law and the September 2015 M8.3 Chile Earthquake
391 --- A surge and short-term peak in northern solar polar field magnetism prior to the M8.3 earthquake near Chile on September 16, 2015
394 --- Solar wind ionic and geomagnetic variations preceding the 8.3 Chile Earthquake
400 --- Outgoing longwave radiation anomaly prior to big earthquakes: a study on the September 2015 Chile Earthquake
405 --- Space weather conditions prior to the M8.3 Chile Earthquake
407 --- Anomalies in jet streams that appeared prior to the 16 September 2015 M8.3 Chile Earthquake
409 --- Planetary influence on the Sun and the Earth, and a modern Book-Burning
411 --- Howard F. Dekalb

 --- Vol.3, No. 2 (June 2015) 
103 --- New Madrid Seismic Zone: a new battle front
104 --- Simplification of earthquake predictions and other quantitative matters
105  ---  The oceanization debate revisited
108 --- The glacial isostatic rebound theory questioned
109 --- The required science for a ready term - geonomy
115 --- Essential points of the advection-polymorphism hypothesis
137 --- Tectonic history of Jeju Island, Korea
140 --- Solar wind ionic variation associated with earthquakes greater than magnitude 6.0
155 --- Celestial bodies: relation between ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy and universal rotation
158 --- Polygonal crater formation by electrical discharges
187 --- Evolution of the tectono-magmatic pulsations in the Earth’s history
196 --- The Darwin Rise and geomorphological-geological indications of focal systems on the Pacific Ocean floor
208 --- Re; Giovanni P. Gregori, comment on Stephen Hurrell; a new method to calculate paleogravity using fossil feathers
 --- Re: Robert J. TUTTLE Earth expansion and thick air for ancient birds. NCGT Journal, v. 3, no. 1, March 2015
 --- Re: Robert J. TUTTLE: Earth expansion and thick air for ancient birds. NCGT Journal, v. 3, no. 1, p. 65-68
214 --- Natural seismicity
233 --- Migration of foreshocks and/or volcanic eruptions. The “Blot’s migration law”
240 --- Relation between major geophysical events and the planetary magnetic Ap index, from 1844 to the present
244 --- New Madrid Seismic Zone, Central USA: The great 1811-1812 earthquakes, their relationship to solar cycles, and tectonic settings
245 --- The Earth’s crust and upper mantle structure of the Northern Eurasia from the seismic profiling with nuclear explosions
247 --- Some reflections on science and discovery
249 --- Some Youtubes for your interest
249 --- L.E. PIERCE; A new little ice age has started: How to survive and prosper during the next 50 difficult years
251 --- Global Climate Status Report (GCSR)
253 --- James Nelson Murdock

 --- Vol. 3,No. 1 (Mar. 2015)
2 --- Earth’s geodynamics interacting with solar system and planetary forces
3 --- Crustal oceanization in historical perspective.
5 --- Reply to K. Storetvedt’s letter
7 --- Antagonism and emotions in science
11 --- 9/56 year cycle: earthquakes in south East Asia
21 --- Earthquake occur very close to either 06:00 or 18:00 lunar local time
29 --- A lunar “mould” of the Earth’s tectonics: Four terrestrial and four lunar basins are derivative of one wave tectonic process
34 --- Tendency of volcano-seismic activity developed in the central part of the Honshu Arc, Japan.
43 --- The Australia-Antarctica dynamo-tectonic relationship: Meso-Cenozoic wrench tectonic events and paleoclimate
63 --- Ceres’ two-faced nature: expressive success of the wave planetology
65 --- Earth expansion and thick air for ancient birds
68 --- Comment on Stephen Hurrell paper: paleogravity and fossil feathers
71 --- Massive change in climate & sea level
87 --- The pattern of global cataclysms
98 --- Solar flare five-day predictions from quantum detectors of dynamical space fractal flow turbulence: gravitational diminution and Earth climate cooling
98 --- On the relationship between cosmic rays, solar activity and powerful earthquakes

 --- Vol. 2,No. 4 (Dec. 2014)
2 --- Legacy of Vladimir Beloussov
3 --- Paul Lowman’s contributions to illustrating concepts in global tectonics with world maps with Constant-Scale Natural Boundaries
9 --- Earth’s altitudinal bimodality
11 --- Yu.M. Pushcharovsky’s view on the world deep oceanic basins
13 --- Diwa Tectonics
14 --- Generalized geotectonics hypothesis of Vladimir V. Beloussov
20 --- On plate tectonics
50 --- Artificially induced seismicity
62 --- 9/56 year cycle: Alaskan volcanic eruptions
69 --- Is tectonic tremor a precursor to earthquakes?
85 --- Why four highest volcanoes of the rocky planets adorn their deepest planetary wide depression: earth, Mars, Vesta and Moon
89 --- The myth of Early Warning System (EWS): Is it possible to mitigate seismic disaster with the EWS?
93 --- Stephen W. Hurrell: A new method to calculate paleogravity using fossil feathers
93 --- Reply to Beatty
94 --- Tectonic framework of the “Darwin Rise”
98 --- Late Mesozoic tectono-magmatism in the west Pacific Ocean – in a linear depression or on a domal uplift?
106 --- When global tectonics became a ‘pathological science’
122 --- Henry H. Bauer: dogmatism in science and medicine
122 --- Topical issues of geology of oceans and continents
124 --- Constant-Scale Natural Boundary mapping to reveal global and cosmic processes
124 --- The global Climate Status Report (GCSR)

 --- Vol.2,no.3 (Sep. 2014)
2 --- Diwa tectonics
3 --- The 1977 Beloussov letter to Khain
7 ---  Non-biological hydrocarbons
9 --- NCGT Journal
9 --- South Pacific-Siberian Geanticline
10 --- 9/56 year cycle: earthquake sin the Pacific rim of south America
19 --- Seismo-volcanic energy propagation trends in the Central America and their relations to solar cycles
29 --- A new method to calculate paleogravity using fossil feathers
35 --- OLR and air temperature anomalies prior to big earthquakes – a case study on an Alaskan earthquake on June 9, 2014.
41 --- Sisyphus and oceanography
42 --- Late Mesozoic tectono-magmatism in the West Pacific Ocean – Did the Darwin rise demise or revive?
54 --- Sisyphus and the Darwin Rise
61 --- Wrench tectonic history of Grater Australia
70 --- “Don’t think you can teach us anything”
87 --- Rising sea level forecasts: fact or fiction?
92 --- Earth’s crust of oceans
94 --- Dark winter
95 --- About face: Whey the world need more carbon dioxide
97 --- Commission on Tectonics of Ore Deposits of the International Association of Genesis of Ore Deposits (IAGOD)
98 --- 14th IAGOD Symposium. Tectonics and Metallogeny session list of presented papers

 --- Vol.2,no.2 (Jun. 2014)
2 --- Where are we now?
3 --- Abiotic hydrocarbons
3 --- Glimpse behind the scene
7 --- Beloussov’s view of the origin of oceans
13 --- Seismo-volcanic energy propagation trends in the Aleutian Islands and North America
23 --- Transmigrating heat passing through Aogashima Volcanic Islands, Izu Volcanic Chain, Japan
28 --- Earth and Moon: similar structures – common origin
39 --- Mw7+ cyclic earthquakes sharing the same epicenter
47 --- Seismic zoning of Pakistan
54 --- Tectonic development of Pacific Ocean and its periphery: a constraint on large-scale rotations of lithospheric blocks
69 --- On the rotation of the Australasian continental block in the Miocene
73 --- Prediction-confirmation: a must in global theorizing
78 --- Significant statistical relationship between great volcanic eruptions and the count of sunspots
82 --- Global increase in seismic and magmatic activities since 1990 and their relation to solar cycles
84 --- Self-organization of the Earth’s climate systems versus Milankovitch-Berger astronomical cycles
84 --- Global cooling underway
86 --- Open letter to President Barak Obama
87 --- Report of the session, ‘Alternative thoughts in global tectonics’, at European Geosciences Union General Assembly

 --- Vol.2,no.1 (Mar. 2014)
2 --- Plate tectonics in disarray
7 --- 9/56 year cycle: earthquakes in Japan, Kamchatka and Alaska
16 --- Massive solar eruptions and their contribution to the causes of tectonic uplift
37 --- Airport communication as seismic precursor
42 --- Relation of seismicity with surface faults in Pakistan: An overview
56 --- Origin of oceans: Spreading versus primary oceans models
61 --- Seismo-electromagnetic energy flow observed in the 16 march 2014 M6.7 earthquake offshore Tarapaca, Chile
66 --- Australasia within the setting of global wrench tectonics
97 --- Global tectonics: Prediction and confirmation
99 --- Climate and the atmospheric electrical circuit: the electromagnetic coupling between solar wind and Earth
113 --- Communicating earthquake risk to the public
113 --- The frontier of earthquake prediction studies
113 --- Fukushima: Earthquake prediction in the shadow of consensus science
119 --- The global climate status report
120 --- Electric Universe websites
121 --- European Geological Union General meeting
122 --- 14th IAGOT, Yunnan conference

 --- Vol. 1, no.4 (Dec. 2013)
2 --- Thermal electromagnetic energy as the driver of tectonic activities at the Earth’s surface
3 --- Christmas earthquake
3 --- NCGT debate and the fluid rotation concept
5 --- Anomalous outgoing longwave radiation observations: preliminary results of September 25, 2013 (M7.0) Peru earthquake
11 --- A potential relationship between animal behaviour and pre-seismic signals in the North Western Apennines
17 --- The variations of the earthquake depth distribution since 2000
23 --- Analogy between lowlands of Earth and Mars, Earth and Mercury, and a glance at tectonic granulations
29 --- Seismogenic layers in Pakistan
34 --- Thermal seismo-electromagnetic signal appeared in late 2013 in NW Australia and their relation to cyclone
46 --- Response to: Global theories and standards of judgement by Karsten Storetvedt
49 --- The Domino requisite in global theories
60 --- Microcontinents in the Atlantic Ocean
60 --- Want to know the truth about the Earth’s climate?
62 --- Climate change reconsidered II: Physical Science
67 --- The history of micro-expanding Earth

 --- Vol.1, no. 3 (Sep. 2013)
2 --- Earthquakes and surge tectonics
3 --- Granite in the Atlantic Ocean
3 --- The Christmas earthquakes by Valentino Straser
4 --- The flock instinct in science
10 --- IPCC is more about politics than science
11 --- Structural elements of some astroblemes indicating directions of cosmic body trajectories
20 --- Atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars: Their masses and granulations in relation to orbits and rotations of the planets
27 --- Mud volcanoes, geoeruptions and radio anomalies preceding the M4.9 seism in the northern Apennines of Italy
 --- OLR anomalies prior to big earthquakes (Mw>6.0) – A case study on earthquakes of India’s neighboring regions occurred during the year 2012
45 --- An Archean geanticline stretching from the South Pacific to Siberia
56 --- Global theories and standards of judgement: knowledge versus groundless speculation
103 --- Palaeomagnetism, polar wander and global tectonics: Some controversies
117 --- Surge tectonics – a response to Karsten Storetvedt
121 --- J. Marvin Herndon, “A new basis of geoscience: whole-Earth decompression dynamics”
124 --- The Einstein Enigma
125 --- Structure of the oceanic crust in the Eltanin Fault Zone (Pacific Ocean) based on petrographic data
125 --- Global Climate Status Report (GCSR), Edition 3, September 2013
126 --- Earthquakes/volcanic activities and solar cycles
126 --- Selected abstracts of papers presented at the European Geological Union General Assembly, Vienna, April 2013

 --- Vol. 1, no. 2 (June, 2013)
 2 --- Continental rocks from the Rio Grande Ridge, South Atlantic
 3 --- Negative gravity anomalies as the tails of astroblemes
15 --- Historic Dow Johns Industrial Average (DJIA) peaks: Any relevance to seismic activity?
23 --- Space-time constraints on earthquake predictability
40 --- Crustal storms of continental/planetary scale
65 --- Thermal energy transmigration and fluctuation
81 --- A new basis of geoscience: Whole-Earth decompression dynamics
96 --- The integrated effect of an earthquake swarm in the generation of subionospheric VLF ionospheric perturbations
102 --- Ring-like arrangement of faults accompanied by shallow and deep earthquakes in central Honshu, Japan
106 --- EGU General Assembly 2013, Vienna
108 --- Continental rocks discovered from Rio Grande Ridge, South Atlantic
109 --- Sunken continents vs plate tectonics
109 --- Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth
109 --- Global climate status report (GCSR)
111 --- Global warming and climate change: Science and politics
112 --- Dr. Yasumoto Suzuki

 --- V. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 2013)
2 --- NCGT Journal – an epitome of our victorious battles
3 --- Himalayan tectonics
10 --- Scientific paradigms, conscious ignorance and false play
16 --- Rockall Plateau/Maury Seachannel interaction
24 --- 54/56 year cycle: World megaquake clustering
38 --- Microseisms and spreading of deformation waves around the globe
58 --- The Christmas earthquakes: seasonal seismic recurrences near Parma, north-western Apennines, Italy
66 --- Palaeomagnetism, plate motion and polar wander
153 --- Comment on David Pratt paper, NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 1: Origin of the Pacific ring of fire
159 --- Further discussion of Nina Pavlenkova paper
167 --- Global climate status report (GCSR)
169 --- Tilts, global tectonics and earthquake prediction
170 --- European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2013
171 --- Russian conference: Global tectonics and Earth oceanization

 --- No. 65 (Dec. 2012)
2 --- Right earthquake model and a multidisciplinary approach: keys for successfully forecasting major earthquakes
4 --- London Geological Society and Geoscientist
__6 --- Solar activity linked to high-magnitude earthquakes
15 --- 9/56 year cycle: 18th & 19th century world earthquakes
__27 --- Can IMF and the electromagnetic coupling between the Sun and the Earth cause potentially destructive earthquakes?
35 --- Intervals of pulsation of diminishing periods and radio anomalies found before the occurrence of M6+ earthquakes
47 --- The Raffaele Bendandi earthquake warnings based on planetary positions
55 --- Earthquake and volcano “predictability vs crustal diagnosis”
103 --- The Tethys configuration and principal tectonic features of the Middle East: a wrench tectonic survey
143 --- Bad vibrations: Lessons from l’Aquila
151 --- Earthquake sessions at European Geosciences Union General Assembly
154 --- IEVPC press release, no. 3, 2012

 --- No. 64 Sep. 2012
2 --- The predicted Kamchatka earthquake imminent: spectacular show of nature’s force
3 --- Stephen Foster letter in NCGT no. 63
3 --- Pressure increases in geothermal plants and the disappearance of b bees: premonitory signals of strong earthquakes? The case of the recent seismic swarm in the Po Valley Plain (Italy)
__7 --- 9/56 year cycle: world mega volcanic eruptions
19 --- Whence the Caribbean?
24 --- Planetary fracture systems and recent seismic activities in the northwestern Pacific Ocean
____30 --- The Atlantic and its bordering continents – a wrench tectonic analysis: Lithospheric deformation, basin histories and major hydrocarbon provinces
69 --- Comment on: Annulling the “marriage of convenience” between Earth expansion and seafloor spreading by Stephen Foster
80 --- Reply to the Erickson comment
83 --- Comment on Pavlenkova’s fluid-rotation model
94 --- Migration of seismic and volcanic activity as displayed of wave geodynamic process
111 --- Derivation of the Gutenberg-Richter empirical formula form the solution of the generalized logistic equation
__111 --- Dogmatism in science and medicine
114 --- John Grover book for sale: Volcanic eruptions and great earthquakes
115 --- The March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: Fukushima and “foreseeability”
117 --- Earthquake session at the European Geosciences Union, April, 2013
117 --- 34th International Geological Congress NCGT session report

 --- No. 63 Jun. 2012
2 --- The Kamchatka earthquake prediction and Claude Blot’s energy transmigration concept
3 --- Geoscience and plate tectonic myth
4 --- “Sensitive Zones”, seismic precursors and earthquakes
6 --- Yet another note on earthquake prediction
9 --- Short-term earthquake prediction with electromagnetic effects: present situation
15 --- Financial cycles: A key to deciphering seismic cycles?
__37 --- Northeastern Pacific and the Cascadia margin: Snake-oil tectonics
49 --- The earth’s degassing, rotation and expansion as sources of global tectonics
72 --- Geological structure which controlled the gigantic 11 April 2012 northeastern Indian Ocean earthquakes
76 --- Outstanding large depressions and geoid minima on some celestial bodies as regular wave woven features
____80 --- Progress report of the study of ancient continental rocks in the Pacific Ocean
____82 --- Mea Culpa: the Earth is not expanding – but the continents are not moving either
__87 --- Evidence of tectonic activity associated with continental ice sheets and meltwater flood erosion
94 --- Eric Clausen article
95 --- Nina Pavlenkova article, “Earth’s degassing, rotation and expansion as source of global tectonics”
105 --- Earth contraction tectonics
112 --- IGC34, 5-10 August 2012

 --- No. 62 Mar. 2012
2 --- A new earthquake prediction center established!
__3 --- Perception of pre-seismic signals among reptiles
22 --- Plausible cause of enhanced volcanisms
26 --- 9/56 year cycle: earthquakes in Peru, the Philippines and selected US states
51 --- Ring structures of the Japanese Islands and their implications to geological development
69 --- Riddle and ridicule of earthquake prediction
____72 --- Continent below the oceans: how much and how far? The future for deepwater exploration (and geopolitics)
72 --- The Royal Society and Climate Change
____73 --- Geological note: Igneous and sedimentary rocks dredged from the northern Macquarie Ridge, Southern Ocean
73 --- Geoid tectonics
74 --- 34IGC
76 --- International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center (IEVPC) Press Releases

 --- No. 61 Dec. 2011
2 --- Colloquium for Structural Geology 20th Anniversary Symposium: “New global tectonics and megaquakes”
__6 --- Outgoing Long-wave radiation (OLR) and earthquake prediction
8 --- Recent seismic activity in the Japanese Islands from the viewpoint of seismotectonics
16 --- Tectonics of the west Mediterranean and Carpathian arcs since the Late Cretaceous
33 --- Fundamental role of deformations in internal dynamics of the Earth
52 --- Radio anomalies and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field used as seismic precursor on a global scale
66 --- A potential relationship between the climate, earthquakes and solar cyclicity in the northwest Apennines (Italy)
78 --- Volcanic and seismic activities during the solar hibernation periods
__88 --- Some problems and questions of kimberlite geology and electric discharge hypotheses
__ 95 --- Catastrophes in the first half of Holocene and their possible dynamic causes
108 --- Methodology to check correlation between Earth tide and earthquakes and for plotting [EMD+SEV] vs GMT timings
112 --- Facts, theories, blind commitments and socio-dynamics
144 --- Tides and earthquakes
146 --- 34th IGC Brisbane
148 --- Climate-Stat

 --- No. 60 Sep. 2011
7 --- Claude Blot
7 --- Dykes, sills and volcanoes: tectonic conditions
9 --- 9/56 year cycle: earthquakes in selected countries
38 --- Lunar and solar periods in earthquakes and volcanism: a review of the literature
50 --- Sun, moon and earthquakes
67 --- Unusual earthquake patterns
__73 --- Twisted shear
__80 --- Corruption of science in America
90 --- Seismo-electromagnetics for short-term earthquake prediction
90 --- Strong earthquakes can be predicted: a multidisciplinary method for strong earthquake prediction
__90 --- David Pratt’s website
91 --- Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed by geoneutrino measurements
91 --- First Cretaceous mammal from India
__91 --- H.A. Munera (ed.): Should the laws of gravitation be reconsidered?
93 --- 34th International Geological Congress Brisbane, Australia. 5-10 August, 2012
93 --- Fund raising appeal for 34IGC NCGT session invited speakers with financial difficulties
95 --- ClimateStat

 --- No. 59 Jun. 2011
3 --- Plate tectonics – gone with the great Japanese earthquake and tsunami
4 --- Earthquakes and surge tectonics
__6 --- The subduction delusion
7 --- 36-day dollar-polar rotation drives Madden-Jullian Oscillation
9 --- Evolution of the North Atlantic: Paradigm shift in the offing
__49 --- Dykes, global tectonics and crustal extension
55 --- Geological analysis of the Great East Japan Earthquake
69 --- March 2011 Great Offshore Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake from the perspective of the VE process
__78 --- Radio wave anomalies, ULF geomagnetic changes and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field preceding the Japanese M9.0 earthquake
__89 --- 9/56 year cycle: Record earthquakes
__106 --- 9/56 year cycle: Hurricane
__113 --- Aspects of planetary formation and the Precambrian Earth
137 --- Cold Sun
__138 --- Long period tidal force variations in the Earth-Moon planet system
138 --- Video: Alternative Geology Documentary
139 --- Conferences: EDPD-2011, India; IGC34, Brisbane; Earth expansion, Italy
142 --- Claude Blot
144 --- Climate-Stat

 --- No. 58 Mar. 2011
3 --- Nordic Geosolutions
2 --- Japanese seismic crisis in March 2011: an urgent call for forming an international, multidisciplinary team for earthquake study and prediction from a new perspective
3 --- Raymond Lyttleton letter
__3 --- Solar cycles and earthquakes
8 --- NCGT Newsletter and earthquake prediction
____9 --- Continental rocks in the Indian Ocean
29 --- 9/56 year cycle: Californian earthquakes
41 --- Depth (endogenous) energy issues
42 --- Lithosphere plate issues
____44 --- The Lake Titicaca enigmas
50 --- M.I. Bhat, C. Smoot and D.R. Choi
64 --- How plate tectonics may appear to a physicist
__66 --- Atmospheric masses of four solar system solid bodies
__68 --- Two deepest geoid minima on Earth (Indian) and the Moon (South Pole-Aitken basin)
__70 --- Cold Sun
__71 --- Global volcanism and oceanization of the Earth and planets
74 --- Global cooling: Space and Science Research Center Press Release nos. 1, 2 & 4
78 --- Geoeruption before the Great East Japan Earthquake
78 --- IDPD-2011 Indian Workshop; IGC34 Brisbane; Earth expansion, Italy; History of Geological Map, Japan
81 --- Documentary film on “alternative geoscience”; An appeal
82 --- ClimateStat

 --- No. 57 Dec. 2010
2 --- Don’t see the face of your boss but do see the face of the truth
__3 --- Earth science education
__3 --- Facts, mistaken beliefs, and future of global tectonics
10 --- Cyclicity and cataclysms?
14 --- Observations of new magnetic map from the Commission for the Geological Map of the World
__27 --- World magnetic anomaly map and global tectonics
__54 --- Earth tides and earthquakes
85 --- Earthquakes and solar activity cycles
98 --- Variations in gravitational field, tidal force, electromagnetic waves and earthquakes
109 --- Why has plate tectonics become popular in the USA and Japan?
118 --- M. Hoshino: A plate tectonics controversy
120 --- G. Foulger: Plume tectonics and plate tectonics
__126 --- New origin of basalts: A more sialic upper mantle
__127 --- Morphology and origin of an evaporitic dome in the eastern Tithonium Chasma, Mars
__127 --- Evidence for subaqueously resedimented sulphate evaporites on Mars
128 --- Earthquakes and their prediction
131 --- The Earth expansion Evidence conference
131 --- EPPD-2011, NCGT Indian Workshop
132 --- Ratmir F. Cherkasov

 --- No. 56, Sep. 2010
2 --- IGC34 Brisbane, 2012: Pursuit of a new global geodynamic paradigm: from factual data to models and human interactions
3 --- New Concepts and the paths ahead
__5 --- Luminous phenomena and earthquake
8 --- Jerks and tectonic vortex structures revisited
__8 --- Seismic synchronicity and the Sun-Earth interaction
__9 --- Global tectonics: An ocean floor structure and age reality check
32 --- Lunar periodicities and earthquakes
50 --- A new theoretical conception concerning the tectonic processes of the Earth
75 --- Blot’s energy transmigration concept applied for forecasting shallow earthquakes: a swarm of strong deep earthquakes in the northern Celebes Sea in July, 2010
__86 --- Crater formation possibly associated with an ascending thermal plume
99 --- Science in dishonest parade
__108 --- Global Warming: Geophysical counterpoints to the enhanced greenhouse theory
__108 --- Geological structure and origin of the Pacific Ocean
111 --- Continental drift hypothesis is not valid
111 --- Italian seismologists indicted for manslaughter
112 --- NCGT Indian Workshop: EDPD-2011 International Conference. 7 to 11 September, 2011

 --- No. 55, June, 2010
2 --- NCGT Workshop in India, 2011 – Earth Dynamics. Perceptions and deadlocks
3 --- Israeli Association of Global Warming Fight
4 --- Falling plate tectonics – rising new paradigm: salient historical facts and the current situation
35 --- Habits of earthquakes. Part 3: Earthquake corridors in the Japanese Islands
66 --- Global seismic synchronicity
__74 --- Gulf of Mexico Basin – A collapsed Late Carboniferous mantle dome?
77 --- IPCC Chief mellows for bailout package
78 --- Disaster management plans in view of recent earthquakes
__81 --- Morphology and origin of an evaporitic dome in the eastern Tihonium Chasma, Mars
81 --- Impact of recent discoveries on petroleum and natural gas exploration
82 --- NCGT Japan group report

 --- No. 54, Mar., 2010
2 --- More earthquakes, more dead: Why can’t we predict earthquakes?
3 --- The Caribbean case: Agitation of ingrained views
9 --- Earthquake prediction
12 --- Chilean earthquake on February 27, 2010
14 --- The Earth: The beginning and the end of active geologic evolution
23 --- Tectonic significance of the 29 September 2009 Samoa earthquake
__36 --- The January 2010 Haiti seismic disaster viewed from the perspective of the energy transmigration concept and block tectonics
45 --- Habits of earthquakes: Part 2. Earthquake corridors in East Asia
__57 --- Twin earthquakes and planetary configurations: Height of planets used for earthquake prediction
__65 --- The chicken or the egg: The Ogasawara Plateau or the Izu-Bonin Trench
73 --- With cons accruing, pro news for IPCC and its models
__76 --- Precursory earthquake vapour clouds of the Haiti and Chile earthquakes
__77 --- Using the earthquake vapour theory to explain the French airbus crash
78 --- Glaciers- science and nonsense
__79 --- Earthquake distribution viewed from the north and south poles

 --- No. 53, Dec., 2009
2 --- Lessons from the Samoan earthquakes and tsunamis in September 2009
____4 --- Ancient and continental rocks from the Atlantic Ocean
38 --- Habits of earthquakes: Part 1 Mechanisms of earthquakes and lateral thermal seismic energy transmigration
____47 --- Luminous phenomena in the atmosphere: signs of uplift of the Earth’s crust? The “lights” in Taro Valley (Italy) and Hessdalen (Norway)
57 --- The Earth’s interior – myth and science
82 --- Climate quacks are out to fix you and your progeny
82 --- Is IPCC Chief ignorant or conveniently silent?
84 --- Open letter to President Mohamed Nasheed of the Maldives
__86 --- The ocean is heated from below
89 --- Earth expansionists view
93 --- Third Russian national Scientific Conference: Earth’s inner core - 2009
93 --- NCGT session at IGC34, Brisbane, 2012
93 --- NCGT website traffic report
__94 --- The origin and evolution of the Caribbean plate
94 --- Pacific origin paradigm of the Caribbean plate questioned
94 --- Caribbean evolution – a new account
95 --- Geometric tectonic regularities in the eastern hemisphere of Earth
__96 --- Sun bolts shake the Earth

 --- No. 52, Sep., 2009
2 --- Earthquakes and their prediction
3 --- Facts about the Earth and the search for a functional global theory
6 --- North Atlantic cruise observations
__6 --- Luminous phenomena as earthquake precursors
10 --- Geoid Tectonics: Chapter 6, Some major geological processes
__19 --- Rock assemblages from the Pacific Ocean bedrock in the Clarion-Clipperton Fault region
__30 --- Origin of the world’s deepest bays
40 --- “Getrans” – a planetary geodynamic system of transcontinental core-concentrating activation megazones
51 --- A “jackpot” for the forecast of earthquakes
52 --- Tsunoda, F., “Habits of earthquakes”
__56 --- Reduction of the radius and heat losses within the Earth and other planets in light of recent data
56 --- On the ring-like arrangement of faults accompanied by shallow and deep earthquakes in central Honshu, Japan (Part 1)

 --- No. 51, Jun., 2009
2 --- Proposal for an international multidisciplinary project: paleogeography of the world oceans
3 --- April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, Italy
4 --- A “Jackpot” for the forecast of earthquakes: the seismic swarm in the north-western Apennines, December 2008
14 --- The minute investigation of seismicity beneath the Japanese islands and surrounding regions
__23 --- The Earth in an electric solar system
__35 --- Sea level in the Southwest Pacific is stable
41 --- Geoid tectonics: Chapter 5. Deformation and failure of the crust
58 --- A regular row of planetary relief ranges connected with tectonic granulations of celestial bodies
62 --- Ideological suppression at theIGC33 Oslo (2)
____65 --- Ancient and continental rocks in the Atlantic
66 --- Astronomical theory of ice ages: New approximations, solutions and challenges

 --- No. 50, Mar., 2009
2 --- We have come a long way and made great achievements
8 --- Geoid tectonics, Chapter 4. State of stress in the Earth’s crust
18 --- Does cosmological expansion exist in smaller scale?
__23 --- On universal tectonic trends of rotating celestial bodies (supertectonics)
____35 --- Stress distribution in continental margins and intraplate seismicity
46 --- Geology and tectonic development of the Pacific Ocean. Part 5. Global low-gravity belt: an outer ring of the Great Pacific Ring Structure
55 ---  Ideological suppression at the 33 IGC
70 --- Trans-Asiatic lineaments and Himalayan Orogeny
__71 --- Global lineaments: Application of digital terrain modelling
71 --- Tectonics, deep structure, metallogeny of the Central Asian-Pacific belt junction area
____72 --- Distribution of ancient continental rocks in the Atlantic Ocean
__73 --- Global volcanism and the Earth oceanization
78 --- John Grover

 --- No. 49, Dec., 2008
2 --- Changing tide is irreversible
__2 --- Basic intrusives of great age in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans; Freedom in scientific thought
__4 --- Similarities of a martian dome with terrestrial salt domes
19 --- Some paradoxes of plate-tectonic palaeogedynamic models and reconstructions (Russian Southeast)
30 --- 300-day seismic cycles in the southern segment of the San Andreas Fault, California.
54 --- Geoid tectonics. Chapter 3, General effects of polar wander
67 --- Earthquakes and their tsunamis
__67 --- Earthquake clouds in Iran
68 --- David Archibald: Solar Cycle 24

 --- No. 48, Sep., 2008
2 --- Reflections on the 33rd Geological Congress
3 --- Planetary alignment and earthquakes
__5 --- The massive Missoula floods – an alternative rationale
____23 --- Geology and tectonic development of the Pacific Ocean. Part 3. Structure and composition of the basement.
____52 --- Geology and tectonic development of the Pacific Ocean. Part 4. Geological interpretation of seismic tomography
61 --- Seismic focal zone as a system of deep faults
__71 --- Tectonic geomorphology of mountains. A new approach to paleoseismology by William Bull
72 --- Fallacies in realm of natural sciences by Bencho Binev
76 --- NCGT Tokyo Symposium. “Ring structures and their geological implication”

 --- No. 47, Jun., 2008
5 --- Evidence of igneous diapirism in the northern part of Narmada block, Cambay Basin, Indias
__12 --- Sun induced semi-diurnal stresses on Earth’s surface, which trigger earthquakes and volcanic eruption
24 --- Is large-scale subduction made unlikely by the Mediterranean deep seismicity?
31 --- Geology and tectonic development of the Pacific Ocean. Part 2: Regional structural control on the auriferous Tabar-Feni volcanic arc, Papua New Guinea
__45 --- Planetary perturbations and twin earthquakes
47 --- Global lineaments: Application of digital terrain modelling

 --- No. 46, Mar., 2008
__3 --- Earthquakes and Arctic Ocean warming
__5 --- Geology and dredged rocks from the Sea of Japan floor: Part 2, Photographs of dredged rocks
20 --- Geological development of the northwestern Pacific
28 --- Geology and tectonic development of the Pacific Ocean: Part 1, Mesozoic basins and deep-seated tectonic zones
__35 --- Planetary perturbations and ‘Twin earthquakes’: a model for the long-term prediction of earthquakes
52 --- Geology of the land and sea areas of Northern Europe
53 --- The map that changed the world: William Smith and the birth of modern geology by Simon Winchester
54 --- Crustal development and sea level by M. Hoshino
59 --- European Geosciences Union Annual Meeting, April 2008
59 --- 33 IGC, Oslo, August 2008
60 --- Manhattan Declaration on Climate Change

 --- No. 45, Dec., 2007
____2 --- Oceanic crust is continental; great, timely news for the oil industry!
2 --- Earth expansion @ AAPG
3 --- Diagonal strain lines
5 --- Geology and dredged rocks from the Sea of Japan floor: Part 1
21 --- Wherefore the Tethys Sea(s)?
31 --- The cloud of the M8.4 Indonesian earthquake on September 12, 2007
34 --- A new hypothesis for Earth lithosphere evolution
52 --- Exceptional planets and moons, and theories of the expanding Earth
55 --- Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide
57 --- Historical review of the study on intermediate and deep earthquakes
58 --- Earthquake patterns based on diurnal and semidiurnal electromagnetic field
58 --- RF emission, types of earthquake precursors: possibly caused by the planetary alignments
59 --- Lomborg, B., “Cool it”
60 --- AAPG & AAPG European Region Energy Conference and Exhibition
72 --- American Geophysical Union 2007 Fall Meeting
78 --- Open Letter to the UN Secretary-General, “Bali Climate Conference”; 33IGC, Oslo, August, 2008; European Geosciences Union Annual Meeting, April, 2008; NCGT website traffic report
78 --- New subscription fee structure

 --- No. 44 Sep., 2007
2 --- Financial report from March, 2006 to September, 2007
3 --- What’s in a name? The discovery of Neotectonics
8 --- NW Pacific seamount/trench interaction
18 --- Precursory luminous phenomena used for earthquake prediction – The Taro Valley, northwestern Apennines, Italy
33 --- Diagonal strain lines
38 --- The Great September 12, 2007 Southern Sumatra Earthquakes, as predicted by the seismic energy transmigration concept, Part 1
__43 --- Plato’s polyhedra as shapes of small satellite in the outer solar system
46 --- Global shear deformation
__47 --- Earthquake activity and bushfires
__50 --- Earthquake vapour clouds
__53 --- M.R. Edwards, 2007. Photon-graviton recycling as cause of gravitation R.P. Lelikov, et al., 2006. Geology and basic types of rocks of the Sea of Japan floor
54 --- Ages in chaos: James Hutton and the discovery of deep time by Stephen Baxter
55 --- The greatest lie ever told by N.A. Mörner
57 --- Report of Vladivostok Workshop
61 --- AAPG Athens and IGC33

 --- No. 43 June, 2007
____3 --- Ancient and continental rocks discovered in the ocean floors
____18 --- Geological consequences of large meteoritic bodies approaching the Earth – The electrical factor
22 --- The great twin earthquakes in late 2006 to early 2007 in the Kuril Arc: their forerunners and the seismicity-tectonics relationship
__34 --- Seismo-electro-magnetic and other precursory observations from recent earthquakes
__39 --- Solid planetary tides and differential motion of deep layers
46 --- Tectonic controls of climate
56 --- Global shear deformations
60 --- South American Pacific margin as key target for geosciences and general culture
69 --- More on isostasy: quantitative evaluation
__71 --- Earthquake vapour clouds
76 --- International Geological-Geophysical Atlas of the Pacific Ocean
__78 --- The great dinosaur extinction controversy by C. Officer and J. Page
80 --- AAPG European Conference, Athens/IGC 33 Oslo

 --- No. 42 Mar. 2007
 --- Climate change is nothing new!
 --- Borneo-Vanuatu Geanticline and the tectonic framework of Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean
 --- The enigma of the Dead Sea Transform legend built on automatic citation. Part 1
__ --- Glaciers and ice-sheets: modern problems and tectonic associations
 --- The recent successful M6.4 Indonesia earthquake prediction
__ --- Rivers, anticlines and alleged isostasy
 --- Schellart-Lindley debate
 --- Geology of Jeju Island
 --- Unstoppable global warming
__ --- The chilling stars: a new theory of climate change
 --- Geological framework of the Levant, Volume2: Levantine basin and Israel
 --- Igor Rezanov

 --- No. 41  Dec. 2006
6 --- Precursor of the largest earthquake in the last 40 years
__16 --- New Britain Trench, Papua New Guinea: an extensional elements in a regional sinistral strike-slip stem
29 --- Geoid tectonics: Chapter 2. The case for polar wander
42 --- Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Where is the spreading?
45 --- The geodynamic meaning of the deep earthquakes: First clues for a global perspective for foldbelts
54 --- Mountain uplift, climate and isostasy
56 --- Neotectonic mountain uplift
58 --- Bushy-Blairy global warming
72 --- Voyage of discovery
74 --- Celestial climate drivers: a perspective from four billion years of the carbon cycle
__74 --- Frontiers in Earth sciences: New ideas and interpretations
76 --- Consolidation – the expanding hemispheric ring
__76 --- Subduction and overthrusting

 --- No. 40 Sep. 2006
1 --- We are on the web!! –
__5 --- Geoid tectonics: How polar wander shapes the Earth
14 --- Mountain uplift, climate and isostasy
17 --- Neotectonic uplift of Bulgarian mountains
19 --- The Great Southern Java Earthquake on July 17, 2006 and its tectonic perspective
__27 --- Tectonic forcing function of climate – revisited: Four elements of coupled climate evidence of an electromagnetic driver for global warming
35 --- Anthropogenic global warming doctrine
39 --- The twisted Earth
41 --- Tectonic papers
42 --- Terra non firma Earth: Plate tectonics is a myth. J. Maxlow
44 --- Ivan Vasilievic Kirollov

 --- No. 39 June, 2006
2 --- Where is subduction under the Indonesian Arc?
12 --- Neotectonic mountains uplift : some further instances
__23 --- Origin of the primary tectonic structures, part 2
__28 --- Australia and the Pacific: similar shapes of two terrestrial tectonic features of different size and lithosphere argue for their origin by one wave mechanism 
31 --- On the recent catastrophic Java earthquake (May 26, 2006) and Merapi Volcano eruption: Their forerunners
37 --- Abstracts and figures from “Tectonic process and its deep factor in the continental margin of East Asia and the Pacific Ocean”, Chikyu Kagaku, v. 30, no. 3, 2006
44 --- AAPG European conference; Oslo IGC33

 --- No. 38 Mar, 2006
__3 --- Gulf of California electrical hot-spot hypothesis : climate and wildfire teleconnection
9 --- Earth’s evolution sages, Part 2
__13 --- Wave structures in the Saturnian system
__16 --- Origin of the primary tectonic structures of the Earth and planets
17 --- Comments on recent papers on Sumatra-Andaman earthquake
19 --- Stamping out dissent
21 --- Refereed journals: Do they insure quality or enforce orthodoxy?
27 --- Organized opposition to plate tectonics: The New Concepts in Global Tectonics group, Jour. Sci. Exploration, v. 20, no. 1, 2006
32 --- Terra non firma earth: plate tectonics is a myth
33 --- The growing and developing earth
__34 --- Galaxy-Sun-Earth relations: The origin of the magnetic field and of the endogenous energy of the Earth
37 --- Asia Oceania Geosciences Society; IGC32 proceedings volume download

 --- No. 37 Dec, 2005 
4 --- Forerunners of the catastrophic Kashmir Earthquake (8 Octobver, 2005) and their geological significance
__17 --- Further inferences on structure in the mantle from deep earthquake patterns
20 --- Early sialic crust of the continental frame of the Pacific Ocean
28 --- Abstracts of papers in “Earth dynamics beyond the plate paradigm”. Boll. Soc. Geol. Italiana, spec. vol. 5, 2005
33 --- Prof. Yukinori Fujita by Y. Suzuki

 --- No. 36, Sep, 2005
1 --- See facts as they are, precisely and comprehensively
2 --- Volcanic eruptions, great earthquakes and tsunamis: Warning techniques to master the deadly science
12 --- Earth's evolution stages
20 --- “Earth dynamics beyond the plate paradigm”, Boll. Soc. Geol. Italiana, spec. vol. 5, 2005
__20 --- Geological structure and origin of the Pacific Ocean
24 --- E.S.T. (Tim) O'Driscoll written by I. Campbell

 --- No. 35 June, 2005
1 --- Our battle continues
3 --- On the recent Sumatran earthquakes and their forerunners
8 --- The geodynamic meaning of the Great Sumatran Earthquake: Inferences from short time windows
__23 --- Equatorial mid-Atlantic ridge. A sea floor spreading anomaly
__27 --- Mars and Earth: Two dichotomies - one cause
29 --- The Earth's decelerated rotation and regularities in orientation of its surface lineaments and faults
__33 --- Continental crust in the North Atlantic; Where is the Moho?; Origin of the primary tectonic structures of Earth and planets, mantle rotation; Magmatism in India through time

 --- No. 34 Mar, 2005
1 --- IGC 2004-Urbino International workshop to discuss some new concepts in global tectonics, University of Urbino, Italy, 29-31 August, 2004
6 --- On the nature of seismic focal zone
__21 --- Plate subduction is not the cause for the Great Indonesian Earthquake on December 26, 2004
27 --- Earthquake patterns from Sumatra
__32 --- The geodynamic significance of the Earth axis displacement during the Sumatra Earthquake
__34 --- What will be penetrated by drilling at the base of the oceanic crust?
__40 --- A.K. Dubey paper on GPS and Himalayan orogenic belt; C.D. Ollier paper - Mountain building and climate; N.C. Smoot book, Tectonic globaloney

 --- No. 33 Dec, 2004
2 --- Plate tectonic "theory" is slowly and inevitably dying
3 --- Recent devastating earthquakes in Japan and Indonesia viewed from the seismic energy transmigration concept
__13 --- Granitic rocks: A new geological meaning
16 --- Y. Suzuki, Introduction to seismotectonics of the Japanese Islands

 --- No. 32 Sep, 2004
1 --- Two historic NCGT meetings successfully held in Italy!
2 --- Development of geotectonic hypotheses in the 20th century
9 --- The volcanic intepretation of Chicxulub, Mexico
15 --- A new interpretation of the origin of the Wadati-Benioff zones in the Mediterranean region
25 --- Latest Mt. Stromboli eruption as predicted by Blot; Deep earthquake precursors in Japan
__26 --- V. Sanchez Cela, 2004 - Granitic rocks; Friedrich and Leduc, 2004 - Curvilinear patterns of oceanic fracture zones

 --- No.31 June, 2004
2 --- IGC 32 and Urbino Workshop programs
5 --- Criticism of Hess' model of the oceanic crust
10 --- Volcanic eruptions predicted by energy transmigration phenomenon - A case of Mt. Stromboli Volcano, Italy -
__15 --- Illustrating concepts in global tectonics with world maps with constant scale natural boundaries (CSNB)
19 --- Comment on the Pacific basin
20 --- V.V. Orlenok (Ed) - Oceanization of the Earth: an alternative to Neomobilism. Collected scientific works
25 --- W.B. Agocs written by I. Kis

No. 30 Mar, 2004
IGC Florence news
__Disproof of subduction
__Deep tectonic zones and structure of the Earth's interior revealed by seismic tomography
The geological cycle and the conservation of continents
No.29 Dec, 2003
__Energy transmigration from deep to shallow earthquakes: a phenomenon applied to Japan - toward scientific earthquake prediction-
__N.C. Smoot book, "Tectonic globaloney"; Chicxulub crater; Pushing gravity by M.R. Edwards; Subduction fails to check out; Global wrench tectonics by K. Storetvedt; and others

No.28 Sep, 2003
Great discoveries in science
Earth Climate Research Institute; Report of NCGT Niigata Forum (Y. Suzuki)
Middle America Trench
The Leinster-South Wales-London-Brabant deep fracture or lineament: History, mineralization and some implications
__The geological cycle and tectonic explanations
__Deep structures of orogenic belts
L.W.D. Bridges - our expanding Earth: The ultimate cause

No.27 June, 2003
__Geological structure and origin of the Pacific Ocean
Deep earthquakes and deep-seated tectonic zones. Part 5, Discussion
More on earthquake patterns
__I.A. Rezanov: Vassiliev & Choi book - "Geology of trenches and island arcs in the Pacific Ocean"

No.26 Mar, 2003
__Geologic history of continents and oceans
An analysis of earthquake patterns
Deep earthquakes and deep-seated tectonic zones. Part 4, Southwest Pacific
__Cenozoic Earth contraction
__A. Ribeiro - Soft plate and impact tectonics; J.C. Grover, Volcanic eruption and great earthquakes; A. Gavrilov - Fault systems of Japan and Okhotsk Sea regions
No.25 Dec, 2002
__Earth contraction tectonics
Deep earthquakes and deep-seated tectonic zones. Part 3, Southeast Asia
Global stress field of the Earth, its variations and prediction of earthquakes
N.C. Smoot & B.A. Leybourne - Central Pacific Megatrend; N.C. Smoot & D. R. Choi - North Pacific Megatrend

No.24 Sep, 2002
Deep earthquakes and deep-seated tectonic zones. Part 2, South America
__Controversial aspects of plate tectonics and possible alternatives
The oceanic environment under polar wander
__Overview of two websites that present interpretations different from strict plate tectonics
__Geology of the deep-water trenches and island arcs of the Pacific by B.I. Vassiliev and D.R. Choi; Geological map of the world by B.A. Jatskevich (ed.), 2000; Origin of oceanic crust by I.A. Rezanov; and others

No.23 Jun, 2002
__From geosyncline to fold mountain: The role of geoid stress
__Deep-seated faults and deep earthquakes in the northwestern Pacific
A surge-tectonic 'Wobble"
Pacific paleobiogeography and expansion models
__Report on New Concepts in Global Tectonics conference, La Junta, CO, Otero Junior College, Colorado, USA, May 5-11, 2002
Smoot, Choi & Bhat book, "Marine geomorphology"

No.22 Mar, 2002
__Crust and upper mantle structure and global geodynamics
On the state of stress in the Earth's crust - further note -
Quantification of an Archaean to Recent Earth expansion process: A review of current research
Lithostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and tectonics of the Siwaliks between Ramnagar and Tanakpur areas, southeastern Kumaun Himalaya
Complicated high relief of central Asian highland
On the deep process of the circum-Pacific tectogenesis
Late Neogene N-S trending upward bending of the crust in the central part of the Honshu Arc, Japan
Reply to Peter James
__N.C. Smoot - Earth geodynamic hypotheses updated; I. Perin - Earth's hemispheric ring; M. Keith - Evidence for a plate tectonics debate; N.C. Smoot, D.R. Choi & M.I. Bhat - Active margin geomorphology

No.21 Dec, 2001
__Dual geospheres: oxidic carapace: hydridic interior
Reply to Paul Lowman review
Fingernails, GPS and Pacific basin closure
__Comments on "Political correctness in science" by Peter James, NCGT Newsletter, no. 19, p. 6-15
Reply to Bob Tuttle comments
J.K. Reed - Plate tectonics - a different view; N.C. Smoot and B.A. Leybourne - Central Pacific Megatrend; S. Tassos - The trembling Earth
NCGT Symposium in Colorado, USA; Tokyo forum for mountains 2001

No.20 Sep, 2001
On the immovable musings of mobilists
__Expanding hemispheric ring
Basic logic principles of analysis and synthesis of geotectonic hypotheses
The Neotectonic Period
A geotectonic model of South America referring to the intermediate-deep earthquake zone
Plate tectonics: "A paradigm under threat", by D. Pratt, Jour. Sci. Expl., v. 14, no.3
No.19  June, 2001
Nature and problems of the crust and mantle - an overview
__Political correctness in science
Recent advances in geophysics
Some comments on the structure of the east coast geosyncline, New Zealand
__"The Origin of mountains" by Cliff Ollier and Colin Pain
New concepts in global tectonics (Himalayan Geology, vol. 22, no. 1, 2001)
G. Chen - Diwa Theory: Activated tectonics and metallogeny

No. 18 Mar, 2001
Some comments on the structure of geosynclines and how they work
Gravity data-evidence of downwelling on ridge
__Impact structures
No.17 Dec, 2000
Active volcanism and seismicity in the Japanese Islands in the last several years
On the state of stress in the Earth's crust: Inferences from reservoir induced seismicity
The morphostructural evolution of the world continental margins - consequence of an expanding Earth
__A new concept of the Earth's rotational tectonics as an alternative to plate tectonics and the rest
D. Pratt - Plate tectonics: A paradigm under threat; N.C. Smoot - Orthogonal intersections of megatrends in the Western Pacific Ocean basin; V. Sanchez Cela - Densialite: A new upper mantle

No.16 Sep, 2000
Major global changes in the development of the Earth during the Phanerozoic
__A coarse analysis of the alleged processes of subduction
Equatorial Atlantic magnetic and bouguer anomaly profiles correlation, depth and structure analysis
Geotectonic development of the Beppu-Shimabara graben in central Kyushu, Japan
Earth expansion book reviews
__C. Ollier & C. Pain - The origin of mountains; V.V. Orlenok - Principles of geophysics

No.15 June, 2000
Basin evolution
From Diwa to crustobody
__Subduction does not exist: From seismic data interpretation
__C.D. Ollier - Geomorphology and mountain building
No.14 Mar, 2000
The Darwin Phoenix Rises yet again
__No geochronological evidence for flood basalt-hotspot links
On the state of stress in the Earth's crust
__Study of tectonics by estimation of work done on rocks
Trinidad to Surinam aeromagnetic profile and its analysis
Comment: Surge theory weighs in on the balance of evidence in the debate on global warming
Oceanization/basification: A discussion
Crustal stress state and Earth expansion
An expanding vs. a contracting Earth
Review of EOS reviewers' comment on B.A. Leybourne paper

No.13 Dec, 1999
Neogene events and modern world
Precambrian structures in South America: Their connection to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
Crust composition defines its motion
New Zealand-Antarctica magnetic spread and inter-profile correlation - depths and structure
__Hydrogen as the driver of global tectonics
Earth expansion: Myths and misconceptions
An appeal for using some sense
Earth expansion: problem with building block
Van Hinte, Jan & Ruffman - Paleozoic microfossils from Orphan Knoll, NW Atlantic; H. Sheth -
__Flood basalt and large igneous provinces from deep mantle plumes

No.12 Sep, 1999
Unrecognized failure of a critical test of strict plate tectonics, the trench region offshore of Guatemala
Geology of East Pacific: Middle America Trench
Time for re-evaluation of expanding Earth theory
Comments: Some unresolved issues in global tectonics
Earth expansion: To subduct or not to subduct
No.11 June, 1999
My friendship with Art Meyerhoff
__Evidence of a planetoid collision with Earth during the Palaeozoic/Mesozoic (P/M) boundary, and implications for expected evidence on Mars
Oceanward propagation of the blind decollement beneath the Kodiak shelf, offshore of Kodiak Island, Alaska, Part III
Subduction on an expanding Earth
Ocean lineaments and major structures in Central America
Analyses of Antarctica airborne magnetometer profiles
Diwa tectonics in Russia
Review of Oldroyd review -The rejection of continental drift theory and method by American earth science
No.10 Mar, 1999
Tsukuba Symposium Report
Deformation of the giant through of the forearc, the Kodiak Island region of the eastern Aleutians, Alaska, Part II
__Alternatives to plate tectonics
__Evaluation of lava and magma flow
__Surge theory vs. plate theory: El Nino has the last word - a theoretical discussion of the driving force behind El Nino
Organization of the journal

No.9 - Dec, 1998
A lot more discussions???
Entry 1. Geoid tectonics
Entry 2. WNW-ESE Pacific lineations
Geology of the southeast Pacific. Part 2. Earthquakes and crustal structure, Peru Trench
__On some recent developments in paleomagnetism
The symmetries and similarities in the structure and development of mobile belts
Production of great arcuate troughs and their subsequent deformation; a case study, the Aleutian Island Arc, Part 1
Tsukuba-98 NCGT Symposium, Japan. Nov. 20-23, 1998
M. Hoshino, 1998 - The expanding Earth.

No.8 - Sep, 1998
Fatal flaw – who are the cuplrits?
A competition in Geotectonics: Just how realistic is your tectonic model?
Multibeam bathymetry and the public
Geology of the Southeast Pacific: Part 2. Seismic stratigraphy of the continental margin and paleoland off central Peru
Global tectonic and volcanic activity of the last one million years
Tectonics, structure, geodynamics and geological nature of the West Pacific active margin, Part 2
Muslimov and Lapinskaya (Eds) - Petroleum potentials in the crystalline basement.
Memorial to Bruce D. Martin, by P.D. Lowman
Tsukuba-98 NCGT Symposium, Japan. Nov. 20-23, 1998

No.7    June, 1998
Beloussov versus Sengor and Burke
__High latitude origin for fissure basalts
Implication of surge tectonics, gravitational teleconnections, and Milankovitch series
Geology of the Southeast Pacific. Part 1. Submarine ridges and basins tied to the South American Precambrian Shield
Tectonics, structure, geodynamics and geological nature of the West Pacific active margin, Part 1
Book review: Our evolving planet: Earth history in new perspective
International symposium on New Concepts in global Tectonics <NCGT-98 Tsukuba>. Second circular

No.6 - Mar, 1998
Can El Nino be controlled by tectonic vortex structures and explained with surge tectonics?
__Mechanism of vortex gravity/density oscillation
Forces and stresses on plates
__Endogenous escape and photolytic loss of the planet water
The myth of plate tectonics
F.C. Wezel book, Geology as the science of global environmental change

No.5 - Dec, 1997
Global theories; more than just theories
Ophiolites: Another paradox
Geoid tectonics
__Magma floods, microplates, and orthogonal intersections
Earthquakes, earth rotation, the excess elliptical bulge and earth expansion
Geological structure of Northeast Honshu, Japan in contradiction to the plate tectonics
__A rotational geospheric dynamic model of the Earth: Part 3
No.4 - Sep, 1997
Rift and rifting
On the origin of submarine valleys
Subatomic behaviour: The profound effects of transmutations
Importance of critically testing the megathrust, Aleutians
Earthquakes at convergent margins
Earth expansion versus plate tectonics, or approaching reality verus mental artefacts
Geodetic proof of Earth expansion
__A rotational geospheric dynamic model of the Earth: Part 2
Overview of the history of one man's challenges to strict plate tectonics
No.3 June, 1997
Is isostasy a real phenomenon?
Prof. K. Storetvedt presented wrench tectonics at the 12th Tectonic Colloquium in Tokyo
No collision of the Izu Peninsula with the Honshu Arc due to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate!
Geology of the oceans around Australia. Part 1, Oceanic lineaments: continuation from the continent; Part 2, Dredging results; Part 3, Deep sea drilling results
Contraction theory revisited
The drift of the Earth's subcore and tectonic evolution
A complete killer hills - compacting Earth model. Part 2
A myth called plate tectonics
__A rotational geospheric dynamic model of the Earth - Part 1
Study of the Earth has just begun!
No.2 - Mar, 1997
Some fundamental questions
Geological map of the Pacific Ocean and adjacent areas
Some fundamental problems of the Earth's structure and evolution
Paleo-Ulleung Land and its implication in the formation of the Japan Sea
Plate tectonics: everything goes and nobody knows
A synthesis of major objections to mobile plate tectonics
A complete killer hills - compacting Earth model of the planet - Part 1

No.1 - Dec, 1996
Theme and aims of the Newsletter
Report on the "Theories other than plate tectonics" session at the 30th IGC, Beijing, August, 1996
The challenge of cultural renaissance and the need for continual renewal
Report from Japan
The suppression of the compressional rift model
K.M. Storetvedt: Our evolving planet: Earth history in new perspective
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204 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 2, June 2016.
Critical analysis of the plate tectonics model and causes of horizontal tectonic  movements
Arkady Pilchin
Universal Geosciences & Environmental Consulting Company
205 Hilda Ave., #1402
Toronto, Ontario, M2M 4B1, Canada. 

Concluding remarks
All of the above leads to the following conclusions:
The main problem with the plate tectonics model is underdevelopment of its every  part, from the model’s inception until the present day.
The outright dismissal of the geosynclinal model and all other fixist models is not  justified and was a mistake.
Convection throughout the entire mantle or in any mantle layer of any significant  thickness is highly unlikely, because it violates physical laws.
The main forces postulated for plate tectonics are too weak for any significant  tectonic activity, and cannot be involved in such tectonic processes as obduction,  orogenesis, lithosphere uplift, or even subduction. In general, their application  violates physical laws by ignoring the effect of friction and strength limits.
Plate tectonic forces are incapable of generating any significant force in a  horizontal or upward direction.

The plate tectonics model of the formation of new lithosphere in spreading centers  violates a number of physical laws; it is unclear how it would be possible, with a  buildup of only about 1 cm long, ~50 km deep and thousands of kilometers wide  increments of new lithosphere per year, for it to independently separate into the  main oceanic layers (including the peridotite layer) in underwater conditions, and  over millions of years form solid oceanic plates thousands of kilometers long.
One of the main problems with sea floor spreading is the inconsistency between the  total lengths of mid-ocean ridges (the total length of the mid-ocean ridge system  is ~80,000 km and the continuous mountain range is 65,000 km) and the total length  of trenches (30,000-40,000 km). Whereas, according to the plate tectonics model,  the total length of trenches should be twice as long (~130,000-160,000 km) as that  of mid-ocean ridges.

Any oceanic lithosphere plate (slab) with a thickness of ~50 km is composed of  three main layers: brittle upper layer with temperatures of less than ~573 K;  elastic middle layer with temperatures within the range of ~573-873 K; and plastic  lower layer with temperatures of >~873 K, and it cannot be considered rigid.
It is clearly shown in the paper that under no circumstances would the average  density of an oceanic lithosphere plate be denser than rocks of the upper mantle,  and the formation of negative buoyancy is not possible.

The formation of eclogite requires rocks of the upper continental crust to be  delivered to depths of about 64 km or more, but even if the entire crust of any  region were completely transformed to eclogite, it would still not be enough to  form negative buoyancy by even 0.01 g/cm3.

An oceanic plate has an average geothermal gradient of ~50-86 K/km, and a  temperature of about 1573 K (or 1603 K) at the point of contact between the  lithosphere and asthenosphere, so technically it cannot be considered cold.
Numerous problems of the plate tectonics model are mentioned in the paper with  corresponding references.

The formation of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks cannot be accomplished under  lithostatic pressures alone, and requires the involvement of gigantic (mostly  horizontal) forces. This cannot take place within a subduction zone.
Analysis of the causes of formation of significant overpressure shows that only the  decomposition of rocks (primarily serpentinization of the peridotite layer) can  generate gigantic forces capable of horizontally moving oceanic plates; causing  obductions, subductions, orogenies, or uplift of lithospheric blocks; forming  serpentinite and ophiolite thrusts; and more.

Analysis of the focus depths of earthquakes on continents clearly shows that the  absolute majority of them take place at shallow and very shallow depths, and almost  all of them within the temperature range of the serpentinization process (~473-773  K). This also shows that continental subduction is not possible.

It is shown that serpentinization of the oceanic peridotite layer may cause  formation of either obduction or forced subduction of an oceanic plate near the  continental margin (see Fig. 1), or away from the continental margin (see Fig. 2).
From all of the above, it is clear that plate tectonics is an inconsistent model  violating numerous physical laws, and is based on a large number of incorrect  postulates and assumptions. Given all this evidence, the plate tectonics model is  shown to be a dead end in geology that has unfortunately run its course for too  long.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 4, December 2016.  615

Late Permian coal formation under Boreal conditions along the shores of the  Mongol-Transbaikalian seaway
Per Michaelsen
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development,
Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Discussion and conclusions
Epicontinental seaways have played an important role in terms of providing  accommodation space and the depositional conditions for accumulation of significant  economical deposits of coal and hydrocarbons. Although these seaways are virtually  absent from Earth today, they are the dominant source of much of our information  about marine biodiversity of the past (Harries, 2009).

It is highlighted here that the pan global Permian coal measures are unique in the  evolution of the Earth, not matched in any period before or since (Carey, 2000).  Substantial global extensional tectonic events during the Permian created the  necessary accommodation space for significant peat accumulations, and subsequent  burial and preservation. In Mongolia, the Permian system is widely distributed, not  least in the South Gobi Basin, where very significant coal resources have been  preserved. Extensive field work in the South Gobi Basin since 2005 indicates that  coal deposition and preservation were controlled by an interaction of orbital  climatic forcing of the depositional processes, and somewhat complex syn-tectonic  faulting. Faulting resulted in the development of relatively deep, fault bounded  sub-basins that were the locus for substantial tracts of peat accumulation (e.g.  Tavan Tolgoi coal field with potential 10Bt of coal).

The Permian system is an important part of Mongolia’s geological evolution with the  two marine basins (i.e. SMB and PMTB) and the controversial collision between the  North China block and Mongolia. According to recent work by Eizenhöfer et al.  (2014), from the Late Permian to Early Triassic double-sided subduction led to the  closure of the so-called Paleo-Asian Ocean, resulting in collision and forming the  controversial Solonker Suture Zone. Intriguingly, the up to 1,000m thick Late  Permian coal measures in the South Gobi Basin does not contain tuffs, Late Permian  coals are developed proximal (c. 25-30km) north of the postulated suture zone, and  the Early-Middle Triassic deposits within the South Gobi Basin are characterized by  very limited structural deformation. It is also noted that the coal-bearing strata  within the study area does not contain any tuffs. Detailed studies of the Late  Permian Platypus Tuff Bed in the Bowen Basin by Michaelsen et al. (2001) showed  that the tuff is well preserved over 100’s of kilometers of strike length.  Unfortunately, such tuff marker beds are absent in the Late Permian deposits in  Mongolia.

Evidence of sea-level rise and fall is well displayed in Permian strata on a global  scale (e.g. Ross and Ross, Hansen et al., 2000 and Michaelsen and Henderson, 2000a;  Rampino et al., 2000, Isbell et al., 2003, Shao et al., 2007 and Li et al., 2016).  Interestingly, Haq et al. (1987) identified a total of 119 Early Triassic to  Quaternary sea-level cycles, however of these only 19 (15.9%) began with major  sequence boundaries. In this context the base of the Late Permian coal measures in  the study area (i.e. implied by the FA6 shellbed), might well represent a major  regional extensive sequence boundary.

The sedimentary record documented in this study strongly indicates that the Late  Permian coal measures developed along the shores of a boreal seaway during frequent  sea-level changes. These sea-level changes are also evident by the lithologs from  three logged sections of the boreal seaway by Manankov (2004) and Manankov et al.  (2006) (Figure 1). The Adatzag section (shown by the number 1 north of Mandalgobi  on Figure 1) appears to contain a total of eight cyclothems with an average  thickness of c. 100m, and spans over c. 7My from the Sakmarian to Artinskian. Each  cyclothem thus represent a time span of c. 1My and as such might represent tectonic  pulses.

Observing that every seaway is unique, the general architecture of the PMTB is  considered here to be somewhat comparable to the relatively narrow seaway developed  along the western Norwegian seaboard during Early-Middle Jurassic times (cf.  Martinus et al., 2014). However, these Jurassic seaways were interconnected and  developed in a greenhouse world with elevated temperatures. In contrast, water  circulation within the narrow and relatively shallow PMTB might have resulted in  low oxygen levels in some parts, hence the relatively rare macrofossils observed  within the study area. Alternatively, the high sedimentation rates might have  prevented the Permian fauna to colonize the area.

The two underlying stratigraphic units (P2 cn1 and P2 cn2) are characterized by a  high sandstone/mudstone ratio, dominated by marine sandstone. However, the  drillhole record (DH2 and DH28) shows several horizons with common organic debris.  This suggests that the peat-forming plants were around and colonized the area but  did not have sufficient time to accumulate significant thickness.

Marine macro fossils are rare in the sedimentary record, with only one horizon at  the base of the coal-bearing unit. However, bioturbation is very common in the Late  Permian stratigraphic units both below and above the coal measures.

The coal deposits within the study area are considered here to be time equivalent  to the coal-bearing part of the Late Permian Tavan Tolgoi Group in the South Gobi  Basin, and as such representing a peat mire ecosystem developed close to the  Permo-Triassic boundary. Significantly, the vast majority (c. 95%) of peat-forming  plants became extinct at this boundary (c.f. Michaelsen, 2002). Work is currently  in progress to firmly document and establish the location of the Permo-Triassic  boundary in the study area.


6 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 1, March 2016.
Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of geosynclines
Vadim Gordienko
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

The task we set for ourselves in this study has been accomplished. We managed to  explain on a quantitative level (within the limits of real errors) the geological  phenomena and physical fields for two Alpine geosynclines (as well as for many  others -- see INTRODUCTION). It is essential to point out that correlation between  observed and estimated phenomena and fields has been performed without resorting to  adjustment of the simulation parameters. This is precisely the way the author  explains the following:
1. Geothermometry data in crust and upper mantle.
2. Variation of thickness and folded structure of sedimentary layer.
3. Age and contents of igneous rocks.
4. Distribution of heat flow data.
5. Seismic wave velocities in crust and upper mantle.
6. Gravitational effects of density anomalies in upper mantle.
7. Anomalies of electrical conductivity in crust and upper mantle.
We have thereby shown that our hypothesis on deep-seated processes can be applied  to the most intricate -- geosynclinal -- type of endogenous conditions.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 3, September 2016.  361
Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of continental rifts
Vadim Gordienko
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

The purpose of the paper was to test the feasibility of applying concepts of the  advection-polymorphism hypothesis (APH) to constructing models of deep-seated  processes in the tectonospheres of rifts and single-episode activation zones on  continents. Studies of the Hercynian rift (in the Dnieper-Donets Depression) and of  the Alpine rift (the Massif Central in France), enabled us to explain, at a  quantitative level, geological phenomena and physical fields (within limits of  permissible errors). It is important to point out that agreement between  experimental and estimated data was achieved without the need to adjust parameters  of the models. Thus, we were able to provide explanation for the following:
1. The data of geothermometry for the crust and upper mantle;
2. Evolution of the sedimentary layer thickness and crustal thickness (the latter –  at a qualitative level);
3. The age and composition of igneous rocks, the depths of magma chambers and  temperatures in them;
4. The observed distribution of the heat flow;
5. Seismic wave velocities in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle;
6. Gravitational effects of density anomalies in upper mantle rocks;
7. Electrical conductivity anomalies in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle.

Procedures for the investigation of zones of single-episode activations, which are  currently in progress and which occurred in geological past, have not yet been  worked out in sufficient detail, and it cannot be ruled out that the deep-seated  processes in question differ significantly and, in that case, we will need to  analyze more than one type of endogenous conditions. Still, we did manage to  identify, on the territory of Ukraine, single-episode activation zones and to show  that associated with them are seismicity, anomalous helium isotopy in subsurface  waters, oil and gas presence, heat-flow anomalies, seismic wave velocities in the  subcrustal portion of the upper mantle, electrical conductivity anomalies, negative  gravity anomalies in the mantle, and possibly, also reduction in the Earth’s crust  thickness.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 2, June 2016. 159
Neotectonics of the Gulf Coast and active rifting and wrenching of the United  States: A tale of broken plate tectonics?
Ghulam Sarwar
Independent Consultant, Houston, Texas, USA

It is clear that the landmasses of USA and that Mexico are active and the basement  underlying the mobile sedimentary cover of the northern Gulf is also mobile, with  the various transfer faults accommodating differential movements among large  crustal blocks (Figs. 8 and 9). The Gulf Coast seems to be a “not so passive  margin” at present, and has been so for a long time. Rifting and wrenching has  already progressed to volcanic activity in Neogene to Recent times in northern  Mexico, Texas, New Mexico (Fig. 8) and as far north as the American northwest.

The transfer faults of the Gulf Coast, Mexico and GOM seem to be active and  probably have been episodically active since the Mesozoic rifting. If so, we need  to change the plate tectonic paradigm that fails to adequately explain the current  seismicity and active tectonics of the North American interior, Mexico and the GOM  (Figs. 8, 9 and 10; Hand, 2015). How can intra-plate and continent-wide deformation  result from abstractions such as “low angle subduction, ridge push, slab pull,  mantle convection, or deep seated candle like plumes?”

Fig. 10. New seismic hazard map, released by the USGS on April 23, 2015, highlights  earthquake risk zones (red to brown with highest risk) that indicates areas with  induced or human-caused quakes (blue boxes on map; Hand, 2015). In north Texas and  adjacent Oklahoma, much of the recent and ongoing seismicity has been linked to the  tight shale production boom, involving multiple “fracking” and reinjection of  produced water under pressure. Manmade seismicity, therefore, is only a relatively  modern phenomenon. Note smaller hot spots along the east coast as well.

Remember, the so-called “intra-plate” movements are not just confined to North  America, but are also common in South America, Africa, Asia, and Europe and even  within the great oceanic regimes. The conventional plate tectonic theory seems to  be at a loss to explain a lot of active deformation around the planet and simply  relies on model-driven thinking devoid of convincing factual data.

The GOM forms an active tectonic link between the Caribbean to the SSE and Mexico  and western North America to the WNW. Basement involved wrenching of the Gulf Coast  is real and constitutes a hither to ignored factor contributing to coastal  subsidence and land loss along the Gulf Coast (Sarwar and Bohlinger, 2005; Dokka,  2006; Gagliano, 2008; Stephens, 2010).


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 1, March 2016. 37
Is paleomagnetic data reliable?:
A critical analysis of paleomagnetism
Arkady Pilchin
Universal Geosciences & Environmental Consulting Company
205 Hilda Ave., #1402,
Toronto, Ontario, M2M 4B1, Canada.
Telephone: +1 416 221-0059

Concluding Remarks
The above analysis of paleomagnetic postulates and assumptions and paleomagnetic  sample selection allows to conclude the following: the main postulates applied in  paleomagnetism must be revised, the main assumptions used in paleomagnetism must be  reconsidered, and the criteria and practices of sample selection in paleomagnetism  allowing collection of samples up to low greenschist metamorphic facies (up to 573 -673 K) render those samples unreliable, because of the transformation of ferrous  to ferric iron (TFFI).

The above analysis also allows to conclude that: paleomagnetism completely ignores  the role of stability of iron oxides in the formation and preservation of magnetic  properties of rocks and minerals; TFFI is not taken into consideration with respect  to the change and preservation of the magnetic fraction of rock samples; practices  of thermal demagnetization (“cleaning”) trigger TFFI each time the temperature is  raised above ~473 K, producing a self-inflicted change of magnetic fraction of  samples; blocking temperatures cannot prevent samples from undergoing TFFI at  temperatures within the range of TFFI; and that in many cases use of samples not  satisfying criteria of sample selection is allowed in paleomagnetism. Lastly, Van  der Voo (1990) dismissed all paleomagnetic data of the 1950s-1960s as unreliable,  which should put to question all conclusions made based on that data, including  continental drift and polar wandering.

The final conclusion of this paper is that paleomagnetism is based on numerous  false postulates and assumptions, and unreliable sample selection that make its  data and results of its interpretation unreliable, as well as most if not all  conclusions made based on this data or its interpretation.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 4, December 2015.  489
Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS

Conclusions. The degassing and expanding Earth's model of the global tectonics.
The described geological and geophysical data give enable us to suggest the  degassing and expanding model of the tectonosphere formation. The model yields the  solutions to the following key problems of global tectonics:
(1) How were the different crustal types (continental, oceanic, and intermediate)  created?
(2) How were the continents and oceans formed?
(3) What is the origin of the specific structure of the Pacific Ocean with the  tectonically active continental margin?
(4) What is the origin of the regular system of the mid-oceanic ridges?

In this model, the Earth degassing is the main energy source. The spatially  irregular degassing results in the formation of the different types of the  lithosphere. The geochemical studies show that the continental crust was formed  from the mantle material with the high fluid content (Lutz, 1980 and 1999). This  means that the thick continental crust was created in the regions of the higher  deep fluid flows; however, in the areas of the weaker flows (Pacific area), the  primary oceanic crust was preserved, and only some separate spots of the transition  crust appeared.

The deep fluids are also vitally important for the depletion of the continental  upper mantle (Letnikov, 1999, 2000 and 2006) and, as a result, to the decrease in  its density (Kuskov at al., 2014; Pavlenkova and Pavlenkova, 2014; Yegorova and  Pavlenkova, 2014). The latter yields the solution of the main global tectonic  problem, namely, how the continents and oceans were formed? The increase in the  thickness of the lower-density lithosphere led to its uplifting with respect to the  oceanic lithosphere.

The clearly pronounced regularities observed in the structure of the tectonosphere  (regular round shape of the Pacific active margins and the symmetry of the mid- oceanic ridge system relative to the South Pole) are explained by the Earth’s  expansion. This ordering can be formed at two main stages. Primarily, the Pacific  active ring was formed; then, the mid-oceanic ridges were developed as a result of  the more intense extension of the lithosphere in the southern hemisphere.

The suggested global tectonic model is consistent with some processes described by  the other geodynamic concepts: the longtime connection of the deep mantle processes  with tectonics (endogenous regimes), the folding at the lithosphere plate  boundaries (plate tectonics), the intense magmatism (plume tectonics), the rotation  of some lithosphere blocks (wrench tectonics), the mantle material flows along the  weak zones (surge tectonics), etc. However, all these motions are limited in the  scale and intensity: they should not destroy the described regularities in the  tectonosphere structure. The Earth's degassing is a common energy source for all  these and many other processes (convection in the mantle, magnetic pole mobility,  etc.).

The degassing and expanding Earth's model is based on the large factual data on the  continental and oceanic lithosphere structure and on the revealed global  regularities in their structure. The most important points of the suggested model  are (1) the primary origin of the old oceanic, continental and transition crustal  types due to the spatially irregular deep fluid advection, (2) the formation of the  tectonically active Pacific ring and the mid-oceanic fracture zones as a result of  the Earth's expansion, (3) the formation of the continents and oceans after the  uplifting of the less dense depleted continental lithosphere, and (4) the main  energy source of the tectogenesis is the Earth's degassing.

P.S. The main ideas of the suggested model (the Earth's degassing and expansion)  were previously described in the fluid-rotation concept of global tectonics  (Pavlenkova, 2005; 2012a & c). However, for explaining the paleomagnetic data, the  cited concept assumed the rotation of the mantle around the core instead of the  unrealistic large polar wander proposed by Storetvedt (1997 and 2003). After  Pratt’s articles (2013) and the analysis of the extensive additional data  (including the last NCGT publications), it has become clear that the mantle  rotation contradicts the regularities of the main structural elements of the Earth,  especially the asymmetry of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctica; hence, the mantle  rotation was excluded from the new model presented above. The explanation of the  paleomagnetic data can be found not in the motion of the lithospheric plates, or  the entire mantle, or in the polar wander, but in changes of the direction and  intensity of the deep fluid flows in the rotating Earth.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015.  263
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine;

The generalization of the data on radiogenic heat generation in upper mantle rocks  within the frameworks of the APH has made it possible:
1. To identify three levels of the HG value (there may also be intermediate levels)  confined to continental Precambrian platforms, geosynclinals belts, and oceans:  0.04; 0.06; and 0.08 μW/m3, respectively.
2. To reveal agreement between the total contemporary heat generation in the crust  and upper mantle for three types of regions despite considerable differences in the  distribution of heat sources versus depth.
3. To show that for all platform regions (and possibly also for Phanerozoic  geosynclinal belts) radiogenic heat generation may be used to quantitatively  account for the heat flow, all deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere over the  known history of the Earth, and the distribution of contemporary and maximum  temperatures in the crust and upper mantle.
4. To map out such parity for a period of geological history of oceans where more  comprehensive studies are hampered by lack of information.


334 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015.
Institute of Geophysics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

Concluding perspective
In this paper I have argued that broader regions of epeirogenic uplift, with  associated formation of mountain ranges through surface erosion, are a recent  phenomenon in Earth history. Long-term accumulation of hydrous fluids at levels of  the topmost mantle – being in their strongly buoyant and reactive supercritical  state, is thought to be the principal driver of the current tectono-topographic  processes commencing some 5 m.y. ago. It is inferred that continental mountain  ranges are basically linked to the presence of prominent lithospheric fault zones  (formed at various stages of Earth history) along which water-accelerated  eclogitization processes would proceed relatively fast; and because eclogite  transformation implies a reduction of rock volume by some 10-15 % (Austrheim et  al., 1996), the resulting fracture spacing will enable strongly buoyant  supercritical fluids to infiltrate higher levels of the crust.

Prior to say the Middle Mesozoic the surface of the Earth was apparently relatively  featureless and the present continental regions were dominated by shallow seas. By  now the slow internal degassing – presumably having been in a progressive phase  since early Precambrian time, was beginning to build up a strongly gas/fluid  infiltrated carapace (asthenosphere) with a pressure that was sufficiently high to  initiate reconstitution of Earth’s outer brittle shell. In this process, the Moho  interface and a highly irregular lithosphere – including the thinly crusted deep  oceanic basins, finally came into existence (Storetvedt 2003 and 2011). Consistent  with the idea of a slow degassing history and associated physico-chemical internal  disequilibrium, decades of seismic tomography has disclosed that both core and  mantle is characterized by anisotropy and heterogeneity at various scales. Hence,  progressive degassing has led to gradual build-up of fluids and gasses in the outer  regions of the developing mantle.

The inferred degassing-associated reorganization of internal mass is bound to have  altered Earth’s moments of inertia periodically which in turn would have given rise  to changes of planetary spin rate and intermittent events of polar wander. These  dynamical changes can be seen as the trigger of Earth’s jerky tectonic history –  explaining the presence of geological time boundaries, with their geological,  palaeoclimatic and biological upheavals, the transgression-regression cyclicity,  etc. Inferentially, after each dynamo-tectonic pulse the crustal fracture system  had become progressively extended, intensified and reactivated. Hence, the build-up  of hydrostatic pressure increase of the uppermost mantle would be bound to  accelerate transformation of Earth’s early incrustation. Thus, the global tectonic  upheaval during the Upper Mesozoic and Lower Tertiary led to significant fluids- enforced changes of crustal structure and global topography; hence, by the Lower  Tertiary, the deep sea depressions and the present dry land surface was largely ‘in  place’, but continental mountains were still tens of million years away  (Storetvedt, 2003 and 2011).

By the time of the Pliocene, beginning 5 m.y. ago, the long-term evolution of the  Earth’s crust/lithosphere had paved the way for significant fault-controlled  continental epeirogeny with subsequent development of modern mountain topography  often associated with adjacent basin formation; this linkage is thought to be  connected with differentials in the tectonic break-up system of the crust. For  example, the Alpine range is surrounded by the western Mediterranean deep sea  basins, the continental Po plain and the Molasse depocentres. In the case of  crust-cutting thrust/fault zones in continental fold belts, buoyant uplift powered  by super-critical hydrous fluids has apparently been the dominant factor, while  basin formation has been prevalent where the lower crust has been more evenly  fractured enabling effective sub-crustal eclogitization and subsequent delamination  – leading to variable degrees of isostatic subsidence. Furthermore, basin  development inevitably increased the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding  uppermost mantle and thereby giving an extra impetus to pressurized volatiles  beneath adjacent rising continental regions.

In their study of global synchronism in Pacific arc volcanism, Cambray and Cadet  (1994) found that major pulses of volcanic activity took place in the Middle  Miocene as well as during Pliocene-Quaternary times. These findings agree with the  evolutionary pattern discussed above. The dynamo-tectonic pulsation that powered  rising mantle fluids would naturally be in phase with the eustatic sea-level  changes as well as being responsible for time-equivalent volcanism along deep  seated fault zones such as the Benioff zones circumscribing the Pacific.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015.  357

The observation of impressive parallels of important tectonic and morphological  features on surfaces of solid and gaseous planets and their satellites (Earth -  Moon, Mars - Phobos, Pluto – Charon, Saturn – icy satellites) proves that external  structuring forces are responsible for these phenomena. They are recognized as  orbital forces due to celestial body movement in keplerian orbits. The observations  make dubious some planetologic and geologic tectonic hypothesis such as plate  tectonics and importance of the earlier giant impacts.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 2, June 2015. 155

The key question of planetology (in a wider aspect, astronomy) – rotations of  celestial bodies is resolved in connection to this property with their ubiquitous  characteristics - tectonic dichotomy. Tectonic dichotomy (first theorem of the wave  planetology) is a consequence of distorting bodies. Keplerian ellipticity of orbits  requires, according to the Le Chatelier principle, its opposing neutralizing  action. Thus, mass redistribution and rotation are called to create and level  angular momenta of distorted hemispheric segments.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 2, June 2015. 187
Institute of the Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow, Russia,

1. The Darwin Rise has no unified tectonic basis and morphological features,  therefore it does not exist in nature, but exists only in literature.
2. MCT with various sizes are typical and important elements of morphostructural  fabric of the Pacific Ocean floor.
3. The long lasting deep focal systems have developed in pulsating and inherited  regime during Late Mesozoic- Early Cenozoic. They form the tectonic basis of large  rises of the Pacific Ocean bottom. Each plume arch-block rises consists in  hierarchical groups of multitude of volcanoes.
4. The focal and fault systems are connected with deep and crustal energy centers  and channels ensuring a delivery of magma, gases, fluids and hydrothermal  migration. Therefore they represent the most adequate tectonic basis for  mineralogenic forecast and division of ore districts of oceanic bottom


NCGT Journal, V. 3, No. 1, March 2015. 29

The traced correlation between fundamental tectonic features on Earth and Moon –  their Oceans and Basins concerns not only their relative sizes but also a regular  mutual disposition of very different cosmic bodies. What is common between these  bodies; they share the same circumsolar orbit. Axes of rotation – present and past  – show decisive role in layouts of fundamental wave-born tectonic features. Taking  these observations into account, one conclusion may be drawn: It is time to  thoroughly revise existing geological and planetological tectonic concepts.
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NCGT Journal, V. 3, No. 1, March 2015. 71
(Excerpt #1, abridged from an unpublished monograph,
EXTINCTIONS: the Pattern of Global Cataclysms)
Peter M. JAMES
Dunalley, Tasmania 7177, Australia

ABSTRACT: Examples of climate change over Recent and Pleistocene times are  demonstrated to occur at rates far in excess of those available under the mobile  plate tectonics model. Polar wander, probably accompanied by recognizable  precessional variations, is proposed as a genesis. Both phenomena generate  immediate responses from the earth's water veneer and are demonstrated to cause  massive changes in sea level. Evidence of very low sea levels is available from  DSDP results and the ubiquitous submarine valleys. Elevated sea levels are  indicated from wave cut platforms and events like the Missoula "floods", the  existence of tablazos, the Lake Titicaca enigmas. In the subsequent essay, these  factors will all be demonstrated to provide a nexus with extinction events  throughout pre-history and back over geological time.
Keywords: rates of climate change, polar wander, precessional wobble, massive sea  level changes, extinctions
1 Introduction
here is no question that there have been dramatic changes in climate over  geological time. Sequences such as polar ice caps covering what are now tropical  latitudes and glacial sediments, interbedded with coal seams/coral reef deposits,  have been recorded in all parts of the globe. The extreme climate changes involved  have obviously occurred at rates far in excess of the rates at which continents are  alleged to drift. A couple of examples should suffice.
Antarctica is normally taken to have been under its polar ice cap for most of the  past 15 million years. Not so long ago, however, fossilised wood was found in the  Trans Antarctic Mountains, at 1,800 m elevation, in sediments only 2 or 3 million  years old, New Scientist, 2/6/89. Trees growing in the mountains of Antarctica  would indicate it was then much warmer, with a latitude something like 40º less  than it now occupies. A forty degree change in latitude over a period of 2 to 3  million years would indicate a rate of change of well over a thousand kilometres  per million years: about fifty times faster than continents are alleged to "drift".  But if this is taken in conjunction with other contemporary evidence of climates in  the northern Hemisphere, another possibility enters the equation. When the  aforementioned trees were growing in the Antarctic mountains, cold water  foraminifera were being deposited off the coast of Oregon, (Borehole DSDP 35, among  others). That is, the north west Pacific was quite a bit colder than today.
The pattern of a warmer Antarctic and a colder Oregon would fit a mechanism of a  polar shift quite happily: a North Pole migrating forty degrees from its present  position towards the northwest Pacific and a South Pole migrating a similar  distance up into the Indian Ocean.
Nearer our own time, the late Pleistocene Ice Age is taken to extend from c 20,000  to 12,000 years ago in the North America, with a slightly later onset in northwest  Europe and an extension of a couple of thousand years more. This Ice Age is  normally spoken of as a global phenomenon, in which case it would have a global  genesis, such as an earthly encounter with the shadow of a meteor swarm, or a  simple variation in the sun's radiation. These possibilities lie somewhat outside  the scope of the author's cognizance but the following comments are offered. If a  meteor swarm lay inside the Earth's path around the sun, then one would expect this  sort of astronomical cooling to be a frequent and regularly spaced event. On the  other hand, if variations in the sun's radiation was the cause, this would imply,  first, a decrease in radiation extending over a couple of thousand years to kick  off the ice age; second, only a few thousand years later, a turn around to an  increase in radiation to melt the expanded ice sheets; thirdly, a cessation in this  radiation cycle when the ice sheets resumed their former size. In such a scenario,  it might be questioned – even if the waxing and waning of the ice sheets had been a  straightforward process - whether a body as large as our permanent star could  produce a reversible change in radiation with such rapidity. When considered in  light of the fact that the Ice Age was not just a simple waxing and waning of the  ice sheets but one of numerous fluctuations, Dawes and Kerr (1982), Frenzel (1973), the solar variation postulate becomes even less attractive.
So let us take a different view of the possible cause. During at least one part of  the Ice Age, evidence for a centre of ice indicates a North Pole located at Baffin  Island. And for some of the same Ice Age period Siberia was warmer than today. If  the two events were quasi-simultaneous, they could both be explained by a simple  shift in the Pole, not by any change in the areal extent of the ice cap, Figure 1.
Figure 1 The centre of ice with the North Pole at Baffin Island, c 15,000 BP,  compared with today's ice cap.
When conditions only a few thousands of years ago present conundrums of this type,  how much more difficult, then, to determine the simultaneous climatic conditions in  different parts of the globe, tens of millions of years ago? In view of these  potential Gordian Knots, let us begin a synopsis of past climatic changes during  the period we know most about, the last millennium, in an attempt to determine  whether we might find some clues to support the above suggestions that changes in  the mode of spin of the Earth are a prime cause of climate changes - at least in  the absence of any modern day anthropogenic input.
2 The Most Recent Two Millennia
During the most recent period of Earth history there have been modest but  recognisable climate changes recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. Initially, around  the time of William the Conqueror, England was warm enough to allow the conquering  Normans to plant grape vines: a horticultural practice that was not again possible  in England until the later decades of the 20th Century. The same warm period was  also well enough established to give the Scandinavians confidence to cross the seas  and colonise Iceland, Greenland, and even the north eastern corner of North  America. In Greenland, communities with dairy farming and other agricultural  ventures were established.
However, the balmy days were not to last. Prolonged cold weather is taken to have  commenced in England by the 16th Century. In 1536, Henry VIII travelled down an ice  covered Thames on a horse-drawn sleigh, from Hampton Court to Greenwich. Twenty  eight years later, Queen Elizabeth was able to walk out onto the thick ice of the  Thames, at London. The cold spells continued on through the 17th C and 18th C and  sometimes into the early part of the 19th C, gaining for the period the name of  Little Ice Age, LIA.
During the LIA, the North Sea was sometimes available for passage by foot on the  ice. The LIA was also famous in England for "Frost Fairs" that were held when the  frozen surface of the Thames was considered thick enough for crowds to venture  safely out upon it. The first recorded Frost Fair was in 1607-08 and ice was again  thick enough for similar events in 1684, 1739-40, 1788 and, for the last time, in  1813-14.1 In other words, although the winters may have been exceptionally severe,  the thick ice production on the Thames
1 Apparently, the Frost Fairs came to an end one year when the ice cover broke up  prematurely and large fragments floated out to sea with people still upon them.
NCGT Journal, V. 3, No. 1, March 2015. 73
does not appear to have been constant. Indeed, even before the LIA, the Thames had  frozen over on a couple of other, possibly exceptional, occasions: an early event  in 250 AD has been recorded and another in 923 AD, the latter one when England  should have been preparing for warmer times. In the once warm Greenland, the LIA  was infamous for its freezing over of the Scandinavian settlements that had been  developed there four or five centuries earlier.
Despite the variations, one could nonetheless conclude that northwest Europe was  generally colder in 16th to 19th Centuries, colder than in William the Conqueror's  time and colder that today. The historical records at Rye, once a small port on the  English Channel, reveal an affinity between the above climate changes and sea level  changes which, at first glance, could be interpreted as the result of waxing and  waning of Arctic ice.
The history of Rye, located on Figure 2, goes something like this:- In the 11th  Century, during the warming of northwest Europe, when the Scandinavians were  settling in Greenland and William the Conqueror's heirs were planting vines, the  town of Winchelsea had been located to the south of Rye, on a shingle barrier. This  barrier was eroded in a storm surge of 1250 AD, and Winchelsea was eventually  submerged in 1280. About this time, sea water had risen up to cover the land as far  inland as Appeldore, some 15 km to the north of Rye, and a sea crossing was  necessary between Rye and Lydd, where an airport is now in use. The river on which  Rye was originally situated had its mouth at New Romney, some 17 km to the east,  but this was changed to its present position in 1290 and, a century later, much of  the Brede valley, behind the relocated Winchelsea, was under water
Figure 2 Present location of Rye, southern England, almost on the English Channel
Thus, high sea levels were associated with the medieval warming period. But things  were about to change. In the 1440s viniculture was abandoned because of the cooler  weather. By 1596, nearing the height of the Little Ice Age, the channel of the  Rother River, through Rye, had silted up and was too shallow for ships. The harbour  was abandoned at the end of the 17th Century and, by 1730, the channel was all but  gone. In 1635, some 20,000 acres in the district were reclaimed from the sea and  more land was reclaimed sixty years later. These episodes of sea level retreat thus  correspond with the cooler period which could be said to be explained by waxing of  the Arctic ice sheet. One might even contend that this periodic freezing recorded  in north west Europe and Greenland was of wider proportions. Work on the Great  Barrier Reef, off the north east coastline of Australia, by E. Henty of the  Australian Institute of Marine Science, discovered evidence of colder weather in  the antipodean coral reef growths at the same period as the Frost Fairs. Thus, the  first impression is of a global cooling event.2
Or it would be, if not for a single instance recorded from outside the northwest  Europe region and its antipodes. By luck, ship’s logs from four Spain-to-Chile  voyages in the late 16th and early 17th Centuries, were recently located in Seville  by Maria de Rosario Prieta (1993). Between 1578 and 1599, only a few decades after  Queen Elizabeth walked out onto the frozen Thames and only a decade before the  first Frost Fair, the weather in the Straits of Magellan was recorded as being warm  and balmy. Winds were from the
2 In 1931, however, the pendulum was found to be swinging back again. The sea level  in the English Channel was rising again and, in the 1960s, the rate of rise was  measured as 2mm per year. This again corresponds with evidence of warming but  predates any serious global warming set off by human efforts.

north east, instead of the normal freezing winds from the west, and glaciers in  Patagonia were calving to produce ice bergs in the Straits, seen as another, unusually warm, phenomenon.  Thus, the contemporary weather in Patagonia was the complete opposite of the well  documented LIA changes in northwest Europe. Introducing the idea of polar wander  again provides a helpful explanation for this contradiction. If one were to suggest  that the Little Ice Age was associated with some migration of the North Pole down  towards the North Atlantic, then the South Pole would have migrated up into  antipodean regions, like Australia. In this manner, colder conditions would have  affected both regions. In South America, however, this same hypothetical polar  shift would have distanced the South Pole away from Patagonia, thus making it  warmer. On this basis, one could conclude that the unusual climate changes recorded  over the last thousand years do not point to any solar phenomena, but rather to some change in the mode of spin of the Earth. And, if so, there is more to it. On a majority of occasions during the LIA, the Thames had not  frozen. This point needs to be cleared up as the variations between the frozen and  the unfrozen Thames appear to have taken place too frequently to be accounted for  by polar wander, alone. One possible solution for rapid climatic variations might  be sought in the introduction of another change in the Earth's mode of spin:  changes in magnitude of precession. This proposal is treated in some detail below, based on early  astronomical research at Alexandria. But the point for the moment is that  precession could take place more quickly than polar migration and such wobbles  would impose their own fluctuations on the general global weather patterns. It is  unfortunate that most of the LIA period came before the Observatory was set up at  Greenwich, otherwise we would have direct confirmation, or not, of the above sorts  of change. Prior to moving onto further astronomical topics, a brief outline of  some of the meteorological changes in the first millennium AD is set out below to  fill in the gaps in time. During the first four and a half centuries of the first  millennium AD, Britain was occupied by the Romans but little history comes down to  us as a result of their stay. Unfortunately, the natural history following Roman  times is largely restricted to dramatic meteorological aspects, such as storms,  floods, hurricanes and rain like blood. These were tabulated up to 1000 AD and  assembled by C.E. Britton (1937) in Geophysical Memoirs,
Volume 8, No1, and include the following:- · In c 50 AD (Caligula's reign?), there  was a frost so hard that all the rivers and lakes were passable from November to  the beginning of April. · In 68 AD, the Isle of Wight was allegedly separated from  Hampshire by inundations. (This sounds as
though some change in sea level was involved.) · In 134 and 153 AD, the Thames  froze over for two and three months, respectively, while in the middle of this, in  139, the river was recorded as having dried up for two days. · In c 250 AD, the  Thames froze over for nine weeks and, in 291, most of the rivers in Britain were  frozen for six weeks. This occurred again in 329 and again (for six weeks) in 525.  · A drought with scorching heat was mentioned in 605 AD while, in 684, a great  frost descended so
that lakes and rivers in Ireland were frozen as also the sea between Ireland and  Scotland, allowing "journeys to be made to and fro on the ice". · In 695 AD, the  Thames was frozen for six weeks allowing booths to be built upon it. The first  Frost Fair, no doubt.
The next three centuries register more of the unusual climatic events, from severe  winters to hot summers, but no more references to the freezing of the rivers in  England, until the one mentioned earlier, in 923, just prior to the warming of  England in preparation for the arrival of William the Conqueror. What the above  listings suggest, however, is a less than stable climate for Britain in the first  millennium AD and, hence, that changeable weather might be a fairly normal and  natural situation. Whether this has been due to any form of polar wander or changes  in the rate or magnitude of precession cannot be determined at this stage.  Fortunately, we have more data from observations made at Alexandria during the  preceding millennium. 3 The First Millennium BC
Eclipse Observations
The birth of natural philosophy in the first millennium BC is traditionally taken  to have been launched when
Thales predicted a total eclipse of the sun in Greece in 585 BC. Thales had spent  time in Egypt and had been exposed to Chaldean (Babylonian) astronomy, so he obviously had information on  eclipse seasons, etc., sufficient to make his prediction. However, while this  eclipse did occur as predicted, modern day back calculations show that it should  not have been visible in Greece. In this, it was one of the early maverick eclipses  recorded in that millennium, occurring on the right day but (according to back  calculations of modern astronomers) in the wrong location.
Another example of this right day/wrong place comes from Thucydides who recorded a  total solar eclipse at Athens on August 5, 431 BC, during the Peloponnesian War.  Back calculations agree that there was an eclipse on that day, but no calculations  can make the path of totality pass anywhere near Athens. One celebrated British  astronomer, J.K. Fotheringham in 1921, came up with the suggestion that maybe  Thucydides was drunk on that day and did not known where he was. Other maverick  observations include the one mentioned above, which was later reported by  Herodotus; one on March 20, 71 AD, reported by Plutarch at Chaeronea; and another  on November 11, 129 BC, recorded as total in the Hellespont and 80% at Alexandria,.  This last event was at a time when the celebrated Hipparchus was still carrying out  his research at Alexandria, but even this record has been discounted – again by  Fotheringham - on the basis that his own back calculations showed that no eclipse  should have been visible at Alexandria since one of August 15, 310 BC. Fotheringham  went on to suggest, in this case, that confusion over dates was the most likely  explanation. How two such distant events could have been confused at a place like  Alexandria, at that time, is another matter.
As an aside, maverick recordings are not restricted to the Mediterranean. Similar  observations come from the Far East. In China, official records do not begin until  the end of the Chou Dynasty (c 950 BC, to use the Western calendar), but China did  have a well established code of legends from much earlier. The dates of two solar  eclipses reported from that early period, in 2155 and 2128 BC, are found to be  confirmed by back calculations. However, once again, the calculations reveal that  the second one should not have been seen in China.
The last known recording of a maverick total solar eclipse in Europe, this one with  stars visible, was observed in Germany on May 8, 810 AD. The date of this eclipse  is again confirmed by back calculations but no set of calculations can make the sun  disappear on that day in Germany. So it must have left Fotheringham with a puzzle.  But the alternative, that of a possible change in Earth behavior, does not appear  to have been considered. Yet it is not a great step to accept that eclipses,  observed first hand by people who were as reliable as any present-day academic with  his computer, do represent actual events at specified locations.
In fairness, there is one excuse, maybe a rather lame one, for modern scientific  skepticism about right dates, wrong places. Not all of the ancient eclipse  recordings are maverick. An eclipse of 763 BC, at Ashur, behaves as it should.  Likewise one in 240 BC and one again in 190 BC, at Rome. More than thirty  recordings of solar eclipses given in the Annals of Lu are found to fit with  calculations and locations, the more recent discrepancies being one on June 19, 518  AD, another in 600 AD and a third in 718 AD, which event is not so much earlier  than the last recorded maverick in Germany. Since then, things appear to have  settled down from whatever caused the maverick eclipses in the first place.
Which brings us to an event observed at Babylon on April 15, 136 BC, and event that  comes down to us with impeccable credentials. Back calculations by modern  astronomers again confirm that there was a total solar eclipse on that day, but the  same set of calculations show that the path of totality of this eclipse should not  have passed anywhere near Babylon, but at some point 4000 km to the west, Figure 3.

Figure 3. Total solar eclipse of April 15, 136 BC, observed at Babylon when the  path of totality should have been some 4000 km to the west.
Attempts were made by Sir Harold Jeffreys at Cambridge - among others - to explain  this discrepancy as being related to a slowing down in the rotation of the Earth.  This approach again leads to problems. Firstly, if all the maverick eclipses of  ancient times were the result of a slowing down in the Earth’s rate of rotation,  there should have been a pattern apparent in the anomalies. But there is not; both  maverick eclipses and well behaved ones are interspersed over the centuries of  ancient times. Secondly, deceleration in the Earth’s rate of spin is far too slow  to explain the Babylon discrepancy. Modern measurements of the rate of slowing down  of the rotating Earth are of the order of 2 milli-seconds per century. On this  basis, there would be no discrepancy worth worrying about in the path of totality  of the "Babylon" eclipse.
The rate of slowing down over geological time, determined from the growth rings of  fossil corals, is somewhat higher. In the Devonian Period, 400 million years ago,  fossilised growth rings indicate something like a year of 390 - 400 days. A hundred  million years later, in the Carboniferous, the number of days had reduced to 385.  This represents a slowing down to today’s rate of approximately 4 milliseconds, or  one tenth of a second of arc, per year. But even applying this rate to the Babylon  eclipse provides for a shift in the path of totality of little more than 5 km, not  the 3000 - 4000 km recorded.
Thus, we are surely dealing with something outside both the long term and the  present day “normal” behaviour of the Earth. Within the spectrum of possible  causes, the concept of major wobble is very attractive. If there were transient  increases in wobble spanning the time of the above eclipses, there would also be,  according to the conservation of angular momentum, transient slowing down in the  rate of spin of the Earth.3 Such a slowing down would obviously displace the path  of the eclipse totality by some unknown, but potentially large, amount. When the  wobble reduced once more to normal, the rate of spin would speed up, to compensate,  so that the maverick eclipses above were generally able to occur on the right days,  or near enough.
Latitude Fixes
The Alexandria astronomer, Hipparchus, was an inveterate latitude fixer and what he  discovered, not long before 128 BC, was that his observations of star positions  differed from those made just over a century earlier by Eratosthenes. Under normal  precession conditions, the geographical shift in the star positions, over that  interval, would have been 1 - 2º. Not great, but probably measurable. As a result  of these findings Hipparchus is credited with identification of Precession of the  Equinoxes, although precession was probably

3 The analogy of a spinning top is useful although not fully accurate since a top  is subject to friction at the “south pole”. Nonetheless, most of us would have  witnessed how the rate of spin of the top slows when the top is precessing and then  speeds up again when the top assumes steady state spin.

the last thing on his mind. (Allegedly, the discrepancies between his observations  and those of Eratosthenes annoyed him more than anything else.) The other thing  that probably annoyed him was that the latitudes he obtained from solar  observations – which are unaffected by precession - also differed from those made  by Eratosthenes. They also differ from the established latitudes of today; some are  lower, some are higher. (One wonders whether he would have been annoyed had he  known that would happen.)
One example of the discrepancies:- Born in Marseille, Hipparchus placed its  latitude on the same latitude as Byzantium (Istanbul, today). A parallel of  latitude through both locations is shown in Figure 4. The one by Hipparchus  deviates from today’s parallel of latitude by an angle of about 4º and it would put  the North Pole near the northern tip of Russia (Bol’shevik Is), outside the limits  of the modern permanent pack ice and some 1000-1500 km from its present location.
If Hipparchus was correct in his interpretation, one could suggest several  explanations for the discrepancy. Let’s get the first possibility out of the way:  that associated with any form of continental drift. The rate of movement implied by  a shift of the Hipparchus' North Pole to the North Pole of today is about ten  thousand times faster than any motion proposed for mobile plates. A second  explanation – and one favoured by many modern astronomers – is that the maverick  latitudes recorded by Hipparchus and Eratosthenes are the result of faulty  observations.
Figure 4 The Mediterranean showing today's parallels of Latitude (35º and 40º N)  compared to that of Hipparchus, the top line of Latitude, running from Marseille to  Byzantium (Istanbul)
This claim of faulty observations is sometimes made despite the fact that  Hipparchus was probably the most celebrated observational astronomer in  Alexandria's history and most of his other observations have been taken as  satisfactory. A third explanation is that the mode of spin of the Earth was subject  to some form of change during the period - whether an increased but transient form  of precessional wobble or whether some other form of polar wander is an open  question.4 Here, fortunately, we are able to call on the findings of Copernicus,  just over a millennium and a half after the Alexandrian data.
Copernicus, a monk in Poland in the 16th C, was a former professor of maths in  Rome, where the astronomical data from Alexandria and also that from many centuries  of observations made at Babylon were kept. Copernicus was given possession of the  data, to find out what it all revealed. There was, allegedly, growing gossip from  the Middle East on the topic of heliocentricity and it obviously would have been in  the church's interests to muzzle such gossip. So one might now wonder whether it  had been Rome's intention for Copernicus to come up with the firm conclusion that  Aristotle and Ptolemy were correct: the Earth did really

4 The sorts of change in the Earth's mode of spin, interpreted by the author though  analysis of the sun-worship alignments of megalithic monuments in N.W. Europe,  James (1993), suggests that significant changes in precession were probably  involved. Incidentally, a similar conclusion was reached in a study of megalithic  monuments in Siberia, Gregoriev (2011).

stand at the centre of the universe. But, if that was the intention, it all came  unstuck. Copernicus turned out to be as honest as he was conscientious and he found  that what had been preached for a millennium and a half was incorrect; the centre  of our part of the universe was the sun, not the Earth. That finding was, indeed, a  burn-at-the-stake number at the time but Copernicus avoided punishment, firstly by  dedicating his book to the Pope and, secondly, by not allowing its publication  until after his death.
Copernicus, in his research, identified that the phenomenon Hipparchus had noted  was indeed Precession of the Equinoxes and a century later Newton was able to  explain it as being caused by the differential pull of the sun and the moon on the  Earth’s equatorial bulge. Precession of the Equinoxes has since been accepted as  immutable, but it seems to be less known – or less mentioned - that Copernicus also  identified changes in this rate of precession. From the time of Eratosthenes (3rd C  BC) to Ptolemy (2nd C AD), the rate of Precession of the Equinoxes was more than  30% slower than from the time of Ptolemy until late in the 1st Millennium AD.  Indeed, this fits the proposal given above on the role played by the conservation  of angular momentum: the slower precessional period would have occurring during the  same period as the maverick eclipses and maverick latitude fixes were recorded at  Alexandria. Moreover, the post-Ptolemy rate up until about the time of the last  maverick eclipse in Germany was marginally higher than today’s.
Further discussion on the topic of precessional wobbles during the second and third  millennia BC is available in a study made of the megalithic alignments of north  west Europe by the writer, James (ibid).
4 Distribution of the Earth's Water Veneer
The point of the above astronomical peregrination has been to lead into the role  that changes in the Earth's mode of spin might play in the distribution of the  Earth's water veneer.
Every point on the earth’s surface is subject to centripetal accelerations, by dint  of the Earth’s rotation. Points along the equator experience the maximum and  magnitude decreases with the effective radius of rotation (latitude) to become  virtually zero at the poles. The centrifugal forces are, of course, relatively  minor in relation to gravity since we do not notice any significant changes when  crossing the latitudes. However, the same need not be entirely true for the oceans.  If the Earth were a smooth spherical body, but otherwise identical to its present  shape, mass, and rate of rotation, the forces of rotation would cause the water  veneer to amass at the equator and drain away from the poles. To a first  approximation, this effect can be quantified by equating the kinetic and potential  energy involved, neglecting secondary effects such as minor changes in gravity with  latitude, tidal and frictional effects. The height to which a column of water would  rise at any latitude would thus be given by
Potential energy, m.g.h = Kinetic energy, ½ m.v2
Or h = v2 / 2g
Where h = height of water column
g = gravitational constant
v = angular velocity, ω . r
The term ω equals 2 π r per 24 hours where r is the effective radius of spin: zero  at the poles and a maxim at the equator. If one inserts end values into the above  equation, the results are:
Height of a column of water at the pole: 0 km
Height of a column of water at the equator: 11.9 km
This variation in depth sounds large, but if the Earth were the size of a 30 cm  diameter desk globe, the difference would amount to little more than the thickness  of good quality notepaper. Such a distribution of water on a spherical Earth does,  however, assume that there is adequate water to cover the full surface area and, if  so, the distribution would look something like Curve A on Figure 5. The actual  distribution of the oceans is, of course, quite different and more orthogonal in  shape, line B.
It might be noted by inspection that the actual ocean volume under line B is  considerably less than under the hypothetical Curve A. This means that, if the  Earth were spherical, the present ocean volumes would be insufficient to cover the  whole surface and the higher latitudes would probably be dry. Curve Ci might then  give a better illustration of this hypothetical distribution of the water veneer on  a spherical Earth. In practice, of course, the Earth body itself should adjust to  these same rotational forces producing the equatorial bulge and polar flattening and this would obviously play a large part in producing the regular oceanic distribution indicated by Line B.
Figure 5. Relationship between theoretical distribution of water on a spherical  Earth. Curve A, with the actual distribution something like Line B, indicating a  much smaller volume. The volume equivalent to Line B on the hypothetical spherical  Earth is shown as Curve Ci, and the effect of a hypothetical shift of 20 º in the  poles on the distribution of the oceans is shown as Curve Cii.
The “deficient” oceanic volume is important for the polar wander model. For, if  some form of polar wander were to take place, changing the pattern of centripetal  forces, there would be an immediate response from the seas. Water would attempt to  amass at the new equatorial location(s) although nodal positions are unlikely to be  affected to any great extent. Water would also tend to drain away from the new  polar areas, so that the old polar areas would suffer inundation. The effect can be  roughly predicted for a sphere, Curve Cii, but the Earth's major geoidal features  such as the equatorial bulge and the zones of polar flattening, with the further  complication of continental bulwarks, makes the picture more complicated.
Nonetheless, even with the present shape of the Earth, the two C-Curves suggest  there would be an immediate – and significant - response from the water veneer  associated with any form of polar wander. Possibly, in time, the major geoidal  features of the Earth body itself would adjust to the changes. It would no doubt  take longer for a new equatorial bulge and new polar flattening zones to develop  but, when this happened, one could expect that ocean levels should more or less  return to their previous datum. How long this adjustment would take is a matter for  further consideration.
This explanation for massive sea level changes now needs some observational back- up. Large scale lowering of sea levels in the geological past is now likely to be  covered by deep oceans, so the most obvious place to begin a search for clues on  sea level lowering would be in the deep ocean environment where two promising areas  of investigation are available: the findings from deep sea drilling program and the  ubiquitous presence of submarine valleys and abyssal sediment fans. Evidence of  past sea levels elevations could easily be removed by ongoing erosion processes,  but there are still clues available as set out below. Firstly, let us deal with the  case of massive sea level lowering.
5 Deep Sea Drilling Results
Much of the DSDP program has been aimed at supporting plate tectonics predictions  so that information relevant to sea level change is largely fortuitous.  Nonetheless, boreholes drilled in the deep ocean, hundreds of kilometres from land,  have recovered evapourites, coarse sediments, terriginous materials, wood and even  leaves. To date, all these items – except for the evaporites - have typically been  labelled the result of turbidity current activity, despite the fact that this has  typically meant stretching the known principles of hydraulics past breaking point.  Selected boreholes are quoted below.

Borehole 156 (Galapagos area). Basalt met at a depth of 2.5 km below the surface of  the ocean was found to be oxidized, indicating exposure to air, either by sea level  change or massive subsidence of the land in this locality. Or perhaps some new way  of producing oxidation of rock under deep water? Incidentally, the exploration  program associated with this borehole revealed that the sea floor in this  equatorial region is deeply dissected and eroded in an east-west direction.
Borehole 240, recovered land detritus and reef material within sand deposits in the  upper stratigraphic units. This was drilled in the Indian Ocean, some 500 km from  the equatorial African coast, in water of some 5 km depth.
Borehole 518 recorded an erosional unconformity at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary,  revealing that the region was then either dry or at least a shallow water domain.  It is now at some 4 km depth and the unconformity is overlain by deep water  sediments.
Borehole 217, drilled in deep water on the 90º E Ridge, recovered Cretaceous Age  sediments containing dried out mud cracks.
Borehole 661, drilled in the Atlantic off Africa’s north west coastline,  encountered a deposit of Cretaceous anhydrite. Evaporites are indicative of a  shallow, enclosed, tropical basin and such deposits also occur in the Mediterranean  which is known to have been dry on a couple of occasions. Such deposits have also  been recorded the Red Sea. Now, they have been found in the ocean depths.
6 Submarine Valleys
Underwater canyons and valleys are present in all the world’s seas and oceans and  almost ninety percent of them can be traced back to existing drainage systems on  land, although sometimes the linkage is disturbed or lost where the former drainage  system crosses the continental shelf. Normally, however, it can be picked up once  more on the continental slope, from where a majority of submarine valleys continue  on down to the abyssal plains. Here, in water depths that can range up to four  kilometres or more, large alluvial-type fans have been deposited.
In their systems, submarine valleys exhibit most of the major characteristics of  terrestrial drainage systems: gorges cut in the hard rock of the continental  slopes; tributaries; distinct bedding; incised drainage patterns in the surfaces of  the alluvial fans. All these features would normally be seen as the result of  gravitational forces and hydraulic gradients that are in operation only above sea  level. Indeed, according to Shepard and Dill in their classic tome on Submarine  Valleys and Other Sea Valleys (1966), the most logical explanation to fit all the  submarine valley features would be a drowned river origin: that is to say, valleys  formed in the manner of normal terrestrial rivers and then subsequently submerged.  However, they jibbed at the idea of such massive drops in sea level.
Many oceanographers also jib at the idea of massive sea level changes and look for  alternative explanations such as turbidity currents, despite the fact that no one  has ever successfully demonstrated how an intermittent and superficial turbidity  current, acting under water without the power of hydraulic gradients, is able to  erode a massive canyon in hard rock. There is another problem with the turbidity  current premise. Turbidity currents are currents supercharged with sediments, which  sediments they tend to drop on the run, as it were, as their velocity reduces after  leaving the continental slope. This process produces graded deposits: initially  gravels or gravelly sands, grading out into sands and then into silts as one  progresses out from the base of a continental slope. However, sediments deposited  in the abyssal fans typically exhibit defined bedding planes, as found in  terrestrial streams.
Examples of submarine valleys are given below to illustrate the above arguments,  starting with the submarine valleys of the Mediterranean Sea, which is known to  have been dry on a couple of occasions, the last time being dated at around five  million years ago.5 The Mediterranean therefore provides no problem with regard to  a drowned river origin. Canyons in the Mediterranean are also quite frequent, with  some significant ones being extensions of the Rhone. Another occurs beneath the  mouth of the Nile, running from

5 Although Greek mythology does speak of a more recent occasion when Hyperion, the  sun god, was persuaded to let his incompetent nephew drive the sun chariot across  the sky. The unruly steeds became uncontrollable and the chariot crashed to earth,  causing the Mediterranean to boil dry and the Ethiopians to turn black.

the ground surface near Memphis and deepening down to the base of the Mediterranean  at some distance out to sea. This canyon is now infilled to form the Nile Delta.
Precipitous canyons are present around the island of Corsica, beginning not far  above present sea level as little more than notches in the present-day rocky  coastline. That is, there is no potential here for any turbidity current activity.  Below sea level, however, the notches develop rapidly into canyons in the hard rock  and, in this form, continue down to the base of the sea at several kilometres  depth. The sediment loads of shallow water materials, such as sea grass, have been  spilt out onto the sea floor as a small fan deposits.
The morphology of the drowned Mediterranean canyons can now be compared with other  submarine canyons present in the major oceans, where the removal of the much larger  bodies of water is less easy to explain.
The east coast of Sri Lanka has several canyons, the largest being the Trincomalee  Canyon extending off the country’s largest river, the Mahaweli. This canyon runs a  twisting, precipitous course in a V-shaped valley that has cut its way down through  hard pre-Cambrian granites and quartzites to a final oceanic depth of around 4-5  km, some 60 km out from the land. Now, the Mahaweli ("Big Sand") River has the  potential to carry a reasonable sediment load and hence an origin related to  turbidity currents has sometimes been proffered to explain its impressive gorge in  hard rock. But the Trincomalee Canyon is not alone on the east coast of Sri Lanka.  There are several more canyons to the south, each of similar magnitude and each  eroded into hard rock. But, in these instances, there is no major river at the head  of the canyons and no potential for any large sediment load to call on, if one were  considering a turbidity current origin. The logical solution is to accept that, at  some stage in the geological history of the region, the sea level in this part of  the Indian Ocean was four kilometres lower than it is today. This is not as absurd  as it first sounds.
Travelling east into the Bay of Bengal, supporting evidence for the above  interpretation is to be found in the Bengal submarine system. This voluminous  system extends out from the mouth of the Ganges River, firstly as discrete canyons  in the rock of the continental slope, then as a meandering and braided network of  valleys incised in a huge sediment fan, which stretches south for a distance of  2,500 km from the Ganges mouth, Figure 6.
Figure 6. The submarine valley system of the Bay of Bengal. Elongate shaded areas  represent incised channels in the sediment fan.
The presence of coarse layers within the predominant silts of the fan indicates  that there have been four major pulses of sedimentation, ranging in age from the  Cretaceous, though the Miocene and Pliocene, to the Quaternary. The youngest  deposit, of Pleistocene Age, is overlain by deep sea ooze. This, in itself, is a  prime example of changes in the relative elevations of land and sea.

The present-day ocean depths over the length of the fan increase from about 3 km in  the north to almost 5 km in the south. This represents a sea bed gradient of less  than 1 : 1000. Attempting to explain the origin of this extensive and almost flat  sediment fan by turbidity current activity is beyond any known principles of  hydraulics: particularly when one is asking the turbidity currents to deposit their  extensive sediments in horizontally bedded sequences. The turbidity current origin  becomes even less attractive when one is asking deep ocean currents to erode major  channels in the surface of the fan, under water, at gradients of 1 : 1000, or less.  If the above objections to are not enough to reject the idea of a turbidity current  origin, the proposal can be seen as even more fatuous when DSDP Borehole 217,  located on the 90 º Ridge, recovered Cretaceous muds with drying cracks.
Examples of abyssal fans in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans further confirm the  drowned river origin.
The Congo submarine valley, at 6º S, begins some 20 km up from the mouth and can be  traced some 400 km out to sea. Features of this system include major underwater  tributaries and a sediment fan at depth containing, as in the case of the Bengal  fan, incised channels, with the added feature of levees and sand grains with  hematite coatings. Admittedly, the hematite coatings could have been formed before  the sands were transported out into the ocean. However, twigs have also been  recovered from these same deep sea sediments, which does suggest that the upper  levels of the sediment fan are quite recent as well as being terrestrial in origin.  The base of the Congo abyssal fan is Cretaceous in age, as is the Bengal fan, and  rests on evaporite deposits, which presents another indicator of shallow water that  was itself drying out.
The submarine valley systems off either coastline of North America are also  instructive with regard to origin. Starting with the west coast, submarine valleys  occur from Canada to the Mexican border: the Quinault, Grays, Willapa, Colombia,  Astoria, Delgada et al. All are unequivocally sited off the mouths of terrestrial  streams, except possibly the Delgada, which is located just south of Cape Mendocino  where a branch of the San Andreas Fault is tangential to the coast. The Deep Sea  Drilling Program nonetheless found fresh water diatoms and wood of Pleistocene age  in 4.5 km depth of water on the distal parts of this Delagda fan. Again, the  structure of all these canyons appears to be independent of the size of the  counterpart terrestrial stream, on land. Sharp contacts between beds of mud and  sand are again typical, a situation that once more rules out a turbidity current  origin.
The Eel Canyon, of northern California, has poignant example of terrestrial  behaviour: a detour around a sea floor high, as a normal terrestrial stream might  do, Figure 7.
Figure 7. The Eel submarine valley detours around a topographical high.
The largest canyon on the west coast, one which rivals the Grand Canyon in relief,  begins in Monterey Bay, Figure 8. It is joined on its descent to the abyssal plain  by two large tributary canyons related to The Carmel and the Santa Cruz Rivers.  These tributary canyons form hanging valleys at the junctions, a probable  indication vertical movements associated with the San Andreas Fault, Martin (1992).  The Monterey Canyon also crosses a major feature sympathetic to the main alignment  of the San Andreas Fault, as shown on the figure. At this point the canyon contains  Pliocene age sediments. One would think that, if the San Andreas Fault has been  moving as a transform fault since the Pliocene – at the ongoing rates imputed to it  by plate tectonics dogma - there should now be a large kink in this canyon’s trace,  with a displacement of a couple of hundred kilometres. There is no obvious  indication of any such lateral movement.

Figure 8. Monterey Canyon. Both the Soquel and Carmel junctions occur as hanging  valleys and weathered granite occurs near the Carmel junction, at 2km depth. Large  gravels are present in the distal fan.
At almost 2 km depth, weathered granites are exposed in the main canyon wall,  Martin (64). At 3 km depth, near the far end of the canyon’s sediment fan, gravels  up to 7 cm in diameter have been deposited. Again, one could not realistically  expect these to have been moved by deep sea currents which seldom attain velocities  in excess of one knot. Nor, indeed, is such a deposit concordant with the activity  of turbidity currents from the distant continental slope.
On the opposite coast of North America, there is a similar sequence of submarine  canyons in the Atlantic Ocean although those of the Atlantic are typically longer  than those of the Pacific. For instance, the Amazon Canyon continues up almost as  far as Puerto Rico while one of the world's largest examples is to be found in the  Bahamas: a length of some 200 km with side walls several kilometres in height at  the surprisingly steep inclinations of 9 - 12º. Its valley floor, at depths of 4 –  5 km, is flat and not composed of deep sea oozes as might be expected, but of  cobbles and boulder deposits interbedded with sands. The sands sometimes exhibit  current bedding, typical of shallow water deposition.
The Hudson Canyon contains sedimentary sequences ranging down though the Recent and  Pleistocene to the Pliocene/Miocene transition. Cobbles, gravels and shallow water  shells have been found along the channel floor, now at 3.5 km depth. The longest of  the North Atlantic features is the Mid-Ocean Submarine Valley, which starts off  between Canada and Greenland and continues down the abyssal plain. Shallow water  Tertiary deposits are present along its length, overlying Cretaceous sediments that  appear to have been deposited in sequences. DSDP Borehole 185 encountered Pliocene  beds resting unconformably on older sediments along this feature.
A final example comes from Hawaii. Here, submarine canyons are to be found off the  precipitous and rocky coastline, as in Corsica. And, as in Corsica, there is no  obvious source of sediment to produce turbidity currents. The canyons are typically  located below erosion notches in the steep basalt terrains and they continue at  relatively constant gradients of 100 metres per kilometre to depths of almost 2 km.  Sequences of discrete clay beds, overlain by gravels and subsequently by coarse  sands, have been recovered from depths of 1 km, together with shallow water shells.  Pleistocene reefs have also been found at depths of 2 km on the Hawaiian slopes.  Elsewhere, it has been argued by the author that subsidence of a sea mount is not a  factor to be considered in explaining occurrences of this nature.
Further evidence for large sea level changes comes from Barbados, where a Tertiary  coal deposit is overlain by globigerina ooze. That is, in order to produce  conditions for the deposition of the proto-coal formation, a once shallow and  subtropical freshwater environment existed during the Tertiary. This zone then  found itself in a deep ocean environment for a period long enough to allow the  deposition of ooze. After its spell at the bottom of the ocean, the area was then "uplifted" above sea level once more. All  this happened in the last 10 – 12 Ma. Barbados lies close to the Caribbean Plate  boundary and this is sometimes used as a self-sufficient explanation for the  massive environmental changes. But, if land subsidence/uplift is proposed, it would  mean complete reversibility in the crust, at an on-going rate of at least 1 mm per  year, the sort of rate measured for local uplifts in active volcanic regions. There  is really no evidence for preferring oscillation of the land over the simpler  oscillation in sea level - except a long standing prejudice against the latter. A  similar geological situation has been recorded in Indonesia, where deep sea  radiolarian ooze again occurs above sea level, sandwiched between shallow water  Tertiary sediments. Thus, the Barbados case is not unique.
7 Elevated Sea Levels
On a model of sea level change related to the mode of spin of the Earth, one should  expect that if there were low sea levels in one part of the globe there should be  compensatory high sea levels in another part. Evidence of high sea levels is,  unfortunately, less likely to be preserved owing to the normal erosion processes on  land. Often, it is the case that many ambiguous inferences of high sea levels tend  to be dismissed. For instance, on the Malayan Peninsula, erosion platforms at  elevations of 200m or more in post-Tertiary granites have been reported by the  geological survey, but this is seldom quoted and, as often, is dismissed. Elevated  beach strands and gravel beds occur at numerous locations around the world but tend  to be explained by isostatic uplifts - or, more often these days, tend to get  tainted by the claim of "tsunami" if the site is in view of a body of water. This  has been the fate of elevated wave cut platforms on the east coast of Australia and  also in the north west of the country.
A similar wave cut feature at 300m elevation in Hawaii has also been claimed as the  product of a tsunami, which is stretching the bounds of credulity. For, a start, it  would be the experience of most people who have visited the sites of tsunami  events, that these leave little or no geological trace of their passing, at least  not in the form of semi-permanent features such as wave cut platforms in rock.  Additionally, the highest tsunami waves recorded during events like Krakatau are  around 30 m and this in shallow waters. Out in the open ocean, nothing more than  around 10% of this height has ever been recorded.
On the Canadian prairie, there is a different situation. The Saskatchewan Gravels  are difficult to explain by any other mechanism than a high sea level stand. The  age of the gravel deposition has been suggested as tertiary, Hunt (1990), but is  not known with any certainty. The gravels have been deposited up to a kilometre and  a half above the present day sea level and occur with the configuration of a very  long beach strand that extends from just below the Canada-USA border (to the south  east off Medicine Hat, at Lat 48º, Long 109º) and stretches north to cross the  Alberta-Saskatchewan border at Lloydminster (east of Edmonton). From there, the  strand bends slightly northwest, passing through Fort Vermilian and it continues  for another couple of hundred kilometres to the Arctic Circle. The "gravels" are  immediately recognisable, comprising a predominance of spherical pre-Cambrian  quartzite cobbles, like startlingly white cannon balls.
The total length of the broadcast exceeds a thousand kilometres and there is a  gradual drop in elevation (approximately 1 : 1000) to the north, that is, towards  the Pole.6
The broadcast has been explained by one authority, Hunt (ibid), as the result of  massive a tsunami following a major meteorite impact. However, as already  mentioned, the geomorphology better fits an origin of continued wave action at a  high sea level, forming a long beach strand. Incidentally, the same white cannon  balls are also to be found on the western side of the Rocky Mountain Cordillera, in  Canada, notably near Revelstoke where a huge accumulation of white cannon balls has  been heaped up beside a river bend. So perhaps there are other factors involved.  The author has also found scattered evidence of the same white cannon balls in road  cuttings south from Revelstoke, as far down as the USA border, at approximately  Long. 119.5º.
Perhaps the best examples of high wave-cut platforms are to be found along the  Pacific coastline of South America. Termed tablazos, these monolithic-type  structures stand as isolated coastal plateaux extending from Peru to Tierra del  Fuego. The features were first recorded in scientific literature by Charles Darwin  and have been subsequently discussed by Sheppard (1927) and others. Horizontal  marine sediments cap most tablazos

6 Interestingly, the strand line of what was once presumably a horizontal lake  surface of Lake Titicaca, now exhibits a gradual drop in elevation (approx. 1 :  2500) towards the Pole - according to today's geodetic standards.

and these have been variably dated from Pliocene to Recent, De Vries (1988),  Cantalamessa and Di Celma (2004). Tablazo elevations in excess of 300 m occur in  the north but the elevations gradually decrease in height to the south. This  inclination has been attributed to uneven uplift of South America. But, the view of  isostatic readjustment has been refuted quantitatively by the writer, James (2007),  and in South America it also lacks any convincing evidence in the profiles of the  rivers on either the east or west coastlines.
Charles Darwin, when in Patagonia on the Atlantic side of South America, was  interested in the wide, almost horizontal, pampas plains that would be periodically  truncated on their eastern side by steep cliff faces sometimes approaching a  hundred metres in height. He surveyed one alignment and estimated an overall  elevation drop, from the foothills of the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean, of less than  two hundred metres: an average slope of the order of 1:5000 to 1:2500. Shells of  Recent appearance were common on the flat pampas surfaces and Darwin presumed that  the "steps" (or relic sea cliffs) had been formed as a result of uplift of the  land. The assumed uplift would make it slightly less than the elevation of the  Tablazos on the other side of the Andes, but there is no reason to assume that this  is the result of land uplift any more than it is to assume the topography was  formed by a slowly subsiding sea level, after a period of sea level elevation. The  latter explanation is again suggested to be more fitting when it comes to very much  larger changes in the land/sea relationships, posed by Lake Titicaca and the  associated Altiplano, and also by the Great Missoula Floods. These two enigmatic  phenomena have been treated in detail by the author elsewhere, James (2011) and  (2008) respectively, and are not pursued herein.
AUTHOR'S NOTE. The above essay is intended to pave the way for a following  submission on what might be labelled "global cataclysms": a prime mechanism of  extinction events.
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NCGT Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014. 14
Institute of Physics of the Earth RAS, Russia;

NCGT Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014. 20
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

There are more than enough facts (their number can be easily increased) to give a  negative assessment of the hypothesis under question. Nevertheless, PTH has become  extremely popular. In one of his last publications Beloussov offers a clue to  solving this riddle.
“….all obstacles have been removed. All sorts of movement or spin of plates of any  size are possible…. At any place and at any time zones of spreading, subduction, or  obduction can emerge and vanish again… A researcher can determine at will the  convenient size of plates, their shape, direction, and time of their movements or  rotations. At the same time, he or she feels completely liberated from bothering  why and how those plates formed and why they drift.”
“These conditions of total free-for-all… are certainly creating ideal settings for  ‘explaining’ any structural situation. This circumstance is precisely what makes  the plate tectonics hypothesis so attractive. It hypnotizes one and makes one feel  satisfied with the finality of his judgments. From the eternal quest and constant  qualms, scientific creativity transforms into quiet and simplified labeling of  phenomena according to standard requirements. It is certainly hard to deny such  mental comfort to oneself” (Beloussov, 1991, p. 10).
It is also possible to add the power of authority to the above. This author  repeatedly heard that PTH is correct because Khain himself recognizes it. Avsyuk,  who wrote a preface to a book under the title “Controversial Aspects of Plate  Tectonics and Possible Alternatives” is telling a story of how Mercury’s revolution  period was determined. It was established by Schiaparelli in 1889 as equal to 88  days and to the period of orbital movement. Supporters of the famous astronomer  corroborated this result again and again for 75 years with the help of new  observation data obtained with increasingly more sophisticated equipment. After  radio-astronomical methods were applied, the actual revolution period was set at 55  days, and a re-examination of these data adjusted the period to 50-60 days (Avsyuk,  2002). The force of authority is enormous, but it was already clear to Bacon (1214 -1294) that “there are three sources of knowledge: authority, rational thinking,  and experience. Authority, however, is not enough if you do not have a logical  basis without which it leads you to accept things on faith rather than  understanding. …. And rational thinking alone cannot distinguish sophism from real  proof, unless it can justify its conclusions by experience.” (History…, 1981, p.  58-59). Bacon was a Franciscan friar and professor of theology at Oxford  University, and he spent 12 years behind bars for admonition of his colleagues’ ill  behavior, thereby slurring the authority of the Church. Seven hundred years have  passed since then. Our contemporaries, who occasionally admit making up their  results to fit PTH, provide as an excuse, apart from the opinion of
NCGT Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014. 46
acknowledged authorities, also fear lest they would not otherwise get grants, would  not be allowed to publish their articles in prestigious journals that might reject  their articles if the notion “geosyncline” was mentioned there. In fact, people  with normal geological education also experience ethical problems. Geologists from  generations that grew up during the period of PTH domination did not get enough  information from their teachers about simplest geological facts and methods of  their analysis. It is only by working independently that they can reach a  professional level (we are not talking about individual problems in resolving many  of which modern geology has been developing rapidly and successfully), but far from  everybody holds such inspiration.
Characteristics of human nature that facilitated the contraction of the plate  tectonics bacilli by the majority of members of the worldwide geological community  are far from ideal. Consequently, recovery will be a long process.


85 NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 4, December 2014.

The highest volcanic features of terrestrial planets adorn their largest  hemispheric basaltic depressions of the wave origin, so called fundamental wave1 or  2πR “oceanic” features. The heights and massiveness of these volcanic edifices  increase in the outward from Sun direction and correlate with amplitudes of warping  planetary bodies waves. Thus, there is a causal relation between these waves  stressing in forces and resulting expelled from the underlying mantle silicate  volcanic material.


56 NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 1,March 2014.
Alexey V. KHORTOV1, Alexander E. SHLEZINGER2 and Gleb B. UDINTSEV3
1 OJSC “Soyuzmorgeo”. Chief Geologist of OJSC “Soyuzmorgeo” Address: 38  Krasnogvardeyskaya street,
Gelendzhik 353461, Krasnodar Region, Russian Federation. E-mail:
2 Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. Chief Research Worker of  Geological Institute, Russian
Academy of Sciences. 7 Pyzhevsky per., 119017, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail:
3 Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academу of  Sciences. Member-
correspondent of RAS, Chief Research Worker of Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry  and Analytical
Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. 19 Kosygina St., 119991, Moscow, Russian  Federation.

Abstract: Spreading model of modern ocean origin isn't supported by geological and  seismic data on their structure. In accordance with the existing information on  magnetic anomalies and the deep offshore drilling data, a model of primary oceans  can be proposed. It is based on the assumption of lateral heterogeneities appearing  due to irregular crystallization at the end of pre-geologic stage and resulting in  origination of early pre-oceanic and pre-continental areas. The primary oceans  model provides better conformity with geological and seismic data than the  spreading model of modern oceans origins.


NCGT Journal, v. 2, no. 1,March 2014. 97
Global Tectonics: Prediction and Confirmation
Peter M. JAMES
P.O. Box 95, Dunalley, Tasmania, 7177.


New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, v. 1, no. 4, 23
IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 35 Staromonetny, 119017 Moscow, Russia

Interplanetary comparisons as a useful instrument for making theories of  morphotectonic evolution of planets insist on a doubtful role of “plate tectonics”.  Such large negative terrestrial morphotectonic units as oceanic basins interpreted  by this tectonics as forms created by the plate motions exist also on other  planetary bodies (Mars, Mercury and Moon), where there are no plate tectonics. The  Indian Ocean has its counterpart on the Moon in the South Pole-Aitken basin  (Kochemasov, 2012). The Pacific on Earth and Vastitas Borealis on Mars are  analogous features as well as Arctic basin and mercurian northern plains. The  tectonic granulations on comparable in size metal-stone Mercury and icy Titan  witness a fundamental role of wave structuring caused by elliptical keplerian  orbits.


46 NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 4, December 2013.
Response to: Global theories and standards of judgment by
Karsten Storetvedt. NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, p. 56-102.
Iskenderun, Turkey.

Surge Tectonics is based and formulated on the discovery of low-velocity zones (7.0  - 7.8 km/s P-wave velocity) underneath or within all different geologic features  (mid-ocean ridge, rift, fold belt, fracture zone and many others) (Meyerhoff et al,  1996, p. 69). Most of these low-velocity zones are connected to the asthenosphere  which is itself a low-velocity zone within the upper mantle. Examples of these  zones from many different geological features by different scientists are presented  in Meyerhoff et al., 1996.
The second discovery in Surge Tectonics is the relationship between the magma flow  and faults-fractures-fissures. These structures are developed in response to the  magma flow in the crust. This relationship is described and illustrated in detail  (Meyerhoff et al., 1996, p. 102-115).
NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 4, December 2013. 47
These two important discoveries together with their associated processes fit nicely  with the statement quoted by Storetvedt (2013) on page 57: "Observing an underlying  pattern nearly always means observing an important aspect of nature - the  information that exists behind a curtain of overprinted secondary processes mixed  up with pre-determined opinions. In this respect, Eric Schumacher (1973, p. 154)  hit the nail on the head when he wrote:
Although we are in possession of all requisite knowledge, it still requires a  systematic, creative effort to bring [it] into active existence and to make it  generally visible and available. It is my experience that it is rather more  difficult to recapture directness and simplicity than to advance in the direction  of ever more sophistication and complexity. Any third-rate engineer or researcher  can increase complexity; but it takes a certain flair of real insight to make  things simple again."

I was necessarily brief in discussing these vast topics. A more detailed discussion  with supporting data are included in Meyerhoff et al. (1996).


2 NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013.
Earthquakes and surge tectonics
As some of you may be aware, in February of this year the International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center (IEVPC) warned of possible strong earthquakes in Yunnan, South China ( This was based on various signals we had detected from the region since late last year. In accordance with our prediction, an M6.6 quake occurred on 20 April 2013 in Sichuan near the predicted area. More than 150 people died. Immediately after the quake, Chinese National TV interviewed John Casey, Chairman of the IEVPC, at the head office in Florida, and broadcast it in real time throughout their country. The second quake (M5.8) occurred on 31 August 2013 in northernmost Yunnan. Since then the region’s seismo-electromagnetic activities have been gradually abating.
Our comprehensive geological-seismological analysis conducted for this particular prediction confirmed a very interesting fact: the presence of a live surge channel occupying the Yunnan and Sichuan region (originally described by Meyerhoff et al., 1992 & 1996). Since the 1970s it has hosted a series of strong earthquakes along a major NE-SW tectonic belt that connects to the Tan-lu Fault in North China and, further northwards, a deep tectonic/seismic zone in the Okhotsk Sea. Along the Myanmar-South China segment of this tectonic zone, three major earthquakes have occurred since late last year – an M6.8 quake in central Myanmar in November 2012 (IEVPC colleagues successfully predicted it with pinpoint accuracy), an M6.6 in Sichuan in April 2013, and an M5.8 in northernmost Yunnan in August 2013. Their geological significance in relation to the Yunnan surge channel is discussed on pages 45-55 of this NCGT issue.
The Yunnan surge channel develops on the axis of the northern end of the Borneo-Vanuatu Geanticline, which has been heavily oceanized in the SW Pacific and Southeast Asian region. As stated in my article in this issue (pages 45-55), the Borneo-Vanuatu Geanticline is a trunk surge channel through which the energy derived from the superplume in the SW Pacific migrates northward, and the process occurring in the Yunnan surge channel can be regarded as an incipient stage of oceanization.
The IEVPC’s continuing successful earthquake predictions are the result of combining the right seismo-tectonic model with medium- and short-term signal detection tools. The new earthquake model is based on thermal energy derived from the Earth’s outer core, its transmigration along deep fracture systems and surge channels, trap structures, geological history represented by orogenic events, and local and regional geology. Thermal energy (or perhaps more properly, thermal-electromagnetic energy) transmigration is the heart of the IEVPC’s working model. Hence a good knowledge of local and regional geological structure is essential in predicting in which direction the generated energy will flow, particularly in areas where strong deep earthquakes have occurred. In this context, surge tectonics is instrumental in our prediction approach.
Earthquakes as well as volcanic activities cannot happen without heat input into the upper mantle and the crust. Like hydrocarbons, migrating or flowing thermal energy accumulates in structural highs with effective seals in the upper mantle. We therefore assume that earthquake belts have underlying channels through which thermal energy can flow – they are often developed in ancient or young orogenic/mobile belts that form structural highs in the mantle.
As a practising field geologist, I am convinced that surge tectonics is a comprehensive and workable tectonic concept that can explain most of what we observe at the Earth’s surface and in its interior, although some updates are needed to incorporate new data that have appeared since 1996, when the most recent version of surge tectonics was published. In this issue Karsten Storetvedt presents a critique of surge tectonics and a defence of wrench tectonics (p. 56-102), to which David Pratt (p. 103-117) and Arthur Meyerhoff’s children (p. 117-121) reply. Another response by Taner et al. will be published in the next issue. We welcome this open debate in the pages of the NCGT Journal.
Meyerhoff, A.A., Taner, I., Morris, A.E.L., Martin, B.D., Agocs, W.B. and Meyerhoff, H., 1992. Surge tectonics. In:
Chatterjee, S. and Hotton, N. III (eds.), New Concepts in Global Tectonics, Texas Tech Univ. Press, Lubbock. p. 309-409.
Meyerhoff, A.A., Taner, I., Morris, A.E.L., Agocs, W.B., Kamen-kaye, M., Bhat, M.I., Smoot, N.C., Choi, D.R. and
Meyerhoff-Hull, D. (ed.), 1996. Surge tectonics: a new hypothesis of global geodynamics. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 323p.


NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013.
1 Independent cycle researcher, Planetology branch of RGS, S.-Petersburg, Russia,
2 Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian  Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia,;
3 Independent researcher, Ridder, Kazakhstan,

6. Conclusions and recommendations
1. The distribution of klippen zones around astroblemes is an important indicator  to the direction of a ballistic trajectory of CB (cosmic body) entry, and can be  used to reconstruct this process. It is likely that this is possible only for the  CB, which had a shallow (less than 30o?) path of entry into the Earth's atmosphere  and oblique collision of the surface.
2. The revealed regularities in the distribution of klippen zones are, most likely,  due to the shock wave motion, which is in agreement with the direction of a moving  cosmic body, the place of its fall and explosion.
3. Determining the location of the cosmic body ballistic trajectory is an important  feature to identify diatreme fields of the same age in the zone of energy  (electric) action on the Earth’s surface and Earth’s interior on the side of the  asteroid.
4. The major ultrabasic alkaline pipe formations on the eastern slope of Anabar  anteclise can probably have age of analogs to the Popigai event, which should be  taken into account in the process of geological exploration surveying.
5. The task of geological exploration organizations should consist in identifying  real causes of the existence of the negative gravity anomalies Popigai 3 and 4.


NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013.
IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 35 Staromonetny, 119017 Moscow, Russia

Intensive cosmic investigations of the last 50 years involving Earth and many  others celestial bodies clearly prove that in the Solar system there is a  consequence of bodies with regularly changing tectonic granulations. These  granulations are inversely proportional to orbital frequencies of planets. These  frequencies (oscillations) make solid bodies to outgas and produce gaseous envelops  – atmospheres. Their masses are proportional to the oscillations frequencies. Wave  structuring of atmospheric masses- granulation is a replication of the solid body  tectonics. Bodies with two orbits – satellites in structures of their shells  (including the Titan’s atmosphere) show influence of processes of wave modulations.


NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 3, September 2013.
Dong R. CHOI
International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center
Canberra, Australia

(The Borneo-Vanuatu Geanticline was found to connect to the Siberian Craton via the  East Asia Reflective Axial Belt in China. This super antilinal trend forms one of  the most outstanding Archean structural elements on the Earth’s surface together  with the “North-South American Superantilcine”, an antipodal counterpart in the  western hemisphere)

7. Conclusions
This paper described one of the most outstanding geological structures seen at the  Earth’s surface; a global-scale, deep-rooted geanticlinal structure extending from  the South Pacific to the Siberian Craton. It was formed in the Archean and,  together with the antipodal N-S American Geanticline, undoubtedly affected the  structural and magmatic development of the Earth. Together they place constraints  on global tectonic models.
The Yunnan surge channel sits on the axis of the Geanticline. It is one of the most  active surge channels today, characterized by strong energy discharge (earthquakes)  and active rise in the Cenozoic. These activities can be regarded as the early  stage of the oceanization process.
The existence of such large-scale, deep-rooted, Archean-origin geological  structures on opposite sides of the globe, both without large horizontal  dislocation, means that no large-scale horizontal movement of the crust and mantle  as claimed by plate tectonics has occurred since Proterozoic to Cenozoic time.


NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013.
1 – Planetology Branch of the Russian Geographical Society,,
2 – Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian  Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

Discussion of data
Thus, the gravitational trace behind the Popigai astrobleme is not unique. Similar  formations are also noted for other astroblemes: Janisjärvi Beyenchime-Salaatian,  Kamensk, Karla, Puchezh-Katunki, Kogram, El'gygytgyn, Steinheim, Wanapitei, Kaluga  and Chicxulub. It is possible that the following more careful investigations will  increase this list. By now, it is possible to draw the main preliminary conclusion:
gravitational traces of astroblemes are one of their genetic elements.

However, what is their material expression? It is possible to assume that there is  a rock density decrease as a result of the energy influence of a falling MB onto  the near-surface areas under its trajectory. What is a mechanism of this decrease?  The formation of deconsolidating (low density) rocks, for example, tuffisites, in  the diatremes fields located near Popigai (as the Ortho-Yarginsk field) can be one  of such causes.

However, there are no diatremes on the other sites of the Popigai "tail" of the  lower values of gravity. The influence on the Earth’s surface of the shock waves  (from the explosive phenomena during the body flight through the atmosphere), which  can be considered as a second possible cause, remains hypothetical, as well.
Still there are more questions than answers, but it is obvious that the inquisitive  researcher's thought has to get into this "prohibited zone" and the offer its  explanation. The cosmogenic-gravitational structurization hypothesis according to  Troshichev, undoubtedly, needs special attention from researchers and favorable  conditions for its following development. More simply is to continue pretending  that all geological processes have been already known to us and can be explained  from the stand-points of existing geological views. The questions: “with what  factors the linear strip zones of negative values of gravity are connected and why  were such zones formed as "tails" before certain astroblemes, are waiting for  answering.

However, the data obtained can be an additional basis for definition of the MB  trajectory direction along with other morphological elements of astroblemes, which  have been already considered by the authors in their previous paper (Khazanovitch  et al., 2013).


NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013.
Earth's battery and Earth's electrocardiogram, internal state, structure, and time  variation, endogenous energy production and release, the role of solar modulation,  and the "French Revolution" jerk
Giovanni P. GREGORI
IDASC - Istituto di Acustica e Sensoristica O. M. Corbino (CNR),
IEVPC - International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center,
S.M.E. - Security, Materials, Environment, s.r.l. – Roma,; www.sme-
ICES - International Centre for Earth's Sciences

11. Planetary seismic paroxysms – Conclusion
The present state of planetary geodynamics can be illustrated as follows. This  model derives from several decades of thought, and its full justification -  according to geodynamic observational evidence - is discussed in great detail  through the whole volume 2 of GPG8, with several cross-references to a wide  fraction of volume 3 of GPG8.
No brief or simple account can be here given. For instance, the way has not been  either simple or straightforward, by which the “chain” of cause-and-effect has been  envisaged, along the connection between the Kerguelen superswell, the Red Sea,  Arabia, Anatolia, Aegean Sea, Caucasus and the Carpathians. Several observational  data contributed to arrive to such a conclusion.
NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013.
According to common sense, and according to seemingly very reasonable physical  arguments, this appears to be one possible credible explanation. But, nobody is  depositary of “absolute” truth. Science is made of proposals and discussions, and  “all” possible explanations ought to be considered and compared one another.
The model here envisaged appears to be just the simplest possible explanation that  can fit very closely with the several direct and indirect observational evidences  reported in a huge amount of geodynamic and geological literature. The reader may  like to check, in every case history of her/his concern, how this model actually  fits with the observations of her/his concern.
As far as the description is concerned which is here given, I can only humbly  apologize with the reader for being incapable to synthesize in a few pages a very  large amount of literature, topics and discussions.
Africa is the seemingly most strongly anchored continent on the mantle. Indeed, its  (thermal) lithosphere is > 400 km deep, while in other continental platforms it is  in the range 200 - 250 km and in the Easter Island region it is < 30 km.
The strongest loading tide is caused by the Pacific Ocean water. It pushes on  Eurasia, causing its westward drift, relative to Africa. A huge "megashear" is well  known to run from Morocco, slightly south of Gibraltar, through Far East. In  reality, even a mega-alignment of geomagnetic anomalies (not here shown) can be  detected, which is further extended until northern China and Japan.
The Mediterranean is located along this megashear. A very efficient hinge occurs  roughly very close to the very stable Messina Straights, between the African  lithosphere (Sicily) and the Italian peninsula. The resulting conspicuous friction  causes a large amount of friction-heat that is released by a security valve, which  is likely to be identified with Etna (this hypothesis also results consistent with  its isotopic chemism).
The Italian peninsula is rotated counterclockwise, and this is responsible for its  seismicity (a huge amount of the literature is available about the seismicity of  the Italian region, and it is distinct from the literature dealing either with the  Balkanic peninsula or with the Aegean region; no specific list can be here given).
This rotation of Italy is the final stage of a former well known process that  formerly determined the opening of the Gulf of Biscay, then the detachment of the  Balearic Islands, of Sardinia, and finally of Corsica, which happened when the  Italian peninsula hit against the mainland of Europe. This process left in the  trail all submerged volcanoes of the Tyrrhenian Sea, etc.
The westward drift of Eurasia (combined with the northward motion originated by the  Pekeris force; see below) caused, within its trail, the formation of island arcs.  The consequent kinetic effects on the lithosphere originated local friction heat  that is responsible for island arc volcanism. Compared to other kinds of volcanism,  the typical features of this kind of volcanism appear very singular. For sure,  island arc volcanism displays no association with geomagnetic phenomena.
The “Pekeris force” is a concept that derives from consideration of the observed  figure of the Earth, which appears to be excessively flattened. If the Earth is a  fluid, a poleward "Pekeris force" ought to be observed that tends to reshape it,  and it can be shown to have two maxima at 45°N and 45°S latitude, respectively.  Refer to Jeffreys (1976), or, for thermal contraction, to Bott (1971), Collette  (1974), and Turcotte (1974).
The Pekeris force is poleward. Therefore, it is opposite to the better known  Pohluchtkraft. This implies an intrinsic conflict or dichotomy. If the mechanism is  according to a floatation rationale - as it is assumed by plate tectonics and  isostasy – the floating upper layer of the Earth ought to experience the  Pohluchtkraft. Instead, if the rationale is in terms of a solid body that slides on  a solid surface (such as according to WMT), the shallower Earth’s features have to  experience a "Pekeris force". Hence, they ought to move poleward. Observational  evidence in several respects objectively seems to deny the needed support for plate  tectonics.
In addition, the deep Earth interior is much different compared to every more or  less generalized fluid model. That is, space and time-gradients of the endogenous  heat flow appear to justify the great observed complication of geomorphology, to be  associated with the largely inhomogeneous pattern implied by the sea-urchin spike  distribution.
In addition, note that the "Pekeris force" acts along a meridian, while the tidal  pull acts along a parallel. This fact results much helpful. Moreover, the Coriolis  acceleration leads to the formation of the (often controversial) geodynamic spiral  structures that have been (correctly) envisaged by several authors in the  literature.
The Arctic polar cap is presently ongoing a large release of geothermal heat, being  responsible for several very unusual climatic phenomena (not here discussed). This  is certainly to be associated with the ongoing process of uplift of an Arctic  superswell.
Another well-known superswell is roughly identified with the Kerguelen Island. But  it extends through a large fraction of the Indian Ocean, until the Red Sea. This  causes a northward sliding of India, the uplift of the Tibet Plateau, while the  aforementioned westward sliding of Eurasia determines the well-known left-faulting  of this huge area.
The area of the Sunda archipelago, New Guinea, Philippines, Borneo, Moluccas Sea,  Banda Sea, etc. is the result of a very complicate multi-faceted interaction  between island arc formation in western Pacific and in the Indian Ocean, and the  northward sliding on the slope of the Kerguelen superswell.
The Anatolian peninsula rotates counterclockwise. The Aegean Sea and the North  Anatolian Fault are just a consequence in this geodynamic labyrinth. The effect of  this push by the Kerguelen superswell is likely to be even responsible for the  uplift of Caucasus and for the formation of the singular pattern of the  Carpathians.
Compared to the Pacific Ocean's, the loading tide by the Indian Ocean water is less  intense. In addition, Africa is strongly anchored on the mantle. Moreover, the  loading tide by the Pacific Ocean does not affect Africa, due to the breakwater  action by Australia.
The Atlantic superswell (see Figure 4) effectively pushes westward both North and  South America, while the loading tide by the Atlantic Ocean water further favors  the westward push.
As far as the Pacific side of the Americas is concerned, the Hawaii superswell is  far away. Hence, its opposing action is comparably weaker, compared to the strong  action exerted by the Easter Island superswell, which is, maybe, the presently  hotter geothermal region of the world. No details can be here given (reported in  volume 2 of GPG8).
In any case, the seismic activity in the Andes must be expected to be much stronger  compared to the Rocky Mountains.
Note that California is the result of the northward push by the Easter Island  superswells, which is effectively extended until the Galàpagos region and behind  it.
In the southernmost Atlantic region, the Atlantic superswell afforded to uplift the  southern tip of South America that, in addition, experiences the loading tide by  the entire circum Antarctic Ocean. The result has been the formation of the Scotia  island arc.
Consider this very general planetary framework, and specifically consider the  megasyncline running from the Pyrenees through the Sunda archipelago, Borneo, etc.
An increase of the release of endogenous energy has to be expected to be associated  with a comparably more rapid uplift of superswells, hence with an increase of  planetary seismic activity.

This explains the long-distance correlation between earthquakes that occur in  different parts of the world. But, it has also to be mentioned that seismic  teleconnection has to be expected to occur through the serpentinization phenomenon  (Judd and Hovland, 2007). This item, however, cannot be here discussed.
Therefore, it is not surprising that an increase of seismic activity is eventually  observed - by a matter of a limited number of days - within some large area, e.g.  from southern Iran through New Guinea and even eastward of it. This is the result  of the geothermal activation of some huge segment of a large megasyncline that is  suffering by some larger activation along its longer extension.
Whether this interpretation is excessively speculative or not, this is a synthetic,  "simple" and "beautiful" model. It unavoidably relies on some consistent amount of  speculation. But, it is a starting framework for research and discussion. It can be  either confirmed or denied by observations.
Monitoring instant spacetime changes of crustal stress by means of acoustic  emission (AE) appears to be a crucial tool in order to discriminate between  realistic and credible guesses, and physically unreliable inferences.


NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013.
Transdyne Corporation
11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131 USA;

Abstract: Neither plate tectonics nor Earth expansion theory is sufficient to  provide a basis for understanding geoscience. Each theory is incomplete and  possesses problematic elements, but both have served as stepping stones to a more  fundamental and inclusive geoscience theory that I call Whole-Earth Decompression  Dynamics (WEDD). WEDD begins with and is the consequence of our planet’s early  formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant and permits deduction of: (1) Earth’s  internal composition, structure, and highly-reduced oxidation state; (2) Core  formation without whole-planet melting; (3) Powerful new internal energy sources -  proto-planetary energy of compression and georeactor nuclear fission energy; (4)  Georeactor geomagnetic field generation; (5) Mechanism for heat emplacement at the  base of the crust resulting in the crustal geothermal gradient; (6) Decompression- driven geodynamics that accounts for the myriad of observations attributed to plate  tectonics without requiring physically-impossible mantle convection, and; (7) A  mechanism for fold-mountain formation that does not necessarily require plate  collision. The latter obviates the necessity to assume supercontinent cycles. Here,  I review the principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics and describe a new  underlying basis for geoscience and geology.

4. Conclusions
The present paper is based on just one-month data set, but we can summarize the  following important conclusions.
1) As for an isolated EQ (in the period after March 10), there is a clear  correspondence between the local propagation anomaly (as the shift in terminator  time but not exceeding the 2σ criterion) and an EQ, and the lead time is just a few  days as in the case of the 1995 Kobe EQ (Hayakawa et al., 1996). Even though the EQ  M was smaller than 5.0 (but shallow depths of ~10 km), we could observe a clear  corresponding local precursor.
2) The main aim of this paper is the integrated effect of an EQ swarm (a succession  of EQs) onto the ionosphere, which is found to last for several days and whose  temporal evolution is quite similar to the daily sum of the number of EQs or daily  sum of the total energy release of EQs on one day.
3) The best indicator to characterize the effect of an EQ swarm is considered to be  the daily sum of total energy release of all EQs on each day.
When considering the seismic effect in subionospheric VLF data, we have to pay  attention to the geomagnetic activity which would have a significant influence onto  the ionosphere (e.g., Rozhnoi et al., 2004) during the period of our interest.  During the period of March 2-10 when we observed an anomaly in te, is found to be  geomagnetically very quiet because the daily sum of Kp index (ΣKp) amounted only up  to 19. Furthermore, during the remaining days of March, the maximum ΣKp is only 27  (on March 29), so that this month is considered to be relatively geomagnetically  quiet. This is probably the reason why we had a clear one-to-one correspondence  between the local propagation anomaly and an EQ with smaller M as is summarized as  Point (1) because there are no significant factors such as geomagnetic activity in  the VLF data which might disturb the lower ionosphere. Since the geomagnetic  activity during the EQ swarm is extremely quiet, Points (2) and (3) are considered  to be really the seismogenic effect.
Hayakawa et al. (1996) have first presented the use of shift in terminator time for  the Kobe EQ so as to find seismo-ionospheric perturbations, and then this VLF/LF  analysis method was extensively used as a further statistical study by Molchanov  and Hayakawa (1998). Then, Maekawa and Hayakawa (2006) have found that this  terminator time method is especially useful for the east-west propagation path.  This is the reason why we have used the propagation from the VLF Omega (Tsushima)  to CHF in this paper, and the shift in terminator time provides us with the  information of seismo-ionospheric perturbations.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of a succession of EQs  (so-called EQ swarm) onto the ionosphere. An EQ swarm is characterized by the  occurrence of a few (or several) EQs on one day and its prolonged activity for  several days (or weeks). Even though the maximum M of EQs on one particular day is  not so large (less than 6), we think that a succession of EQs would work additively  and then have some significant effect on the generation of seismo-ionospheric  perturbations. First of all, as is found in this paper, a detailed comparison of  the temporal evolutions of VLF propagation anomaly (shift in terminator time) and  EQ activity during our EQ swarm indicate a surprising similarity. Then, the maximum  shift in terminator time is exceeding the 2σ criterion as found for an isolated  large EQ (with M›6) as in Molchanov and Hayakawa (1998). Once the ionospheric  perturbation is formed by an EQ, it is expected to last ,at least, one day or so,  so that it seems that the occurrence of successive EQs works additively in the  sustaining and enhancement of seismo-ionospheric perturbations. These results might  suggest clearly the integrated effect of an EQ swarm on the generation of seimo- ionospheric perturbations.
As is already known, there have been proposed a few possible hypotheses for the  generation of seismo-ionospheric perturbations; (1) chemical channel (radon  emanation, electric field generation or positive-holes) and (2)  atmosphericoscillation channel. Some more details of each hypothesis are given in  several papers in the books by Hayakawa (2009 and 2012). The integrated effect in  subionospheric VLF perturbation as found in this paper would be of some use in  discussing which mechanism is more plausible


108 NCGT Journal, v. 1, no. 2, June 2013.
Continental rocks discovered from Rio Grade Ridge, South Atlantic
News articles appeared on the discovery of continental rocks in various media in  early May 2013. Some excerpts are as follows:
large mass of granite has been found on the seabed off the coast of Rio de Janeiro,  suggesting a continent may have existed in the Atlantic Ocean, the Japan Agency for  Marine-Earth Science and Technology and the Brazilian government announced.
A Brazilian official said the discovery of the granite — which normally forms only  on dry land — is strong evidence that a continent used to exist in the area where  the legendary island of Atlantis, mentioned in antiquity by Plato in his  philosophical dialogues, was supposedly located. According to legend, the island,  host to a highly developed civilization, sunk into the sea around 12,000 years ago.  No trace of it has ever been found.
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