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204 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 2, June 2016. www.ncgt.org
Critical analysis of the plate tectonics model and causes of horizontal tectonic  movements
Arkady Pilchin
Universal Geosciences & Environmental Consulting Company
205 Hilda Ave., #1402
Toronto, Ontario, M2M 4B1, Canada.
arkadypilchin@yahoo.ca 

Concluding remarks
All of the above leads to the following conclusions:
The main problem with the plate tectonics model is underdevelopment of its every  part, from the model’s inception until the present day.
The outright dismissal of the geosynclinal model and all other fixist models is not  justified and was a mistake.
Convection throughout the entire mantle or in any mantle layer of any significant  thickness is highly unlikely, because it violates physical laws.
The main forces postulated for plate tectonics are too weak for any significant  tectonic activity, and cannot be involved in such tectonic processes as obduction,  orogenesis, lithosphere uplift, or even subduction. In general, their application  violates physical laws by ignoring the effect of friction and strength limits.
Plate tectonic forces are incapable of generating any significant force in a  horizontal or upward direction.

The plate tectonics model of the formation of new lithosphere in spreading centers  violates a number of physical laws; it is unclear how it would be possible, with a  buildup of only about 1 cm long, ~50 km deep and thousands of kilometers wide  increments of new lithosphere per year, for it to independently separate into the  main oceanic layers (including the peridotite layer) in underwater conditions, and  over millions of years form solid oceanic plates thousands of kilometers long.
One of the main problems with sea floor spreading is the inconsistency between the  total lengths of mid-ocean ridges (the total length of the mid-ocean ridge system  is ~80,000 km and the continuous mountain range is 65,000 km) and the total length  of trenches (30,000-40,000 km). Whereas, according to the plate tectonics model,  the total length of trenches should be twice as long (~130,000-160,000 km) as that  of mid-ocean ridges.

Any oceanic lithosphere plate (slab) with a thickness of ~50 km is composed of  three main layers: brittle upper layer with temperatures of less than ~573 K;  elastic middle layer with temperatures within the range of ~573-873 K; and plastic  lower layer with temperatures of >~873 K, and it cannot be considered rigid.
It is clearly shown in the paper that under no circumstances would the average  density of an oceanic lithosphere plate be denser than rocks of the upper mantle,  and the formation of negative buoyancy is not possible.

The formation of eclogite requires rocks of the upper continental crust to be  delivered to depths of about 64 km or more, but even if the entire crust of any  region were completely transformed to eclogite, it would still not be enough to  form negative buoyancy by even 0.01 g/cm3.

An oceanic plate has an average geothermal gradient of ~50-86 K/km, and a  temperature of about 1573 K (or 1603 K) at the point of contact between the  lithosphere and asthenosphere, so technically it cannot be considered cold.
Numerous problems of the plate tectonics model are mentioned in the paper with  corresponding references.

The formation of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks cannot be accomplished under  lithostatic pressures alone, and requires the involvement of gigantic (mostly  horizontal) forces. This cannot take place within a subduction zone.
Analysis of the causes of formation of significant overpressure shows that only the  decomposition of rocks (primarily serpentinization of the peridotite layer) can  generate gigantic forces capable of horizontally moving oceanic plates; causing  obductions, subductions, orogenies, or uplift of lithospheric blocks; forming  serpentinite and ophiolite thrusts; and more.

Analysis of the focus depths of earthquakes on continents clearly shows that the  absolute majority of them take place at shallow and very shallow depths, and almost  all of them within the temperature range of the serpentinization process (~473-773  K). This also shows that continental subduction is not possible.

It is shown that serpentinization of the oceanic peridotite layer may cause  formation of either obduction or forced subduction of an oceanic plate near the  continental margin (see Fig. 1), or away from the continental margin (see Fig. 2).
From all of the above, it is clear that plate tectonics is an inconsistent model  violating numerous physical laws, and is based on a large number of incorrect  postulates and assumptions. Given all this evidence, the plate tectonics model is  shown to be a dead end in geology that has unfortunately run its course for too  long.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 4, December 2016. www.ncgt.org  615

Late Permian coal formation under Boreal conditions along the shores of the  Mongol-Transbaikalian seaway
Per Michaelsen
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development,
Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
per.michaelsen@tdt.edu.vn

Discussion and conclusions
Epicontinental seaways have played an important role in terms of providing  accommodation space and the depositional conditions for accumulation of significant  economical deposits of coal and hydrocarbons. Although these seaways are virtually  absent from Earth today, they are the dominant source of much of our information  about marine biodiversity of the past (Harries, 2009).

It is highlighted here that the pan global Permian coal measures are unique in the  evolution of the Earth, not matched in any period before or since (Carey, 2000).  Substantial global extensional tectonic events during the Permian created the  necessary accommodation space for significant peat accumulations, and subsequent  burial and preservation. In Mongolia, the Permian system is widely distributed, not  least in the South Gobi Basin, where very significant coal resources have been  preserved. Extensive field work in the South Gobi Basin since 2005 indicates that  coal deposition and preservation were controlled by an interaction of orbital  climatic forcing of the depositional processes, and somewhat complex syn-tectonic  faulting. Faulting resulted in the development of relatively deep, fault bounded  sub-basins that were the locus for substantial tracts of peat accumulation (e.g.  Tavan Tolgoi coal field with potential 10Bt of coal).

The Permian system is an important part of Mongolia’s geological evolution with the  two marine basins (i.e. SMB and PMTB) and the controversial collision between the  North China block and Mongolia. According to recent work by Eizenhöfer et al.  (2014), from the Late Permian to Early Triassic double-sided subduction led to the  closure of the so-called Paleo-Asian Ocean, resulting in collision and forming the  controversial Solonker Suture Zone. Intriguingly, the up to 1,000m thick Late  Permian coal measures in the South Gobi Basin does not contain tuffs, Late Permian  coals are developed proximal (c. 25-30km) north of the postulated suture zone, and  the Early-Middle Triassic deposits within the South Gobi Basin are characterized by  very limited structural deformation. It is also noted that the coal-bearing strata  within the study area does not contain any tuffs. Detailed studies of the Late  Permian Platypus Tuff Bed in the Bowen Basin by Michaelsen et al. (2001) showed  that the tuff is well preserved over 100’s of kilometers of strike length.  Unfortunately, such tuff marker beds are absent in the Late Permian deposits in  Mongolia.

Evidence of sea-level rise and fall is well displayed in Permian strata on a global  scale (e.g. Ross and Ross, Hansen et al., 2000 and Michaelsen and Henderson, 2000a;  Rampino et al., 2000, Isbell et al., 2003, Shao et al., 2007 and Li et al., 2016).  Interestingly, Haq et al. (1987) identified a total of 119 Early Triassic to  Quaternary sea-level cycles, however of these only 19 (15.9%) began with major  sequence boundaries. In this context the base of the Late Permian coal measures in  the study area (i.e. implied by the FA6 shellbed), might well represent a major  regional extensive sequence boundary.

The sedimentary record documented in this study strongly indicates that the Late  Permian coal measures developed along the shores of a boreal seaway during frequent  sea-level changes. These sea-level changes are also evident by the lithologs from  three logged sections of the boreal seaway by Manankov (2004) and Manankov et al.  (2006) (Figure 1). The Adatzag section (shown by the number 1 north of Mandalgobi  on Figure 1) appears to contain a total of eight cyclothems with an average  thickness of c. 100m, and spans over c. 7My from the Sakmarian to Artinskian. Each  cyclothem thus represent a time span of c. 1My and as such might represent tectonic  pulses.

Observing that every seaway is unique, the general architecture of the PMTB is  considered here to be somewhat comparable to the relatively narrow seaway developed  along the western Norwegian seaboard during Early-Middle Jurassic times (cf.  Martinus et al., 2014). However, these Jurassic seaways were interconnected and  developed in a greenhouse world with elevated temperatures. In contrast, water  circulation within the narrow and relatively shallow PMTB might have resulted in  low oxygen levels in some parts, hence the relatively rare macrofossils observed  within the study area. Alternatively, the high sedimentation rates might have  prevented the Permian fauna to colonize the area.

The two underlying stratigraphic units (P2 cn1 and P2 cn2) are characterized by a  high sandstone/mudstone ratio, dominated by marine sandstone. However, the  drillhole record (DH2 and DH28) shows several horizons with common organic debris.  This suggests that the peat-forming plants were around and colonized the area but  did not have sufficient time to accumulate significant thickness.

Marine macro fossils are rare in the sedimentary record, with only one horizon at  the base of the coal-bearing unit. However, bioturbation is very common in the Late  Permian stratigraphic units both below and above the coal measures.

The coal deposits within the study area are considered here to be time equivalent  to the coal-bearing part of the Late Permian Tavan Tolgoi Group in the South Gobi  Basin, and as such representing a peat mire ecosystem developed close to the  Permo-Triassic boundary. Significantly, the vast majority (c. 95%) of peat-forming  plants became extinct at this boundary (c.f. Michaelsen, 2002). Work is currently  in progress to firmly document and establish the location of the Permo-Triassic  boundary in the study area.

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6 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 1, March 2016. www.ncgt.org
ARTICLES
Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of geosynclines
Vadim Gordienko
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
tectonos@igph.kiev.ua

CONCLUSIONS
The task we set for ourselves in this study has been accomplished. We managed to  explain on a quantitative level (within the limits of real errors) the geological  phenomena and physical fields for two Alpine geosynclines (as well as for many  others -- see INTRODUCTION). It is essential to point out that correlation between  observed and estimated phenomena and fields has been performed without resorting to  adjustment of the simulation parameters. This is precisely the way the author  explains the following:
1. Geothermometry data in crust and upper mantle.
2. Variation of thickness and folded structure of sedimentary layer.
3. Age and contents of igneous rocks.
4. Distribution of heat flow data.
5. Seismic wave velocities in crust and upper mantle.
6. Gravitational effects of density anomalies in upper mantle.
7. Anomalies of electrical conductivity in crust and upper mantle.
We have thereby shown that our hypothesis on deep-seated processes can be applied  to the most intricate -- geosynclinal -- type of endogenous conditions.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 3, September 2016. www.ncgt.org  361
ARTICLES
Deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere of continental rifts
Vadim Gordienko
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
tectonos@igph.kiev.ua

CONCLUSIONS
The purpose of the paper was to test the feasibility of applying concepts of the  advection-polymorphism hypothesis (APH) to constructing models of deep-seated  processes in the tectonospheres of rifts and single-episode activation zones on  continents. Studies of the Hercynian rift (in the Dnieper-Donets Depression) and of  the Alpine rift (the Massif Central in France), enabled us to explain, at a  quantitative level, geological phenomena and physical fields (within limits of  permissible errors). It is important to point out that agreement between  experimental and estimated data was achieved without the need to adjust parameters  of the models. Thus, we were able to provide explanation for the following:
1. The data of geothermometry for the crust and upper mantle;
2. Evolution of the sedimentary layer thickness and crustal thickness (the latter –  at a qualitative level);
3. The age and composition of igneous rocks, the depths of magma chambers and  temperatures in them;
4. The observed distribution of the heat flow;
5. Seismic wave velocities in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle;
6. Gravitational effects of density anomalies in upper mantle rocks;
7. Electrical conductivity anomalies in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle.

Procedures for the investigation of zones of single-episode activations, which are  currently in progress and which occurred in geological past, have not yet been  worked out in sufficient detail, and it cannot be ruled out that the deep-seated  processes in question differ significantly and, in that case, we will need to  analyze more than one type of endogenous conditions. Still, we did manage to  identify, on the territory of Ukraine, single-episode activation zones and to show  that associated with them are seismicity, anomalous helium isotopy in subsurface  waters, oil and gas presence, heat-flow anomalies, seismic wave velocities in the  subcrustal portion of the upper mantle, electrical conductivity anomalies, negative  gravity anomalies in the mantle, and possibly, also reduction in the Earth’s crust  thickness.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 2, June 2016. www.ncgt.org 159
ARTICLES
Neotectonics of the Gulf Coast and active rifting and wrenching of the United  States: A tale of broken plate tectonics?
Ghulam Sarwar
Independent Consultant, Houston, Texas, USA
gsarwar45@gmail.com

Conclusions
It is clear that the landmasses of USA and that Mexico are active and the basement  underlying the mobile sedimentary cover of the northern Gulf is also mobile, with  the various transfer faults accommodating differential movements among large  crustal blocks (Figs. 8 and 9). The Gulf Coast seems to be a “not so passive  margin” at present, and has been so for a long time. Rifting and wrenching has  already progressed to volcanic activity in Neogene to Recent times in northern  Mexico, Texas, New Mexico (Fig. 8) and as far north as the American northwest.

The transfer faults of the Gulf Coast, Mexico and GOM seem to be active and  probably have been episodically active since the Mesozoic rifting. If so, we need  to change the plate tectonic paradigm that fails to adequately explain the current  seismicity and active tectonics of the North American interior, Mexico and the GOM  (Figs. 8, 9 and 10; Hand, 2015). How can intra-plate and continent-wide deformation  result from abstractions such as “low angle subduction, ridge push, slab pull,  mantle convection, or deep seated candle like plumes?”

Fig. 10. New seismic hazard map, released by the USGS on April 23, 2015, highlights  earthquake risk zones (red to brown with highest risk) that indicates areas with  induced or human-caused quakes (blue boxes on map; Hand, 2015). In north Texas and  adjacent Oklahoma, much of the recent and ongoing seismicity has been linked to the  tight shale production boom, involving multiple “fracking” and reinjection of  produced water under pressure. Manmade seismicity, therefore, is only a relatively  modern phenomenon. Note smaller hot spots along the east coast as well.

Remember, the so-called “intra-plate” movements are not just confined to North  America, but are also common in South America, Africa, Asia, and Europe and even  within the great oceanic regimes. The conventional plate tectonic theory seems to  be at a loss to explain a lot of active deformation around the planet and simply  relies on model-driven thinking devoid of convincing factual data.

The GOM forms an active tectonic link between the Caribbean to the SSE and Mexico  and western North America to the WNW. Basement involved wrenching of the Gulf Coast  is real and constitutes a hither to ignored factor contributing to coastal  subsidence and land loss along the Gulf Coast (Sarwar and Bohlinger, 2005; Dokka,  2006; Gagliano, 2008; Stephens, 2010).

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 4, No. 1, March 2016. www.ncgt.org 37
Is paleomagnetic data reliable?:
A critical analysis of paleomagnetism
Arkady Pilchin
Universal Geosciences & Environmental Consulting Company
205 Hilda Ave., #1402,
Toronto, Ontario, M2M 4B1, Canada.
arkadypilchin@yahoo.ca
Telephone: +1 416 221-0059

Concluding Remarks
The above analysis of paleomagnetic postulates and assumptions and paleomagnetic  sample selection allows to conclude the following: the main postulates applied in  paleomagnetism must be revised, the main assumptions used in paleomagnetism must be  reconsidered, and the criteria and practices of sample selection in paleomagnetism  allowing collection of samples up to low greenschist metamorphic facies (up to 573 -673 K) render those samples unreliable, because of the transformation of ferrous  to ferric iron (TFFI).

The above analysis also allows to conclude that: paleomagnetism completely ignores  the role of stability of iron oxides in the formation and preservation of magnetic  properties of rocks and minerals; TFFI is not taken into consideration with respect  to the change and preservation of the magnetic fraction of rock samples; practices  of thermal demagnetization (“cleaning”) trigger TFFI each time the temperature is  raised above ~473 K, producing a self-inflicted change of magnetic fraction of  samples; blocking temperatures cannot prevent samples from undergoing TFFI at  temperatures within the range of TFFI; and that in many cases use of samples not  satisfying criteria of sample selection is allowed in paleomagnetism. Lastly, Van  der Voo (1990) dismissed all paleomagnetic data of the 1950s-1960s as unreliable,  which should put to question all conclusions made based on that data, including  continental drift and polar wandering.

The final conclusion of this paper is that paleomagnetism is based on numerous  false postulates and assumptions, and unreliable sample selection that make its  data and results of its interpretation unreliable, as well as most if not all  conclusions made based on this data or its interpretation.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 4, December 2015. www.ncgt.org  489
DEGASSING AND EXPANDING EARTH: NEW MODEL OF
GLOBAL TECTONICS
Nina I. PAVLENKOVA
Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS
ninapav@mail.ru

Conclusions. The degassing and expanding Earth's model of the global tectonics.
The described geological and geophysical data give enable us to suggest the  degassing and expanding model of the tectonosphere formation. The model yields the  solutions to the following key problems of global tectonics:
(1) How were the different crustal types (continental, oceanic, and intermediate)  created?
(2) How were the continents and oceans formed?
(3) What is the origin of the specific structure of the Pacific Ocean with the  tectonically active continental margin?
(4) What is the origin of the regular system of the mid-oceanic ridges?

In this model, the Earth degassing is the main energy source. The spatially  irregular degassing results in the formation of the different types of the  lithosphere. The geochemical studies show that the continental crust was formed  from the mantle material with the high fluid content (Lutz, 1980 and 1999). This  means that the thick continental crust was created in the regions of the higher  deep fluid flows; however, in the areas of the weaker flows (Pacific area), the  primary oceanic crust was preserved, and only some separate spots of the transition  crust appeared.

The deep fluids are also vitally important for the depletion of the continental  upper mantle (Letnikov, 1999, 2000 and 2006) and, as a result, to the decrease in  its density (Kuskov at al., 2014; Pavlenkova and Pavlenkova, 2014; Yegorova and  Pavlenkova, 2014). The latter yields the solution of the main global tectonic  problem, namely, how the continents and oceans were formed? The increase in the  thickness of the lower-density lithosphere led to its uplifting with respect to the  oceanic lithosphere.

The clearly pronounced regularities observed in the structure of the tectonosphere  (regular round shape of the Pacific active margins and the symmetry of the mid- oceanic ridge system relative to the South Pole) are explained by the Earth’s  expansion. This ordering can be formed at two main stages. Primarily, the Pacific  active ring was formed; then, the mid-oceanic ridges were developed as a result of  the more intense extension of the lithosphere in the southern hemisphere.

The suggested global tectonic model is consistent with some processes described by  the other geodynamic concepts: the longtime connection of the deep mantle processes  with tectonics (endogenous regimes), the folding at the lithosphere plate  boundaries (plate tectonics), the intense magmatism (plume tectonics), the rotation  of some lithosphere blocks (wrench tectonics), the mantle material flows along the  weak zones (surge tectonics), etc. However, all these motions are limited in the  scale and intensity: they should not destroy the described regularities in the  tectonosphere structure. The Earth's degassing is a common energy source for all  these and many other processes (convection in the mantle, magnetic pole mobility,  etc.).

The degassing and expanding Earth's model is based on the large factual data on the  continental and oceanic lithosphere structure and on the revealed global  regularities in their structure. The most important points of the suggested model  are (1) the primary origin of the old oceanic, continental and transition crustal  types due to the spatially irregular deep fluid advection, (2) the formation of the  tectonically active Pacific ring and the mid-oceanic fracture zones as a result of  the Earth's expansion, (3) the formation of the continents and oceans after the  uplifting of the less dense depleted continental lithosphere, and (4) the main  energy source of the tectogenesis is the Earth's degassing.

P.S. The main ideas of the suggested model (the Earth's degassing and expansion)  were previously described in the fluid-rotation concept of global tectonics  (Pavlenkova, 2005; 2012a & c). However, for explaining the paleomagnetic data, the  cited concept assumed the rotation of the mantle around the core instead of the  unrealistic large polar wander proposed by Storetvedt (1997 and 2003). After  Pratt’s articles (2013) and the analysis of the extensive additional data  (including the last NCGT publications), it has become clear that the mantle  rotation contradicts the regularities of the main structural elements of the Earth,  especially the asymmetry of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctica; hence, the mantle  rotation was excluded from the new model presented above. The explanation of the  paleomagnetic data can be found not in the motion of the lithospheric plates, or  the entire mantle, or in the polar wander, but in changes of the direction and  intensity of the deep fluid flows in the rotating Earth.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015. www.ncgt.org  263
ARTICLES
ENERGY BALANCE IN THE TECTONOSPHERE
Vadim GORDIENKO
Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
tectonos@igph.kiev.ua; vgord@inbox.ru

CONCLUSIONS
The generalization of the data on radiogenic heat generation in upper mantle rocks  within the frameworks of the APH has made it possible:
1. To identify three levels of the HG value (there may also be intermediate levels)  confined to continental Precambrian platforms, geosynclinals belts, and oceans:  0.04; 0.06; and 0.08 μW/m3, respectively.
2. To reveal agreement between the total contemporary heat generation in the crust  and upper mantle for three types of regions despite considerable differences in the  distribution of heat sources versus depth.
3. To show that for all platform regions (and possibly also for Phanerozoic  geosynclinal belts) radiogenic heat generation may be used to quantitatively  account for the heat flow, all deep-seated processes in the tectonosphere over the  known history of the Earth, and the distribution of contemporary and maximum  temperatures in the crust and upper mantle.
4. To map out such parity for a period of geological history of oceans where more  comprehensive studies are hampered by lack of information.

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334 New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015.  www.ncgt.org
MOUNTAIN RANGES – A NEWCOMER IN EARTH HISTORY
Karsten M. STORETVEDT
Institute of Geophysics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Karsten.Storetvedt@uib.no

Concluding perspective
In this paper I have argued that broader regions of epeirogenic uplift, with  associated formation of mountain ranges through surface erosion, are a recent  phenomenon in Earth history. Long-term accumulation of hydrous fluids at levels of  the topmost mantle – being in their strongly buoyant and reactive supercritical  state, is thought to be the principal driver of the current tectono-topographic  processes commencing some 5 m.y. ago. It is inferred that continental mountain  ranges are basically linked to the presence of prominent lithospheric fault zones  (formed at various stages of Earth history) along which water-accelerated  eclogitization processes would proceed relatively fast; and because eclogite  transformation implies a reduction of rock volume by some 10-15 % (Austrheim et  al., 1996), the resulting fracture spacing will enable strongly buoyant  supercritical fluids to infiltrate higher levels of the crust.

Prior to say the Middle Mesozoic the surface of the Earth was apparently relatively  featureless and the present continental regions were dominated by shallow seas. By  now the slow internal degassing – presumably having been in a progressive phase  since early Precambrian time, was beginning to build up a strongly gas/fluid  infiltrated carapace (asthenosphere) with a pressure that was sufficiently high to  initiate reconstitution of Earth’s outer brittle shell. In this process, the Moho  interface and a highly irregular lithosphere – including the thinly crusted deep  oceanic basins, finally came into existence (Storetvedt 2003 and 2011). Consistent  with the idea of a slow degassing history and associated physico-chemical internal  disequilibrium, decades of seismic tomography has disclosed that both core and  mantle is characterized by anisotropy and heterogeneity at various scales. Hence,  progressive degassing has led to gradual build-up of fluids and gasses in the outer  regions of the developing mantle.

The inferred degassing-associated reorganization of internal mass is bound to have  altered Earth’s moments of inertia periodically which in turn would have given rise  to changes of planetary spin rate and intermittent events of polar wander. These  dynamical changes can be seen as the trigger of Earth’s jerky tectonic history –  explaining the presence of geological time boundaries, with their geological,  palaeoclimatic and biological upheavals, the transgression-regression cyclicity,  etc. Inferentially, after each dynamo-tectonic pulse the crustal fracture system  had become progressively extended, intensified and reactivated. Hence, the build-up  of hydrostatic pressure increase of the uppermost mantle would be bound to  accelerate transformation of Earth’s early incrustation. Thus, the global tectonic  upheaval during the Upper Mesozoic and Lower Tertiary led to significant fluids- enforced changes of crustal structure and global topography; hence, by the Lower  Tertiary, the deep sea depressions and the present dry land surface was largely ‘in  place’, but continental mountains were still tens of million years away  (Storetvedt, 2003 and 2011).

By the time of the Pliocene, beginning 5 m.y. ago, the long-term evolution of the  Earth’s crust/lithosphere had paved the way for significant fault-controlled  continental epeirogeny with subsequent development of modern mountain topography  often associated with adjacent basin formation; this linkage is thought to be  connected with differentials in the tectonic break-up system of the crust. For  example, the Alpine range is surrounded by the western Mediterranean deep sea  basins, the continental Po plain and the Molasse depocentres. In the case of  crust-cutting thrust/fault zones in continental fold belts, buoyant uplift powered  by super-critical hydrous fluids has apparently been the dominant factor, while  basin formation has been prevalent where the lower crust has been more evenly  fractured enabling effective sub-crustal eclogitization and subsequent delamination  – leading to variable degrees of isostatic subsidence. Furthermore, basin  development inevitably increased the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding  uppermost mantle and thereby giving an extra impetus to pressurized volatiles  beneath adjacent rising continental regions.

In their study of global synchronism in Pacific arc volcanism, Cambray and Cadet  (1994) found that major pulses of volcanic activity took place in the Middle  Miocene as well as during Pliocene-Quaternary times. These findings agree with the  evolutionary pattern discussed above. The dynamo-tectonic pulsation that powered  rising mantle fluids would naturally be in phase with the eustatic sea-level  changes as well as being responsible for time-equivalent volcanism along deep  seated fault zones such as the Benioff zones circumscribing the Pacific.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 3, September 2015. www.ncgt.org  357
ON DISCOVERY OF A NEW PLANETOLOGICAL PHENOMENON: TECTONIC COUPLING OF PLANETS AND  THEIR SATELLITES
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusion
The observation of impressive parallels of important tectonic and morphological  features on surfaces of solid and gaseous planets and their satellites (Earth -  Moon, Mars - Phobos, Pluto – Charon, Saturn – icy satellites) proves that external  structuring forces are responsible for these phenomena. They are recognized as  orbital forces due to celestial body movement in keplerian orbits. The observations  make dubious some planetologic and geologic tectonic hypothesis such as plate  tectonics and importance of the earlier giant impacts.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 2, June 2015. www.ncgt.org 155
CELESTIAL BODIES: RELATION BETWEEN UBIQUITOUS TECTONIC DICHOTOMY AND UNIVERSAL  ROTATION
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
Kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusion
The key question of planetology (in a wider aspect, astronomy) – rotations of  celestial bodies is resolved in connection to this property with their ubiquitous  characteristics - tectonic dichotomy. Tectonic dichotomy (first theorem of the wave  planetology) is a consequence of distorting bodies. Keplerian ellipticity of orbits  requires, according to the Le Chatelier principle, its opposing neutralizing  action. Thus, mass redistribution and rotation are called to create and level  angular momenta of distorted hemispheric segments.

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New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal, V. 3, No. 2, June 2015. www.ncgt.org 187
EVOLUTION OF THE TECTONO-MAGMATIC PULSATIONS IN THE EARTH’S HISTORY
Valery ERMAKOV
Institute of the Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow, Russia
ermak@ifz.ru, ermakov.v@gmail.com

Conclusions
1. The Darwin Rise has no unified tectonic basis and morphological features,  therefore it does not exist in nature, but exists only in literature.
2. MCT with various sizes are typical and important elements of morphostructural  fabric of the Pacific Ocean floor.
3. The long lasting deep focal systems have developed in pulsating and inherited  regime during Late Mesozoic- Early Cenozoic. They form the tectonic basis of large  rises of the Pacific Ocean bottom. Each plume arch-block rises consists in  hierarchical groups of multitude of volcanoes.
4. The focal and fault systems are connected with deep and crustal energy centers  and channels ensuring a delivery of magma, gases, fluids and hydrothermal  migration. Therefore they represent the most adequate tectonic basis for  mineralogenic forecast and division of ore districts of oceanic bottom

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NCGT Journal, V. 3, No. 1, March 2015. www.ncgt.org 29
A LUNAR “MOULD” OF THE EARTH’S TECTONICS: FOUR TERRESTRIAL OCEANS AND FOUR LUNAR  BASINS ARE DERIVATIVE OF ONE WAVE TECTONIC PROCESS
Gennady G. KOCHEMASOV
Kochem.36@mail.ru

Conclusion
The traced correlation between fundamental tectonic features on Earth and Moon –  their Oceans and Basins concerns not only their relative sizes but also a regular  mutual disposition of very different cosmic bodies. What is common between these  bodies; they share the same circumsolar orbit. Axes of rotation – present and past  – show decisive role in layouts of fundamental wave-born tectonic features. Taking  these observations into account, one conclusion may be drawn: It is time to  thoroughly revise existing geological and planetological tectonic concepts.
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