Author Topic: 0+3+E GeoData  (Read 8 times)

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0+3+E GeoData
« on: January 27, 2017, 06:11:28 pm »
<GeoMin' File
=0. Crustal Thickness Contour Map
- https://earthquake.usgs.g...ata/crust/images/topo.jpg
- https://earthquake.usgs.g...crust/images/robinson.jpg
-----
Basalt = Pyroxene (Augite) + Plagioclase + Olivine + glass?
----------------
Granite = Feldspar + Quartz + Mica + Amphibole
----------------Sil/Al)MagOx
Feldspar = Microcline/Orthoclase or Albite or Anorthite:
----------------Pot/So/Cal)AlSilOx
70% Shale   = Clay + Quartz + Calcite      
15% Sandstone    = Quartz + Feldspar
15% Limestone    = Calcite + Aragonite
-----
Kaolinite - Al2Si2O5(OH)4
Quartz ---- SiO2
Mica ------ X2Y4-6Z8O20(OH,F)4
Amphibole - NaCa2(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH)2
-----
Formula         Mineral    Identify?
C          Graphite,     Yes HS 8
NaCl          Halite,     Yes HS 8
NaAlSi3O8 =Plagioclase: Albite,    Yes HS/TS 3
Na(Al,Si)4O8      Plagioclase    --- HS/TS 3
Na(AlSi)O4       Nepheline    --- HS/TS 3
Na3K(AlSiO4)4       Nepheline,    GCom HS/TS 3
Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2    Sodalite,    GCom HS 3
Na2Ca4Al10Si26O72•30H2O Stilbite,    GCom HS 3
Na2(Mg3Al2)Si8O22(OH)2    Glaucophane,     Yes HS/TS 5,4
NaLi3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 Tourmaline, GCom HS/TS 4,5
NaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 Tourmaline, GCom HS/TS 4,5
NaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 Tourmaline, GCom HS/TS 4,5
NaFe3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 Tourmaline, GCom HS/TS 4,5
Na,Ca,(Mg,Fe),Al,Si,O,(OH) Hornblende    --- HS/TS 4
Na2–3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH,F)2 Hornblende, GCom HS/TS 5
NaCa2(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH)2 Amphibole
---
X2Y4-6Z8O20(OH,F)4   Mica
X=(Na,K,Ca,Ba,Rb,Cs) Y=(Li,Mg,Al,Ti,Cr,Mn,Fe,etc.) Z=(Al,Si,Ti,Fe3+)
---
Mg2SiO4       Olivine,     Yes HS/TS 6
Mg2Si2O6       Enstatite,      Yes HS/TS 5,4
Mg3Si4O10(OH)2       Talc,       Yes HS/TS 4,5
Mg3Si2O5(OH)4      Serpentine,     GCom HS 4,5
Mg6Si4O10(OH)8       Chlorite,    GCom HS/TS 4,5
Mg3Al2Si3O12       Garnet,     Yes HS/TS 6
Mg2(Si,Al)2O6       Augite,    GCom HS/TS 5
Mg2(Al,Fe3+)3Al2O(SiO4)2(OH)5 Chloritoid, GCom HS/TS 6
---
Al2O3          Corundum,     Yes HS 7
Al2SiO5       Andalusite,     Yes HS/TS 6
Al2SiO5       Sillimanite    HS/TS    6
Al2SiO5       Kyanite,     Yes HS/TS 6
Al2SiO5       Sillimanite,     Yes Hs/TS 6
Al2(Si,Al)2O6       Augite, GCom HS/TS 5
Al2Si2O5(OH)4       Kaolinite,    GCom HS 4,5
Al2Be3Si6O18       Beryl,        Yes  HS 4,5
---
SiO2          Quartz      --- HS/TS 3
SiO2•nH2O       Opal,       Yes  HS 3
S          Sulfur,     Yes HS 8
KAlSi3O8       Microcline,    Yes HS/TS 3
KAlSi3O8       Orthoclase,    Yes HS/TS 3
KAlSi3O8       Sanidine,    Yes HS 3
K(AlSi)O4       Nepheline    --- HS/TS 3
K,Ca,(Mg,Fe),Al,Si,O,(OH) Hornblende    --- HS/TS 4
KAl2(AlSi3)O10(OH)2    Muscovite,    Yes HS/TS 4,5
KMg3(AlSi3)O10(OH)2    Biotite,    Yes HS/TS 4,5
KFe3(AlSi3)O10(OH)2    Biotite,    Yes HS/TS 4,5
---
Ca2(CO3)2       Calcite,     Yes HS/TS 7
Ca2(CO3)2       Aragonite,     Yes HS 7
CaMg(CO3)2       Dolomite,     Yes HS 7
CaMgSi2O6       Diopside,    Yes HS/TS 5,4
CaSO4•2H2O       Gypsum,     Yes  HS 7
Ca2Si2O6       Wollastonite,     Yes HS 5,4
Ca(Al,Si)4O8       Plagioclase    --- HS/TS 3
CaAl2Si2O8 =Plagioclase: Anorthite,    Yes HS/TS 3
Ca2(Fe,Mg)5Si8O22(OH)2    Actinolite     Yes HS/TS 5
Ca3Al2Si3O12       Garnet,     Yes HS/TS 6
Ca,(Mg,Fe,Al),Si,O    Augite       --- HS/TS 4
Ca2(Si,Al)2O6       Augite       GCom HS/TS 5
CaF2          Fluorite,     Yes HS 8
Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl)    Apatite,     Yes HS/TS 7
Ca2Al2(Al,Fe3+)OOH(Si3O11) Epidote   GCom HS/TS 5,4
Ca2–3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH,F)2 Hornblende GCom HS/TS 5
---
Mn3Al2Si3O12       Garnet,     Yes HS/TS 6
Mn2(Al,Fe3+)3Al2O(SiO4)2(OH)5    Chloritoid, GCom HS/TS 6
Fe2O3          Hematite,     Yes HS 7
Fe3O4         Magnetite,     Yes HS 7
FeS2          Pyrite,      Yes HS 8
Fe-S          Pyrrhotite,     Yes HS 8
Fe2SiO4       Olivine,     Yes HS/TS 6
Fe3Al2Si3O12       Garnet,     Yes HS/TS 6
Fe6Si4O10(OH)8       Chlorite,    GCom HS/TS 4,5
(Fe2,3)2(Si,Al)2O6    Augite       GCom HS/TS 5
Fe2Al9O(SiO4)5(OH)2    Staurolite    GCom HS/TS 6
Fe2+,Mg,Mn,Al,Si,O,(OH) Chloritoid    HS/TS    6
Fe2+2(Al,Fe3+)3Al2O(SiO4)2(OH)5 Chloritoid GCom HS/TS 6
FeTiO3          Ilmenite,     Yes HS 7
FeCr2O4       Chromite,     Yes HS 7
FeAsS          Arsenopyrite,     Yes HS 8
Cu          Copper,     Yes HS 8
Cu2(CO3)(OH)2       Malachite,    GCom HS 7
Cu3(CO3)2(OH)       Azurite,    GCom HS 7
CuFeS2          Chalcopyrite,     Yes HS 8
Cu5FeS4       Bornite,     Yes HS 8
ZnS          Sphalerite,     Yes HS 8
Sb2S3          Stibnite,     Yes HS 8
MoS2          Molybdenite,     Yes HS 8
HgS          Cinnabar,     Yes HS 8
PbS          Galena,     Yes HS 8

-----------

sea floor sediment:
- Terrigenous sediment is derived from land and usually deposited on the continental shelf, continental rise, and abyssal plain. It is further contoured by strong currents along the continental rise.
- Pelagic sediment is composed of clay particles and microskeletons of marine organisms that settle slowly to the ocean floor. Some of these organic sediments are called calcareous or siliceous “oozes” because they are so thick and gooey. The clay component (or sometimes volcanic ash) is generally carried from land by wind and falls on the surface of the ocean. Pelagic sediment is least abundant on the crest of midoceanic ridges because of the active volcanism.
- Hydrogenous sediments are rich with minerals, such as manganese nodules, that precipitate from seawater on the ocean floor.


Very Little Sediment on the Seafloor
https://answersingenesis....sediment-on-the-seafloor/
- Every year water and wind erode about 20 billion tons of dirt and rock debris from the continents and deposit them on the seafloor. Most of this material accumulates as loose sediments near the continents. Yet the average thickness of all these sediments globally over the whole seafloor is not even 1,300 feet (400 m).
- Some sediments appear to be removed as tectonic plates slide slowly (an inch or two per year) beneath continents. An estimated 1 billion tons of sediments are removed this way each year. The net gain is thus 19 billion tons per year. At this rate, 1,300 feet of sediment would accumulate in less than 12 million years, not billions of years.
- In the latter stages of the year-long global Flood, water swiftly drained off the emerging land, dumping its sediment-chocked loads offshore. Thus most seafloor sediments accumulated rapidly about 4,300 years ago.
- Those who advocate an old earth insist that the seafloor sediments must have accumulated at a much slower rate in the past. But this rescuing device doesn’t “stack up”! Like the sediment layers on the continents, the sediments on the continental shelves and margins (the majority of the seafloor sediments) have features that unequivocally indicate they were deposited much faster than today’s rates. For example, the layering and patterns of various grain sizes in these sediments are the same as those produced by undersea landslides, when dense debris-laden currents (called turbidity currents) flow rapidly across the continental shelves and the sediments then settle in thick layers over vast areas. An additional problem for the old-earth view is that no evidence exists of much sediment being subducted and mixed into the mantle.

Seafloor Sedimentary Rock
http://www.edu.pe.ca/sout...rnkings/sedimentaryec.htm
- Sedimentary rock covers about three fourths of the land area, and most of the ocean floor.
- In some places, such as the mouths of rivers, the sedimentary rock is 12,000 meters thick.

http://www.icr.org/research/index/researchp_lv_r01
DSDP extracted cores from 624 sites on the ocean floors of the globe. Cores from most of these sites showed only recent sediments from the Tertiary and Quaternary periods. Of the 624 total sites only 186 contained sediments from the Cretaceous period or earlier. This means that the ocean floor is relatively young compared to the continents. The mean thickness of the sediments above the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (as identified by DSDP based on fossils, paleo-magnetics stratigraphy, etc.) for all 186 sites was 322 meters, with a standard deviation of 273 meters. Figure 1 shows a histogram of sediment depth for the 186 sites.
<>The mean thickness of the sediments reported below the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary was about 400 meters in the Atlantic Ocean and 100 meters in the Pacific Ocean.

http://www.thunderbolts.i...=4366&start=15#p18164
- The Seafloors are mostly Basalt, about 3 miles thick, which cooled and solidified slowly, so the grains are microscopic. The Continents are mostly Granite, which is identical to Basalt, except the grains are larger, indicating that Granite cooled and solidified quickly. Gentry's radio-halo Inclusions in Granite, with parentless Po, also indicate quick solidification of the Granite Continents. It seems likely that Granite should initially have covered the entire Earth, because the outer layer would have been exposed to colder temperature, where solidification/crystallization would occur rapidly.
- * Conventional science seems to contend that granite cooled slowly, which allowed it to form large grains, whereas basalt cooled quickly, so it had less time to form large grains. My theory above said the opposite, partly because I got mixed up.
* However, Robert Gentry's parentless Polonium halo evidence still holds, indicating that the basement granite rocks formed quickly.
* So now the question is, Can larger grains form quickly and smaller grains form slowly?


COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF OCEANIC CRUST
http://www.indiana.edu/~g105lab/1425chap13.htm
http://www.indiana.edu/~g...hapter_13/ocean_crust.jpg
- The oceanic crust is not simply a pile of basalt, but can be subdivided into several distinct layers, that form in response to the processes operating at a midoceanic ridge.
- The top layer (1.) consists of pelagic sediments that were deposited above the basalts of the oceanic crust.  The second layer (2.) consists of lavas that were extruded onto the ocean floor at the spreading center. These lavas are called pillow basalts, because of the way they appear in cross-section. The molten basalt is extruded onto the ocean floor through fractures (extension), and as soon as the molten material comes in contact with seawater it will cool down and solidify. The next batch of lava will come out to the side of the first one, and also will solidify, etc. We will slowly pile up small batches of magma, that in their geometric arrangement are not unlike a pile of sausages, or squirts out of a toothpaste tube. In cross section we will have mainly elliptical cross-sections (pillow shape), thus the name pillow basalt. The surface topography of this layer is irregular and rough. The third layer (3.) consists essentially of complexly cross-cutting, near vertical basaltic dikes, which are the feeder channels for the pillow basalts. They form as fractures at the spreading center (highest extensional stress), and finally fill up with basalt and become part of the sheeted dike complex as they move away from the spreading center. The fourth layer (4.) consists of the magma chambers that feed the dikes of layer three, and these leftover magma chambers are filled by the plutonic equivalent of basalt, gabbro. The magma itself originated by partial melting in the mantle below the spreading center (higher heatflow, rising of accumulating melt).  Below that layer is the mantle (asthenosphere), consisting of peridotite.


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=E. Supercontinent from the Moon?

Moon Minerals Formation Environment

While most of the minerals in Moon rocks are found on Earth, they were formed in very different environments. Moon rock shows evidence of formation in an extremely dry setting, with low gravitational influence and very little surrounding oxygen.

Lunar rocks are anhydrous -- they contain no water and there is no evidence of the presence of water in their formation. This is not true of seabed basalts.

Differences Between Moon & Earth Minerals
we have now discovered small differences between the Earth and the Moon. [] the difference [] could be explained by material absorbed by the Earth after the Moon formed

Lunar Composition
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu. Geologically, the Lunar surface material has the following characteristics:
1. The Maria are mostly composed of dark basalts, which form from rapid cooling of molten rock from massive lava flows.
2. The Highlands rocks are largely Anorthosite, which is a kind of igneous rock that forms when lava cools more slowly than in the case of basalts. This implies that the rocks of the Maria and Highlands cooled at different rates from the molten state and so were formed under different conditions.
3. Breccias, which are fragments of different rocks compacted and welded together by meteor impacts, are found in the Maria and the Highlands, but are more common in the latter.
4. Lunar Soils contain glassy globules not commonly found on the Earth. These are probably formed from the heat and pressure generated by meteor impacts.
-  Anorthosites that are common in the Lunar Highlands are not common on the surface of the Earth [except in] The Adirondack Mountains and the Canadian Shield. [] They form the ancient cores of continents on the Earth.

Differences
http://meteorites.wustl.edu. lunar rocks don't contain carbonate minerals or abundant quartz, as do most terrestrial sedimentary rocks. [] no known lunar rock [looks like] sedimentary rock. [] Unlike some terrestrial conglomerates, which resemble lunar breccias, the matrix of lunar breccias is as hard as the clasts. [] Nearly all the aluminum is in plagioclase and nearly all the iron and magnesium are in pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite. [] Most Earth rocks plot below the lunar line because they contain quartz or calcite, which have essentially zero concentrations of FeO, MgO, and Al2O3. [] On the Moon [] there are no rocks rich in quartz or other silica polymorphs* [] among nearly all common lunar rocks calcium concentrations vary by a factor of 2, from 10% to 20% as calcium oxide (CaO).

Oxygen Differences
http://www.scientificamerican.com. Moon rocks contain a tiny bit more of the rare isotope oxygen-17 than do the rocks on Earth. [] They found 12 parts per million more oxygen-17 in the Moon rocks as opposed to the Earth rocks. []  the body that triggered the Moon-forming impact, which some scientists call Theia, may have been chemically similar to a class of meteorites called enstatite chondrites. Those are similar enough to Earth, at least in terms of oxygen, that Theia wouldn’t have left a major imprint in the Moon’s chemistry

Oxygen
http://www.wired.com. Previous research has established that the oxygen isotope composition of lunar samples is indistinguishable from that of Earth. [] Earth may have exchanged oxygen gas with the magma disk that later formed the Moon. []  The proportion of 50Ti to 47Ti is [] effectively the same as Earth’s and different from elsewhere in the solar system. [] it’s unlikely Earth could have exchanged titanium gas with the magma disk because titanium has a very high boiling point. [] One possibility is that a glancing blow from a passing body left Earth spinning so rapidly that it threw some of itself off into space. []

Volatiles
http://www.space.com. Water (made of volatile elements hydrogen and oxygen) is the most common volatile species on Earth. [] [There are] small quantities of volatile elements, and fluorine, in tiny mineral droplets of lunar volcanic glass called spherules. [] some lunar minerals are [possibly] as rich in volatile elements as their terrestrial counterparts. [] [Some lunar] apatite crystals [] are very similar to those apatite crystals that grew from 'wet' magmas on Earth

Titanium Differences
http://www.lpi.usra.edu. when one looks at the Moon in the night sky, the dark areas are basalt. The basalts found at the Apollo 11 landing site are generally similar to basalts on Earth and are composed primarily of the minerals pyroxene and plagioclase. One difference is that the Apollo 11 basalts contain much more of the element titanium than is usually found in basalts on Earth. The basalts found at the Apollo 11 landing site [] were formed from at least two chemically different magma sources.

=3. Impacts
Moon rocks ejected by asteroid impacts have landed on Earth. [] one was found in Antarctica.

Impact Breccias
The heat and pressure of [] impacts sometimes fuses small rock fragments into new rocks, called breccias. []

Lunar Highlands Plagioclase
The lunar highlands are primarily a light-colored rock known as anorthosite, which consists primarily of the mineral plagioclase. It is very rare to find rocks on Earth that are virtually pure plagioclase.
« Last Edit: January 27, 2017, 06:13:48 pm by Admin »

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